Presentation on theme: "American Government and Economics:"— Presentation transcript:
1 American Government and Economics: Unit 4: FederalismMr. ChortanoffOverview and InsightsChapter 4
2 Big Idea: Federalism is a system that operates and distributes power between national and state governments.Unit Essential Questions:How does a federal system operate?How are powers distributed between federal and state governments?
3 Two Concepts Division of Power How are powers divided between federal and state governments?Why is division of power necessary?Interstate RelationsHow are relations carried out between the states and the federal government?How are interstate relations carried out between state governments?
4 FEDERALISM Federalism divides power to limit abuse by government Central government and State governments share power
5 Government Powers (Division of Powers) EXCLUSIVEPowers GrantedExpressedImpliedInherent10th AmendmentNationalGovernmentStateGovernmentDelegated PowersReserved PowersConcurrent PowersDenied BothDenied StatesDenied NationalPowers Denied
6 Powers of the National Government The National Government is a government of delegated powers, meaning that it only has those powers delegated (granted) to it in the Constitution. There are three types of delegated powers:The expressed powers are those found directly within the Constitution.The implied powers are not expressly stated in the Constitution, but are reasonably suggested, or implied by, the expressed powers.The inherent powers belong to the National Government because it is the government of a sovereign state within the world community. There are few inherent powers, with an example being the National Government’s ability to regulate immigration.
7 National Government Powers Delegated powers– Written in ConstitutionExpressed or Enumerated PowersArticle I, section 8 – 27 Powers given to CongressArticle II, section 2 Presidential powersArticle IIIJudiciary powers
8 National Government Powers Continued Implied Powers– Reasonably suggested or interpreted (“read between the lines”)Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 “Necessary and Proper” (Elastic Clause)
9 National Government Powers Continued Inherent Powers– Powers that the National government always possessesExamples:Regulate immigrationAcquire territoryRecognize other statesProtect the nationPrint money
11 NATIONAL POWERS Exclusive Powers – only given to National government Make treatiesPrint $$Add territory/states
12 STATES’ Powers Reserved powers Powers denied to the States Not given to the Federal government (just for the States)Powers denied to the StatesTreatiesPrint $$Deprive due processCan’t tax Federal government or property
13 National and State POWERS Concurrent Powers – States and Federal government share these powersTaxationPunish crimesTake property
14 Local Government 3 Levels of government Federal State Local (County, City, School)There are over 87,000 units of local government in the USAll local government must follow the Constitution
15 Republic GuaranteedNational Government guarantees we will have a Republic (or Representative government) where people can run and vote for leadersNational Government guarantees us protection from invasion and domestic violence (War on terror, disaster relief in the Gulf area, Little Rock)
16 Admitting new States Only Congress can admit new States Enabling Act must be passed first which direct people there to frame a constitution and vote on itAdmission Act is passed next which means the territory has been accepted as a State
17 Cooperation between States and Feds Even though the basis of federalism is the division of powers between levels of government, there is still much cooperation between them.Federal Grants - $ given to States by Federal government with “strings attached”Revenue Sharing - $ given to States by Feds with “no strings attached”
18 Cooperative Federalism TYPE OF SERVICEHOW FEDERAL AND STATE GOV’TS COOPERATEGRANT-IN-AID PROGRAMSCongress sets up program in a variety of areasFederal government gives money to States to run programsTypes of grants include categorical, block, and projectREVENUE SHARINGWas in place fromCongress gave share of federal tax revenue to State and local governments to use as they choseOTHER FORMS OF FEDERAL AIDFederal agencies assist State and local policeArmed forces equip and train States’ National GuardFederal monies go to local governments in lieu of property taxesSTATE AID TO THE NATIONAL GOV’TState and local officials conduct national electionsNaturalization usually takes place in State courtsState and local police aid federal law enforcement agencies.
19 Federal GrantsCongress appropriates (distributes) money for three types of grants-in-aid:Categorical GrantsCategorical grants are made for some specific, closely defined purpose, such as school lunch programs or the construction of airports or water treatment plants. There are usually conditions, or “strings,” attached to regulate the use of these funds.Block GrantsBlock grants are portions of money allocated to States to use for broader purposes, such as health care, social services, or welfare. Block grants often are granted with fewer strings attached.Project GrantsProject grants are provided to States, localities, and sometimes private agencies that apply for them. They are used for a variety of purposes ranging from medical research to job training and employment programs.
20 The Full Faith and Credit Clause requires that each State accept the public laws, records, and court decisions of every other State.Interstate compacts are agreements among the States to solve a common problem.Interstate RelationsThe Privileges and Immunities Clause states that all citizens are entitle to certain privileges (rights) and immunities (protections, exemptions) regardless of their State of residence.Extradition is the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one State is returned to that State.
21 Between StatesInterstate compacts – States make pacts with other countries or states with Congressional approvalFull Faith and Credit – records, court decisions, and debts in one state carry into others (civil matters)Extradition – criminal who leaves a State must be returnedPrivileges and Immunities – all rights of Americans recognized in all States
23 The Supremacy Clause (Article VI, Section 2) United States ConstitutionThe U.S. Constitution is the “Supreme Law of the Land.”If there is a conflict between a lower law and a higher one, the higher one “wins.”Acts of CongressState ConstitutionsState Statues (laws)City and County Laws