Presentation on theme: "Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Dalam Pendidikan"— Presentation transcript:
1Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Dalam Pendidikan Bahan Kuliah Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan-S2Program Pascasarjana Universitas Ahmad DahlanDosen: Drs. Muchlas, M.T.
2Pertemuan Ke-3: Pengenalan Perangkat Keras Komputer
3Tujuan: Mahasiswa dapat: menjelaskan trend perkembangan komputer mengidentifikasi jenis sistem komputer yang banyak digunakan saat inimengidentifikasi komponen-komponen utama sistem komputermenjelaskan cara kerja sistem komputerMengidentifikasi kebutuhan perangkat keras untuk mendukung kegiatan pendidikanmenyebutkan spesifikasi komputer sesuai kebutuhan pendidikan
18Trends of Computer System Earliest systems:Bigger Size, More ExpensiveTimesharingMultitaskingMainframeComputersMicrocomputersSmaller, Cheaper, Faster, More Realiable, Easy to Purchase, Easy to MaintainTimesharingMultitaskingTraditional categories of computer systems are rapidly diminishing as new technologies begin to merge the major characteristics of computer systems. However, within these parameters, the following are generally true:Microcomputers. These are the smallest computer systems, ranging in size from handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) to laptops to desktop personal computers and workstations. Most microcomputers are designed for single-user application but can be linked via telecommunications to network servers.Midrange. Midrange or minicomputers are larger and more powerful that most microcomputers but smaller and less powerful than most large mainframes. Midrange systems are often used in business and scientific research. They are especially well suited for specialized tasks, usually so as to dedicate computing power to a specific function (such as backroom order processing) without having to share time on an organization's larger mainframe. Of course, many small and medium-sized organizations use such computers for their whole operations.Mainframes. These are large, powerful computers (often filling an entire room) with very large primary storage capacities (from 64 megabytes to several gigabytes of RAM). This feature helps mainframes process information very quickly (at 10 to 200 millions of instructions per second - MIPS).Lets take a moment to examine these categories of computer systems.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.2 on pp.94 and relates to the material on pp. 94.
19Mainframes to Networks The mainframeCentral computer timesharing and multitaskingCRT or dumb terminals accessingNo local processing capabilitiesLAN – Local area networkCentral computer as a server (Often another PC)Local computers accessing the networkSoftware on both machines.Local processing capabilities
25Earliest microcomputers: Portable “Might fit under the seat in a plane”35 lbs ??
26Microcomputer Systems Handheld ComputersPDA, Information AppliancesNotebook ComputersDesktop ComputersWorkstationsMicrocomputers are the most important category of computer system for business people and consumer. They range in sizes, features, and functions.Handheld PCs. These range from personal digital assistants (PDAs) to a host of other devices known as information appliances.PDAs are designed for convenient mobile computing and can use both touch screens, pen-based handwriting recognition, or keyboards to perform such tasks as receiving and sending , accessing the web, creating schedules and list, and communicating with a remote office or web-server.Information appliances. A PDA is just one example of a larger category of devices known as information appliances. Such devices include a host of smart gadgets—from cellular phones and pagers to web-based game machines and set-top boxes—that can be used to send and receive and access the web.Notebook computers. Are small portable computers that support mobile workers.Desktop Computers. Are designed to fit on an office desk and are used to support a wide range of activities for both work and home. They range in speed and size from MHz and all-in-one units, to free standing tower units.Workstations. Are more powerful desktops that are used to support applications with heavy mathematical computing, and graphical display demands. Consequently they are used to support such applications as computer aided design (CAD), and multimedia application development.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on pp
27Komputer Saat Ini: Laptop vs Desktop Lihat video ini:LaptopDesktop Computer=Personal Computer (PC)
28Hardware of a Modern PC Hardware of a modern personal computer: 1. Monitor2. Motherboard3. CPU4. RAM5. Expansion cards6. Power supply7. Optical disc drive8. Hard disk drive9. Keyboard10. MouseA typical computer system has the following components:Input. The input devices of a computer system include keyboards, touch screens, pens, electronic "mice," optical scanners, and other peripheral hardware components that convert data into electronic machine-readable form. Input may be direct entry (by the end user) or through telecommunications links.Processing. The central processing unit (CPU) is the main processing component of a computer system. The CPU is divided into two major components: the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU), which performs the arithmetic and logic functions required in computer processing, and the control unit, which interprets computer program instructions and transmits directions to the other components of the computer system. The CPU also contains circuitry for devices such as registers and cache memory, used for high speed temporary storage of data and instructions.Output. Output devices convert the electronic information produced by the computer system (binary or digital information) into human-intelligible form for presentation to end users. Output devices include video display units, printers, audio response units, and other peripheral hardware components specialized in this function.Storage. Storage devices store data and program instructions needed for processing. A computer's primary storage or memory is used to hold key information needed to run the computer while secondary storage (such as magnetic disks and tape units) hold larger parts of programs used less frequently and the content files created by end users.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.13 on p. 105 and relates to the material on pp
32Input Technology Trends FirstGenerationSecondThirdFourthFifthPunchedCardsPaper TapeKey to Tape/DiskKeyboard Data EntryPointing DevicesOptical ScanningVoice RecognitionSpeech andTouch DevicesHandwritingRecognitionTrend: Towards Direct Input Devices that Are More Naturaland Easy to UseThis figure emphasizes that there has been a major trend toward the increased use of input technologies that provide a more natural user interface for computer users. You can now enter data and commands directly and easily into a computer system through pointing devices like electronic mice and touch pads, and technologies like optical scanning, handwriting recognition, and voice recognition. These developments have made it unnecessary to always record data on paper source documents (such as sales order forms, for example), and then keyboard the data into a computer in an additional data entry step. Further improvements in voice recognition and other technologies should enable an even more natural user interface in the future.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.17 on p. 109 and relates to the material on pp
33Common Input Devices Mouse Touch Screen Keyboard Scanner Mic Webcam Touch ScreenComputers provide information to users in a variety of forms.Video displays. Is the most common form of computer output. Most desktop computers use a cathode ray tube (CRT) video display. Another type of display is called liquid crystal display (LCD). These are used mostly in portable and handheld computers, although LCD for PC desktops is growing in popularity. LCDs require less electricity and provide a thin flat display.Printed Output. Printed output is the next most popular form of computer output. Most personal computers rely on either inkjet printers or laser printers.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on ppAsk students to describe the advantages and disadvantages of both types of printers.ScannerMicWebcam
34Variety of Keyboard Serial Keyboard PS2 Keyboard USB Keyboard Wireless Keyboard
35Variety of MouseSerial MousePS2 MouseUSB MouseWireless Mouse
36Output Technology Trends FirstGenerationSecondThirdFourthFifthPunchedCardsPrinted Reportsand DocumentsVideo DisplaysAudio ResponsesVoice ResponsesHyperlinkedMultimediaDocumentsTrend: Towards Output Methods that Communicate Naturally,Quickly, and ClearlyThis figure shows you the trends in output media and methods that have developed over the generations of computing. As you can see, video displays and printed documents have been, and still are, the most common forms of output from computer systems. But other natural and attractive output technologies such as voice response systems and multimedia output are increasingly found along with video displays in business applications.For example, you have probably experienced the voice and audio output generated by speech and audio microprocessors in a variety of consumer products. Voice messaging software enables PCs and servers in voice mail and messaging systems to interact with you through voice responses. And of course, multimedia output is common on web sites of the Internet and corporate intranets.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.23 on p. 114 and relates to the material on p.114.
37Common Video Output Devices (Monitor=Screen=Display=VDU) Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT)Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)Computers provide information to users in a variety of forms.Video displays. Is the most common form of computer output. Most desktop computers use a cathode ray tube (CRT) video display. Another type of display is called liquid crystal display (LCD). These are used mostly in portable and handheld computers, although LCD for PC desktops is growing in popularity. LCDs require less electricity and provide a thin flat display.Printed Output. Printed output is the next most popular form of computer output. Most personal computers rely on either inkjet printers or laser printers.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on ppAsk students to describe the advantages and disadvantages of both types of printers.Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)
38Common Printed Output Devices Dot Matrix PrinterInkjet PrinterLaser PrinterComputers provide information to users in a variety of forms.Video displays. Is the most common form of computer output. Most desktop computers use a cathode ray tube (CRT) video display. Another type of display is called liquid crystal display (LCD). These are used mostly in portable and handheld computers, although LCD for PC desktops is growing in popularity. LCDs require less electricity and provide a thin flat display.Printed Output. Printed output is the next most popular form of computer output. Most personal computers rely on either inkjet printers or laser printers.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on ppAsk students to describe the advantages and disadvantages of both types of printers.
39Common Audio Output Devices Computers provide information to users in a variety of forms.Video displays. Is the most common form of computer output. Most desktop computers use a cathode ray tube (CRT) video display. Another type of display is called liquid crystal display (LCD). These are used mostly in portable and handheld computers, although LCD for PC desktops is growing in popularity. LCDs require less electricity and provide a thin flat display.Printed Output. Printed output is the next most popular form of computer output. Most personal computers rely on either inkjet printers or laser printers.Teaching TipsThis slide relates to the material on ppAsk students to describe the advantages and disadvantages of both types of printers.HeadsetSpeaker
40Storage Trends First Generation Second Third Fourth Fifth Magnetic DrumCoreLSISemiconductorMemory ChipsVLSITrend: Towards Large Capacities Using Smaller Microelectronic CircuitsTrend: Towards Massive Capacities Using Magnetic and Optical MediaMagnetic TapeMagnetic DrumMagnetic DiskOptical DiskPrimaryStorageSecondaryData and information must be stored until needed using a variety of storage methods. For example, many people and organizations still rely on paper documents stored in filing cabinets as a major form of storage media. However, you and other computer users are more likely to depend on the memory circuits and secondary storage devices of computer systems to meet your storage requirements.Figure 3.26 illustrates major trends in primary and secondary storage methods. Progress in very-large-scale integration (VLSI), which packs millions of memory circuit elements on tiny semiconductor memory chips, is responsible for continuing increases in the main-memory capacity of computers. Secondary storage capacities are also expected to escalate into the billions and trillions of characters, due primarily to the use of optical media.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.26 on p.117 and relates to the material on pp
41Data representation in a computer “Two state” or binary representationnegative / positive electronic charges?A bit – negative or positive – zero or oneASCII or EBCIDIC coding schemes
43How many bytes and bits?“Mary Smith”“Mary J. Smith”04/01/2004
44Definitions of storage size 1 bit = 0 or 18 bits = 1 byte (character)1 k = 1,000 bytes (kilobyte)1 mb = 1,000,000 (megabyte)1 gb = 1,000,000,000 (gigabyte)20 meters of shelved books1 tb = 1,000,000,000,000 (terabyte)A complete research library1 pb = 1,000,000,000,000,000 (petabyte)2b = all U.S. academic research libraries1 ex - 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (exabyte)
45Data storage and retrieval forms RAM = random or direct access memoryFast, lost when power downDASD – direct access storage devicesDisk drives – slower but still quite fastDirect reads to sectors and tracksMagnetic tapesSlower, cheaper, sequential accessDirect or random access – specific storage positions based on data defined locationsExample: credit card records – card id
46Random access memory (RAM) Semi Conductor MemoryRandom access memory (RAM)Increases over time driven by operating systems and applications softwareRead only memory (ROM)Permanent storage of commonly executed instructions – not volatile“Firmware” …
47Magnetic disk storage Floppy disks 3.5 inch = 1.44 mbSuperdisk – 120 mbHard disk drives – 100’s of gigabytesRAID storage – redundant arrays of independent disks6 to small hard disksRedundant design of data storageFault tolerant capacity – less risk of loss
48Other storage forms Magnetic tapes Optical disk storage used for backupSequential accessCartridge or real to realOptical disk storageCD-ROM : compact disk read only memoryCD-R – record onceCD-RW – rewriteable diskDVD – digital video disk3 to 8.5 gb -
49Primary & Secondary Storage Media SemiconductorMemoryMagneticDisksFloppy DiskHard Disk, RAIDMagnetic TapeOptical DisksCD-ROM, CD-RCD-RWDVDAccess Speed IncreasesStorage Capacity DecreasesCost per Bit IncreasesDirectAccessSequentialSecondary StoragePrimaryStorageData and information need to be stored after input, during processing, and before output. The figure on the slide illustrates the speed, capacity, and cost relationships of several alternative primary and secondary storage media. High speed storage media cost more per byte and provide lower total capacities. Conversely, large-media storage is less expensive but slower. Storage media also differ in how they are accessed by the computer:Direct Access. Primary storage media such as semiconductor memory chips and secondary storage devices like magnetic disks and optical disks have direct access. This means that any element of data can be directly stored and retrieved by the CPU by selecting and using any of the locations on the storage media. Each location is unique and is available to the CPU independently of other stored elements.Sequential Access. Sequential access storage media such as magnetic tape do not have unique storage addresses. Instead, data must be stored and retrieved using a sequential or serial process. Locating an individual item of data requires searching from the beginning of the sequence procedure through all of the data elements that proceed it in the sequence.Semiconductor Memory. The primary storage of your computer is composed of microelectronic semiconductor memory chips. This includes specialized memory like external cache memory and flash memory. There are tow types of semiconductor memory:Random Access Memory (RAM). Volatile memory that can be sensed (read) and changed written).Read Only Memory (ROM). Nonvolatile memory that are used for permanent storage.Magnetic Disk. The most common form of secondary storage consists of metal or plastic disks covered with an iron oxide recording material. Data are recorded on tracks in the form of magnetized spots to form binary digits. Electromagnetic read/write heads, positioned by access arms are used to read and write data. The two most popular forms of magnetic disks are floppy disks and hard disks.Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID). Are disk arrays of interconnected microcomputer hard disks to provide many gigabytes of online storage.Magnetic Tape. Sequential access secondary storage that uses read/write heads within magnetic tape drives to read and write data in the form of magnetized spots on the iron oxide plastic coating of plastic tape. Magnetic tape devices include tape reels and cartridges in mainframes and midrange systems, and small cassettes or cartridges for PCs. Magnetic tape is most often used for archival storage and backup.Optical Disk Storage. Are a popular storage medium for image processing that records data by using a laser to burn pits in a plastic disk and reads data by using a laser to read the binary codes formed by those pits. There are several different types of optical disks.Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM)-- each disk can store more than 600MB.Compact Disk Recordable (CD-R)-- Enables users to record their own data once on a CD, and read the data indefinitely.Compact Disk Rewriteable (CD-RW)-- Enables users to record and erase (rewrite) data.Digital Video Disk (DVD)-- each disk can store from 3.0 to 8.5 GB of data on each side of a compact disk. It is expected that DVD will replace CD-ROM and CD-RW technologies.Teaching TipsThis slide corresponds to Figure 3.27 on pp. 117 and relates to the material on pp
50Contoh Spesifikasi Komputer Dual Core (2.5 Ghz) TRAY Mainboard ASUS/Gigabyte/ECS Memory DDR2 V-gen 2 Gb PC 5300 Harddisk 160 Gb Seagate/Maxtor SATA Keyboard + Mouse Simbadda Casing ATX 450w + 2 FAN CPU LCD Monitor LG/Samsung Wide Screen 17″ VGA PCI-Express Digital Alliance 9500GT Super 1Gb DDR2 256Bit