Presentation on theme: "General Office Safety Awareness"— Presentation transcript:
1 General Office Safety Awareness OSHA Computer workstation e-toolDeveloped by HMTRI through cooperative agreement# 2 U45 ES with NIEHS under the Worker Safety and Health Training Support Annex
2 What are some of the hazards we encounter in offices? Ergonomic issues;Fire & evacuation;Electrical cords & equipment;Heat-generating sources;Hand & powered tools & equipment;Office machines (copiers, paper cutters, shredders, jammed machines);Office chemicals;Slips, trips, falls;Housekeeping;Furniture/layout;Motor vehicle accidents.
3 Start your day off safely… Dress for success Wear loose, comfortable clothing to allow free movement of hips & to maintain natural spinal curves.Avoid open-toed shoes and sandals, whenever possible.Wear comfortable footwear with a low heel to reduce leg and back strain & to help prevent slips and falls.
4 Slips, Trips & Falls Use the handrail on stairs. Report deficient conditions to Facilities Maintenance.Hold onto chair seats/arms when attempting to sit.Approved step stools & ladders only.“Sensible shoes.”Wipe up spills.Walk, don’t run.The #1 cause of office employee injuries!Level surfaces,Elevated surfaces - standing on chairs, falling out of chairs, falling down stairsManufacturing areas,Parking lots.Awareness.Keep aisles clear.“Walk like a duck” on slippery surfaces.
5 Layout:Office areas established with the assistance & approval of the Facilities Maintenance & EHS.Emergency exits & passageways established & must be maintained.Furniture & equipment arranged, so far as possible, to:Avoid chairs and equipment jutting into walkways; Avoid drawers from opening into walkways or doorways; Obstruct the view around corners or partitions.
6 Lighting:Areas that are not lit adequately, or are lit too much, can cause headache, strain, and fatigue.Color plays a big role in eye fatigue.Use adjustable task lighting for tasks that require greater illumination.Take visual “breaks” every 30 minutes.Get regular eye exams…let your eye doc know if you are working at a computer!
7 “Housekeeping”Storage or placement of objects in aisles, below knee level, or on other “office-type” floor surfaces.Overflowing, heavy wastebaskets.Dust accumulations.Maintaining condition of office equipment and work area.Orderly arrangement in all areas, especially storage.Storage must be 18” or more below sprinkler heads.
8 Furniture Safety: Chairs should remain squarely on the floor. Casters on all chairs should be secured and all parts of the chair should be sturdy & should not present a hazard to the user.Close drawers when not in use.Open drawers slowly and carefully.Avoid overloading filing cabinets, and distribute the weight of materials stored in cabinet to avoid tipping.Furniture should be selected and maintained without sharp edges, points, or burrs.
9 Considerations in setting up a Computer Work Station How will the computer be used? How long?What kind of computer?What furniture will be used?What chair will be used?What can you see?Posture!Where will the computer be used?BreaksErgo. Gizmos
10 Good posture is essential to your health & safety! 3 natural curves.Seated posture puts lots of strain on your body!Exaggerated curves are bad.Stretch frequently.Maintain or build strength.
11 Good Working Positions Hands, wrists, and forearms are straight, in-line and roughly parallel to the floor.Head is level, or bent slightly forward, forward facing, and balanced. Generally it is in-line with the torso.Shoulders are relaxed and upper arms hang normally at the side of the body.Elbows stay in close to the body and are bent between 90 and 120 degrees.Feet are fully supported by floor or footrest.Back is fully supported with appropriate lumbar support when sitting vertical or leaning back slightly.Thighs and hips are supported by a well-padded seat and generally parallel to the floor.Knees are about the same height as the hips with the feet slightly forward.To understand the best way to set up a computer workstation, it is helpful to understand the concept of neutral body positioning. This is a comfortable working posture in which your joints are naturally aligned. Working with the body in a neutral position reduces stress and strain on the muscles, tendons, and skeletal system and reduces your risk of developing a musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). The following are important considerations when attempting to maintain neutral body postures while working at the computer workstation:
12 Good Working Positions Regardless of how good your working posture is, working in the same posture or sitting still for prolonged periods is not healthy.You should change your working position frequently throughout the day in the following ways:Make small adjustments to your chair or backrest.Stretch your fingers, hands, arms, and torso.Stand up and walk around for a few minutes periodically.
13 Good Working Positions Upright sitting posture.The user's torso and neck are approximately vertical and in-line, the thighs are approximately horizontal, and the lower legs are vertical.
14 Good Working Positions Standing posture.The user's legs, torso, neck, and head are approximately in-line and vertical. The user may also elevate one foot on a rest while in this posture.
15 Good Working Positions Declined sitting posture.The user's thighs are inclined with the buttocks higher than the knee and the angle between the thighs and the torso is greater than 90 degrees. The torso is vertical or slightly reclined and the legs are vertical.
16 Good Working Positions Reclined sitting posture.The user's torso and neck are straight and recline between 105 and 120 degrees from the thighs.
17 Selecting and arranging your workstation components Appropriate placement of the components and accessories for the desktop computer workstation will allow you to work in neutral body positions, help you perform more efficiently, and work more comfortably and safe.A laptop workstation creates special challenges due to its computer design, size, and the variety of areas in which it is used. While many aspects of this eTool will be applicable to laptops, special considerations may be necessary when working with laptop units.
18 MonitorsChoosing a suitable monitor and placing it in an appropriate position helps reduce exposure to forceful exertions, awkward postures, and overhead glare. This helps prevent possible health effects such as excessive fatigue, eye strain, and neck and back pain. Consider the following issues to help improve your computer workstation:Viewing distanceViewing angle (height and side-to-side)Viewing timeViewing clarityYou should choose a monitor and consider its placement in conjunction with other components of the computer workstation, including the keyboard, desk, and chair.
19 Monitors - Viewing Distance Potential HazardsMonitors placed too close or too far away may cause you to assume awkward body positions that can lead to eyestrain.Viewing distances that are too long can cause you to lean forward and strain to see small text. This can fatigue the eyes and place stress on the torso because the backrest is no longer providing support.Viewing distances that are too short may cause your eyes to work harder to focus (convergence problems) and may require you to sit in awkward postures. For instance, you may tilt your head backward or push your chair away from the screen, causing you to type with outstretched arms.
20 Monitors - Viewing Distance Possible SolutionsSit at a comfortable distance from the monitor where you can easily read all text with your head and torso in an upright posture and your back supported by your chair. Generally, the preferred viewing distance is between 20 and 40 inches (50 and 100 cm) from the eye to the front surface of the computer screentext size may need to be increased for smaller monitors.Provide adequate desk space between the user and the monitor (table depth). If there is not enough desk space, consider doing the following:Make more room for the back of the monitor by pulling the desk away from the wall or divider; orProvide a flat-panel display, which is not as deep as a conventional monitor and requires less desk space (Figure 2); orMove back and install an adjustable keyboard tray to create a deeper working surface.
21 Easy Reach Items to think about moving into the “easy reach” zone... KeyboardMouseTelephoneCalculator
22 Desk or Work Surface Areas Limited space on the work surface may cause users to place components and devices in undesirable positions. This placement may lead to awkward postures as you reach for a pointer/mouse or look at a monitor that is placed to the side.The location of frequently-used devices (keyboard, phone, and mouse) should remain within the repetitive access
23 Desk or Work Surface Areas Potential HazardSome desks and computer equipment have hard, angled leading edges that come in contact with a user's arm or wrist (Figure 3). This can create contact stress, affecting nerves and blood vessels, possibly causing tingling and sore fingers.To minimize contact stress,Pad table edges with inexpensive materials such as pipe insulation,Use a wrist rest, andBuy furniture with rounded desktop edges.
24 Chairs: Some adjustments to check out… Seat height, depth, angle/tilt, Back height, adjustability, and angle/tilt,Lumbar support,Arm rest height,Swivel.
25 Viewing Angle–Height and Side-to-Side Potential HazardWorking with your head and neck turned to the side for a prolonged period loads neck muscles unevenly and increases fatigue and pain.Possible SolutionsPosition your computer monitor directly in front of you so your head, neck and torso face forward when viewing the screen. Monitors should not be farther than 35 degrees to the left or right.If you work primarily from printed material, place the monitor slightly to the side and keep the printed material directly in front. Keep printed materials and monitors as close as possible to each other.
26 Viewing Angle–Height and Side-to-Side Potential HazardBifocal users typically view the monitor through the bottom portion of their lenses. This causes them to tilt the head backward to see a monitor that may otherwise be appropriately placed. As with a monitor that is too high, this can fatigue muscles that support the head. Possible SolutionsLower the monitor (below recommendations for non-bifocal users) so you can maintain appropriate neck postures. You may need to tilt the monitor screen up toward you.Raise the chair height until you can view the monitor without tilting your head back. You may have to raise the keyboard and use a foot rest.Use a pair of single-vision lenses with a focal length designed for computer work. This will eliminate the need to look through the bottom portion of the lens.
27 Telephones Potential Hazard Placing the telephone too far away can cause you to repeatedly reach, resulting in strain on the shoulder, arm, and neck.Possible SolutionsPlace the telephone in the primary or secondary work zone, depending on usage patterns. This will minimize repeated reaching, reducing the possibility of injury.Keep the telephone cord out of working areas so it does not create a tripping hazard.Many office tasks today are centered around telephones and computers as key workstation components. For example, employees making reservations may take information from customers and transfer it into the computer. They may also receive information from the computer and relay it to customers by telephone. Telephones add to the convenience of a workstation; however, telephones have cords that can get tangled up, and can cause the user to assume awkward postures. Consider the following to help prevent musculoskeletal disorders.
28 Potential HazardProlonged conversations with the phone pinched between your shoulder and head may cause stress and neck pain.Possible Solution:Use a "hands-free" head set if you plan to spend a lot of time on the phone. Speaker phone options may also be appropriate, provided the volume of this feature does not annoy your co-workers.
29 Your Health & Safety Requires Stretching/Exercise “Breaks”! Two types:Aerobic exerciseMicro breaksMicro Breaks: short breaks to relax, restore, re-nourish, gently stretch.
30 Material Handling: Plan the lift. Stand with your feet apart, alongside the object to be lifted.Use the “sit down” position, maintaining the natural arch of the spine.Tuck your chin.Get a good grip on the object.Keep the object close.Center the weight over your feet.Avoid twisting.No lifting over 35 pounds on an occasional basis.Obtain assistance through the Facilities Maintenance Dept.Avoid lifting objects that are too heavy for you!
31 Office Equipment Safeguarding Copiers (sorting trays, moving parts).Paper Cutter guarding to avoid contact with the cutting blade by the opposing hand (hand holding the paper).When cutters are not in use, cutter should be down and the blade secured.Storage of letter openers and sharp tools (i.e. Exacto knives, scissors, etc.) should be appropriate to avoid tools rolling and falling off of desk surfaces.Use sheaths for knives and razors.
32 Electrical Safety: Shut off electrical equipment not in use! Properly equipped with grounding prongs.Electrical cords should be visually inspected on a periodic basis to identify frayed and worn cords.Maintain electrical cords in areas out of walkways and passageways.Avoid extension cords in office areas.Surge protectors may not be overloaded and may not be used as an “extension cord” for other office equipment.Don’t overload outlets and surge protectors!Combustible material, such as paper, may not be stored on or in close proximity to electrical outlets and connections.
33 Heat Generating Equipment Ensure 18” or more of clearance from other combustiblesUL listedGrounding prongsPlug into outlet directlyHeaters need tip-over protectionShut it off!Coffee potToaster ovenMicrowaveMug warmerHeatersCooling fansSoldering ironHeat gunOther electrical stuff
34 Emergencies: How do we report emergencies & get assistance? What does the alarm sound like?What are the primary & secondary exits?Where do we meet?Who accounts for us?How do we report missing persons?
35 General Office Safety Hazard Control Proper, well-designed layout of office, furniture, equipment, lighting;Ergonomic evaluation & correction of workstations;Small appliance control ;Proper electrical wiring & properly grounded electrical service;
36 General Hazard Control - continued Proper materials handling & storage areas;Maintenance of walking surfaces;Emergency planning;Maintenance of fire prevention & control program;Contractor & visitor safety rules.