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Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Dalam Pendidikan Bahan Kuliah Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan-S2 Program Pascasarjana Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Dosen: Drs.

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Presentation on theme: "Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Dalam Pendidikan Bahan Kuliah Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan-S2 Program Pascasarjana Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Dosen: Drs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aplikasi Teknologi Informasi Dalam Pendidikan Bahan Kuliah Program Studi Manajemen Pendidikan-S2 Program Pascasarjana Universitas Ahmad Dahlan Dosen: Drs. Muchlas, M.T. 1

2 Pertemuan Ke-3: Pengenalan Perangkat Keras Komputer 2

3 Tujuan: Mahasiswa dapat: •menjelaskan trend perkembangan komputer •mengidentifikasi jenis sistem komputer yang banyak digunakan saat ini •mengidentifikasi komponen-komponen utama sistem komputer •menjelaskan cara kerja sistem komputer •Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan perangkat keras untuk mendukung kegiatan pendidikan •menyebutkan spesifikasi komputer sesuai kebutuhan pendidikan 3

4 MAINFRAME

5 Mainframe: Mark I (1944)

6 Mainframe: ENIAC (1946)

7 Mainframe: UNIVAC (1952)

8 Univac computer: Predicts an election 1952

9 IBM 701 (1952)

10 IBM 360 (1964)

11 Movie of Mainframe Desk Set was a major motion picture from 1957 starring Spencer Tracy and Katherine Hepburn.

12 Roll Tape in Mainframe

13 Using Mainframe to Control Rocket

14 The Time-Sharing Computer User

15 Remote Terminals Take Control Mainframe

16 Terminals in Mainframe

17

18 Mainframe Computers Microcomputers Earliest systems: Bigger Size, More Expensive Timesharing Multitasking Smaller, Cheaper, Faster, More Realiable, Easy to Purchase, Easy to Maintain Timesharing Multitasking Trends of Computer System

19 Mainframes to Networks •The mainframe –Central computer timesharing and multitasking –CRT or dumb terminals accessing –No local processing capabilities •LAN – Local area network –Central computer as a server (Often another PC) –Local computers accessing the network –Software on both machines. –Local processing capabilities

20 Mainframes to Networks MAINFRAME NETWORK PC/Microcomputer

21 Microcomputer

22 Earliest microcomputers

23 Earliest microcomputers: Apple II

24

25 Earliest microcomputers: Portable “Might fit under the seat in a plane” 35 lbs ??

26 Microcomputer Systems •Handheld Computers –PDA, Information Appliances •Notebook Computers •Desktop Computers •Workstations

27 Komputer Saat Ini: Laptop vs Desktop Lihat video ini: •http://youtu.be/qKb1tFkJBsUhttp://youtu.be/qKb1tFkJBsU •http://youtu.be/kMRDmkFsUZshttp://youtu.be/kMRDmkFsUZs 27 Laptop Desktop Computer= Personal Computer (PC)

28 Hardware of a modern personal computer: 1. Monitor 2. Motherboard 3. CPU 4. RAM 5. Expansion cards 6. Power supply 7. Optical disc drive 8. Hard disk drive 9. Keyboard 10. Mouse Hardware of a Modern PC

29 29 Hardware of a Modern PC

30 Structure of Computer System 30 Central Processing Unit Output Devices Cache Memory Primary Storage Secondary Storage Devices Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Special Purpose Processors Output Devices Input Devices

31 31 Structure of Computer System

32 Input Technology Trends First Generation First Generation Second Generation Second Generation Third Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Fifth Generation Punched Cards Paper Tape Punched Cards Paper Tape Punched Cards Punched Cards Key to Tape/ Disk Key to Tape/ Disk Keyboard Data Entry Pointing Devices Optical Scanning Keyboard Data Entry Pointing Devices Optical Scanning Voice Recognition Speech and Touch Devices Handwriting Recognition Voice Recognition Speech and Touch Devices Handwriting Recognition Trend: Towards Direct Input Devices that Are More Natural and Easy to Use

33 Common Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Webcam Touch Screen Mic Scanner

34 Variety of Keyboard PS2 Keyboard USB Keyboard Wireless Keyboard Serial Keyboard

35 Variety of Mouse PS2 Mouse USB Mouse Wireless Mouse Serial Mouse

36 Output Technology Trends First Generation First Generation Second Generation Second Generation Third Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Fifth Generation Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Audio Responses Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Audio Responses Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Voice Responses Hyperlinked Multimedia Documents Video Displays Voice Responses Hyperlinked Multimedia Documents Trend: Towards Output Methods that Communicate Naturally, Quickly, and Clearly

37 Common Video Output Devices (Monitor=Screen=Display=VDU) Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)

38 Common Printed Output Devices Inkjet PrinterLaser Printer Dot Matrix Printer

39 Common Audio Output Devices HeadsetSpeaker

40 Storage Trends First Generation First Generation Second Generation Second Generation Third Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Fifth Generation Magnetic Drum Magnetic Drum Magnetic Core Magnetic Core Magnetic Core Magnetic Core LSI Semiconductor Memory Chips LSI Semiconductor Memory Chips VLSI Semiconductor Memory Chips VLSI Semiconductor Memory Chips Trend : Towards Large Capacities Using Smaller Microelectronic Circuits Trend: Towards Massive Capacities Using Magnetic and Optical Media Magnetic Tape Magnetic Drum Magnetic Tape Magnetic Drum Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Optical Disk Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Optical Disk Magnetic Tape Optical Disk Magnetic Disk Optical Disk Magnetic Disk Primary Storage Primary Storage Secondary Storage Secondary Storage

41 Data representation in a computer •“Two state” or binary representation – negative / positive electronic charges? –A bit – negative or positive – zero or one –ASCII or EBCIDIC coding schemes

42

43 How many bytes and bits? •“Mary Smith” •“Mary J. Smith” •04/01/2004

44 Definitions of storage size •1 bit = 0 or 1 •8 bits = 1 byte (character) •1 k = 1,000 bytes (kilobyte) •1 mb = 1,000,000 (megabyte) •1 gb = 1,000,000,000 (gigabyte) –20 meters of shelved books •1 tb = 1,000,000,000,000 (terabyte) –A complete research library •1 pb = 1,000,000,000,000,000 (petabyte) –2b = all U.S. academic research libraries •1 ex - 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (exabyte)

45 Data storage and retrieval forms •RAM = random or direct access memory –Fast, lost when power down •DASD – direct access storage devices –Disk drives – slower but still quite fast –Direct reads to sectors and tracks •Magnetic tapes –Slower, cheaper, sequential access •Direct or random access – specific storage positions based on data defined locations –Example: credit card records – card id

46 Semi Conductor Memory •Random access memory (RAM) –Increases over time driven by operating systems and applications software •Read only memory (ROM) –Permanent storage of commonly executed instructions – not volatile –“Firmware” …

47 Magnetic disk storage •Floppy disks –3.5 inch = 1.44 mb –Superdisk – 120 mb •Hard disk drives – 100’s of gigabytes •RAID storage – redundant arrays of independent disks –6 to small hard disks –Redundant design of data storage –Fault tolerant capacity – less risk of loss

48 Other storage forms •Magnetic tapes – used for backup –Sequential access –Cartridge or real to real •Optical disk storage –CD-ROM : compact disk read only memory –CD-R – record once –CD-RW – rewriteable disk –DVD – digital video disk •3 to 8.5 gb -

49 Primary & Secondary Storage Media Semiconductor Memory Semiconductor Memory Magnetic Disks Floppy Disk Hard Disk, RAID Magnetic Disks Floppy Disk Hard Disk, RAID Magnetic Tape Optical Disks CD-ROM, CD-R CD-RW DVD Optical Disks CD-ROM, CD-R CD-RW DVD Access Speed Increases Storage Capacity Decreases Cost per Bit Increases Direct Access Sequential Access Direct Access Secondary Storage Primary Storage

50 Contoh Spesifikasi Komputer 50 Dual Core (2.5 Ghz) TRAY Mainboard ASUS/Gigabyte/ECS Memory DDR2 V-gen 2 Gb PC 5300 Harddisk 160 Gb Seagate/Maxtor SATA Keyboard + Mouse Simbadda Casing ATX 450w + 2 FAN CPU LCD Monitor LG/Samsung Wide Screen 17″ VGA PCI-Express Digital Alliance 9500GT Super 1Gb DDR2 256Bit


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