Presentation on theme: "Computer Organization TI1400 Alexandru Iosup (lecturer) Parallel and Distributed Systems"— Presentation transcript:
Computer Organization TI1400 Alexandru Iosup (lecturer) Parallel and Distributed Systems Course website:
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS 2 The Peak Performance Issue Source:
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS 33 The Performance Gap Processor-Memory Processor: CPU Speeds 2X every 2 years ~Moore’s Law; limit ~2010 Memory: DRAM Speeds 2X every 7 years Gap: 2X every 2 years Gap Still Growing?
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS 4 The “Data Deluge”: Facts and Predictions "Everywhere you look, the quantity of information in the world is soaring. According to one estimate, mankind created 150 exabytes (billion gigabytes) of data in This year, it will create 1,200 exabytes. Merely keeping up with this flood, and storing the bits that might be useful, is difficult enough. Analysing it, to spot patterns and extract useful information, is harder still.“ The Data Deluge, The Economist, 25 February 2010.
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS TI1400 in Numbers Seen 126 students 106 took the entry quiz 81 (64%) took the mid-term exam (52% grade 6 or higher) 47 (37%) gained activity points 37 (29%) gained Course/Tutorial activity points 22 (17%) completed the self-study assignment 30 got access to the extra lectures 22+ got access to the extra Lab assignments 5
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS TI1400: Course/Tutorial Cum Laudae 6 Semi-Anonymized NameActivity ItemsJeroen P.13 Remco de W.12 Laurens V.10 Tim H.9 Martijn de V.8 Lucas van D.7 Stefan H.5 Yanick van L.5 Jesse D.5 Ginger G.5
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS TI1400: Self-Study Assignment Complete 10/22 students have not been active in the Course/Tutorial 7 Wendy B.Niels D.Martijn de V. Remco de W.Martijn den H.Jesse D. Jan G.Bart H.Tim H. Stefan H.Soheil J.Martin K. Valentine M.Markus P.Alexander P. Hugo R.Vera S.Wiebe van G. Yanick van L.Kevin van N.Laurens V.
Conceptual Map of TI1400/2012 L3. ISAs L5. IA-32/MIPS L8. Pipelining + Perf.L9. Large Sys. You are here L0. Introduction Rd. Prog. Principles L6. Basic Processing Unit L4. Assembler L7.1. Memory + Perf. L1. Digital LogicL2. Digital Data L7.1. I/O + OS
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS The Grading System—Learn, not Hunt Tim H. already has 4,050 points 1. Course Points2. Access Tokens3. Brownie Points 10,000 for straight correct exam Q +500 entry quiz +50 activity in Lab/Lecture/Tutorial +1,000 lab bonus # lab bonus #1 +25 correct end-lecture quiz Bonus Lab assignments Advanced topics (GPUs, clouds) Discuss w Lecturer Start with 1 Propose Exam Qs Rec. letter I will bake brownies for you! (but not force you to eat them) +1,000 team self-study
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS Access: Advanced Topics HB09.130, 09:00 to 11:00 June 1, Cloud Computing June 18, GPU and Multi-Core Computing Access Top 10 score Top 5 course/tutorial activity Top 5 end-lecture quiz Another 10 seats open, announced May Tim H. Laurens V. Koos vdL. Remco dW. Niels S. Tiemen J. Kevin vN. Erwin vE. Dimitri S. Robert L. Alexander P. Yanick vL. Martijn dV. Ginger G. Lucas vD. Rik N. Dirk S. Jesse D. Stefan H.
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS Laboratory (+Bonus Exercises) Goal: practical experience with assembly (mandatory) Goal: lots of work, lots of fun … +500 to 1,500 points Bonus topics High-performance data privacy … in assembly An interactive game … in assembly Access to bonus Complete the 5 mandatory exercises in the first 2 sessions Activity points at course and/or tutorial Self-study assignment complete 12 More SAs More hours
Final Exam: July 2(?), 2012 Mandatory, access only with Lab complete 30 multiple-choice questions, up to 9,000 points First 10 multiple-choice questions match mid-term exam Automatic use of best score for first 10 questions from mid-term and final exams (You can only win!) Questions change between mid-term and final exam (Unlike last year!)
Final Exam 2012 [1/6] Po-ta-to, Po-tah-to Q: What happens to terms in Dutch? After all, you did lecture in English?! A: Goede vraag! Most terms are in English anyway Every question includes both Dutch and English version The Dutch version has been checked by a native Dutch speaker
Final Exam 2012 [2/6] Our Kind of Questions Q: What kind of questions will you ask? A: In principle, any kind of questions. However, think about all those end-lecture tests: Four choices, answer not obvious (unless you learned the tricks) Excercises that look like much work aren’t (learn the tricks) Q: How difficult? A: Enough to test your skills. Hopefully enough to separate. Difficult for the easy stuff, mid-level for difficult stuff Think mid-term exam!
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS 16 Final Exam 2012 [3/6] Chapter 1Complete Chapter 2Complete Chapter 3No Chapter 4All but 4.3,4.6,4.7 Chapter 5All but , , Chapter 6All but 6.2,6.4-6,6.7.4 Chapter 7All but example details Chapter 8All but 8.7 Chapter 9No Chapter 10All but 10.3 Chapter 11No Chapter 12Complete Appendix AComplete Appendix BNo Appendix CNo Appendix DNo Appendix EOnly E.2 V.C. Hamacher, Z.G. Vranesic, S.G. Zaky, Computer Organization, McGraw-Hill, fifth edition, Supersedes
TU-Delft TI1400/12-PDS 17 Final Exam 2012 [3/6] Chapter 1Complete Chapter 2Complete Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Complete Reader (Dictaat), version 2007 Lab Result: Complete Assignment 2Complete Assignment 3 Assignment 4 Assignment 5 Not necessaryExtras 6 and 7 see Blackboard or web site for course schedule
Final Exam 2012 [4/6] Topics for First Two Lectures Q: Which chapters topics for the mid-term exam? A: see Blackboard or web site for course lectures: Lectures 1.1 and 1.2 cover … Basic Concepts, Digital Logic (Karnaugh maps/diagrams), Memory Elements, Finite State Machines Lectures 2.1 and 2.2 cover … Number representation (SM, 1C, 2C, Excess-x, Fixed point, Floating point, …), Arithmetic (…), Conversion (SM to 1C, Fixed to Float, Rounding, …)
Final Exam 2012 [5/6] Topics for Remainder Q: Which chapters topics for the mid-term exam? A: see Blackboard or web site for course lectures: ISA: Von Neumann machine; instruction fetch, decode, execute; instruction sets and types; instruction formats; addressing types; subroutine call and return mechanisms; I/O and interrupts; … Memory: memory hierarchy; main memory organization and operation; performance issues; cache memories; virtual memory; … I/O: handshaking; buffering; programmed I/O; interrupt-driven I/O; interrupt structure: vectored, prioritized; buses: types (incl. DMA), arbitration; relation to Operating Systems; …
Final Exam 2012 [6/6] Topics for Remainder Q: Which chapters topics for the mid-term exam? A: see Blackboard or web site for course lectures: Basic Processing Unit: control unit: hardwired vs microprogrammed; instruction pipelining and instruction-level parallelism; performance issues; … Multiprocessor architectures: Flynn taxonomy, incl. SIMD and MIMD; interconnection networks; shared- and distributed-memory systems; distributed memory systems, incl. cache coherence policies; memory consistency; … Good Luck!