Presentation on theme: "Useful Products from Organic Sources ORGANIC CHEMISTRY."— Presentation transcript:
Useful Products from Organic Sources ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
How coal formed Over millions of years, due to high temperatures and pressure… …the trees became fossilized, forming coal. Millions of years ago trees died and fell to the bottom of swamps. Over time they became covered by mud and rock.
How oil and natural gas formed
Crude oil mixtureCrude oil is a mixture. It contains hundreds of different compounds. Some are small but most are large. only.Nearly all of these compounds contain carbon and hydrogen only. They are called hydrocarbons. Also some other compounds contain small amounts of N and S. Why?Also some other compounds contain small amounts of N and S. Why? only Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen only.
How oil and natural gas formed Q1 Explain why oil contains carbon and hydrogen. Q2 Explain where the energy in oil originated.
The importance of oil The hydrocarbons in crude oil are essential to our way of life We use them as fuels for most forms of transport. We also use them as raw materials from which a HUGE range of useful everyday substances are made.. Such as…………..make a list!
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons with a VERY wide range of sizes. Crude oil itself has no uses because its properties are not definite. To make crude oil into useful substances we have to separate the mixture into molecules of similar size. oil refineryThis is done in an oil refinery in a process called fractional distillation. The physical property used to separate the fractions is boiling point. Making oil useful
Can you predict and explain where the fractions are obtained from the fractionating tower? FractionBoiling Range ( o C) Kerosene Diesel220 – 275 Petrol Bitumen>350 Fuel gasBelow 40 Lubricating oil coolcool hothot Fuel gas Petroleum Kerosene Diesel Lub. Oil Bitumen Fractional Distillation
Why do these fractions condense over a boiling range? FractionBoiling Range ( o C) Fuel gasBelow 40 Petrol Kerosene Diesel220 – 275 Lubricating oil Bitumen>350 coolcool hothot Fuel gas Petroleum Kerosene Diesel Lub. Oil Bitumen Fractional Distillation
Fuel gas Petrol / gasoline Naphtha Paraffin / Kerosine Diesel fuel Fuel and lubricating oil Bitumen Burned in the refinery to fuel the distillation process, sold as LPG, purified and sold as bottled camping gas Fuel for cars and motorcycles, also used to make chemicals. Used to make chemicals used everwhere. Fuel for greenhouse heaters and jet engines, manufacture of chemicals. Fuel for lorries, trains. Fuel for the heating systems of large buildings, fuel for ships, lubricating oil. Roofing, and road surfaces. Uses of each fraction
Why are the fractions useful?
Similarities between crude oil and its fractions: Differences between crude oil and its fractions:
The boiling points of molecules In general, the bigger the molecule the higher the boiling point. No. Carbon atoms B.Pt ( o C)
Here are the boiling ranges of some fractions obtained from distillation of petroleum. 1. Using the previous graph, estimate the size range of the molecules present in each fraction. FractionBoiling Range ( o C) Number of carbons Fuel gasBelow 40 Petrol Kerosine Diesel
What is crude oil? Crude oil is a mixture of different sized hydrocarbons. The exact composition depends upon where the oil comes from but typically it contains a lot of big molecules. (Why is this not good?) Small molecules Medium molecules Big molecules
Which is a correct statement about crude oil? A.A mixture of carbohydrates. B.Formed by the decay of dead sea creatures. C.Consist of a mixture of very large molecules. D.Is purified in an oil rig.
Which is a correct statement about fractional distillation? A.Oil is separated into fractions with the same size molecule. B.Oil is separated into fractions with the same density. C.Oil is separated into fractions with similar size molecules. D.Oil is separated into alkanes and alkenes.
Which is a correct order for these fractions working down from the top of the column? A. Fuel gas, kerosene, petrol, diesel, bitumen. B. Fuel gas, diesel, kerosene, petrol, bitumen. C. Fuel gas, petrol, diesel, kerosene, bitumen. D. Fuel gas, petrol, kerosene, diesel, bitumen.