Presentation on theme: "Federalism The National Government and the 50 States."— Presentation transcript:
Federalism The National Government and the 50 States
The Constitution addresses the relationship between the National Government and the states. Article IV, for example, lists ways the National Government must help the States.
The National Government and the 50 States The National Government must "gaurentee to every state in this Union a republican form of government." Most experts agree that the word republican means "representative." After the Civil War, Congress said that some southern States did not have a republican form of government. Their legislatures needed to approve the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. Also,their laws had to respect the rights of African Americans. The National government also must "protect each of them [States] against invasion." This was an important protective at a time when no one knew whether the States would stand together if another country attacked one of them. The same sentence also promises protection against "domestic violence." This means the nation can enter a State to restore order or help in a crisis, such as an earthquake. The Constitution also makes sure the National Government respects each of the States. The National Government cannot form a new State out of an existing State without the State's permission. It can, however, add new States. To become a new State, an area's residents must first agree themselves that they want to become Americans. Then they ask Congress. Congress then passes an act of admission. Then the President must sign the law, admitting the new State into the Union. The Nations Duties to the States
The National Government and the 50 States Having two levels of government can lead to disagreements. It also leads to cooperation, such as the grants-in-aid programs. These are gifts of money or other resources, like land. The grants go from the National Government to States or their cities, counties, or other local governments. Usually, the State must use the money only for the purpose the Federal Government has inmind. Also, the States must contribute money to the project. States also must set up agencies to manage the grants. States must obey the federal guidelines that go along with the aid. This gives the Federal Government influence in areas in which it has no formal authority. Block grants are another kind of grant to State and local governments. This kind has fewer restrictions than grants-in-aid. The National Government and the States work together in other ways. The Federal Bureau of Investigation helps State and local police. The army and air force train each State's National Guard. State local election officials carry out and pay for national elections. State or local officers often arrest people wanted for federal crimes. And State courts take care of the process by which a person from another country becomes a U.S. citizen. Cooperative Federalism