Presentation on theme: "Training Employees 8 Human Resources Management and Supervision OH 8-1."— Presentation transcript:
1Training Employees8Human Resources Management and SupervisionOH 8-1
2Chapter Learning Objectives Explain benefits of training.Differentiate between training and education.Identify elements in successful training programs.Explain the content that training materials should include.Describe the (ADDIE) training development process.Describe the steps of an evaluation of training activity.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that these objectives (competencies) drive the information in the chapter and in this session.Ask the following question, “What are the benefits of training?”
3Benefits of Training Improved job skills Applies basic foodservice skillsPrepares employees for new assignmentsNeeded for equipment operationNecessary for new proceduresIncreases job proficiencyIncreases sales and profitabilityInstructor’s NotesThe function of training is to improve the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of employees for their jobs.Effective training improves the quality of employee work, promotes employee growth, keeps employees challenged and satisfied, and creates talent to help the organization grow.Foodservice operations of all sizes require trained employees.Indicate that there are other reasons for training.Additional ThoughtsMany industry observers speak against identifying trainees since the purpose of doing so is often an “excuse” for providing a less-than-standard quality of products or service while a staff member is being trained. Guests who are paying the same amount for lower quality will have a lowered perception of value because they will realize that it is at their expense that the new employee is being trained.
4Other Reasons for Training Helps non-English speaking employeesTransfers valuesCreates consistencyIncreases employees’ morale and confidenceInstructor’s NotesTraining may be required to compensate for lack of education or experience in some entry-level employees. In addition, training may be required for remedial skills, especially in math and reading.Indicate that there are still other reasons for training.
5Other Reasons for Training continued Combats turnoverReduces legal liabilitiesIncreases safetyIncreases guest satisfaction and profitabilityInstructor’s NotesTraining helps demonstrate that employees are appreciated and may help to increase job satisfaction and commitment which, in turn, reduces turnover. Point out that the informal learning that takes place on the job is not an alternative to training. Training done properly will help ensure that the desired results are realized in a timely manner.Training is both an opportunity and a vehicle for other opportunities. Having all employees in the same role participate in the same training helps ensure the equal treatment that is the cornerstone of equal opportunity laws.The cost of accidents outweigh the cost of properly training employees about safety procedures.Managers can either spend a lot of money regaining lost customers or spend less money for proper staff training.Indicate that the lack of training can have serious legal consequences.
6Negligent Training The lack of training or inadequate training Customers may sue companies for problems they have experienced that are blamed on the lack of effective training.Special concerns include food safety, equipment care/use, and personal safety/security.Instructor’s NotesManagers should document all training received by all employees.
7Safety TrainingHopefully, this employee received the proper training and consistently follows the proper operating instructions when operating this potentially dangerous piece of equipment.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that there are differences between training and education.Additional ThoughtsEmployees as well as customers can sue restaurants. Consider staff who have not been taught, for example, how to operate potentially dangerous equipment or handle potentially dangerous chemicals.
8Differences Between Training and Education GoalTraining—to improve job skills and performanceEducation—to improve knowledge not connected to a jobFocusTraining—about learning “how”Education—about learning “what”TimeframeTraining—short-termEducation—long-termInstructor’s NotesIf applicable, refer students to Exhibit 8d (page 178) in the chapter to review differences between training and education.Learning new skills, specifics of the job, and immediate application are important reasons why training is an important management responsibility.Indicate that there are several methods of training.
9Forms of Training Instructor’s Notes If applicable, ask the students to review Exhibit 8f (pages 180–182) in the chapter to review alternative training methods.Indicate that effective training programs have certain elements in common.
10Elements of Good Training The most effective training includesOnly things relevant to the jobPresentation of information that employees do not already know and cannot doHands-on work to reinforce learningInstructor’s NotesIndicate that, to maximize learning, training should incorporate several elements.
11Element 1—Content Based on Guidelines and Objectives Guidelines, standards, procedures, and practices must be the foundation for training.Skills, knowledge, and attitudes to be learned should be stated as learning objectives that drive the content of training programs.Instructor’s NotesLearning objectives should be stated in terms of what the learner will be able to do, not what the instructor wants to do.Indicate that learning objectives often contain four parts:Performance—what the trainee will be able to doConditions—under what situations the trainee will be able to do itStandards—how well the trainee will be able to do itRepetition—how often/long the trainee will be able to do itIndicate that the next element in effective training is the use of appropriate learning methods and sequence.
12Element 2—Effective Learning Methods and Sequence Effective trainingBreaks the learning into manageable modulesTeaches each module using a classic model (four-step training method)Instructor’s NotesIndicate that the classic training model breaks training into four steps.
13Four-Step Training Method Step 1 – PreparationStep 2 – PresentationStep 3 – PracticeStep 4 – PerformanceInstructor’s NotesPreparation involves motivating the trainee to want to learn, and involves relating the training content to the job and to the employee’s success on the job.Presentation involves the task of providing the training.Practice allows the trainee to practice the task while the trainer observes and advises.Performance relates to following up after the training has been successfully practiced to provide feedback as necessary.A final step (integrative practice) allows the trainees to perform the entire task or a new task using the same methods.
14Pattern of Training Instructor’s Notes Note: The title of Exhibit 8h on page 186 should be “Pattern of Training.”Some simple tasks (example: presenting a menu to a guest) might be taught as one module. Complicated tasks (example: how to set a table) might require several modules. For each module, the four step method (prepare, present, practice, and perform) can be used.Indicate that the next element in effective training is to develop and use thoroughly prepared materials.
15Element 3—Thoroughly Prepared Materials Training materials shouldCover the content of the trainingProvide primary and backup contentProvide instructions for conducting the trainingInstructor’s NotesTraining resources should identify the duties, responsibilities, and tasks to be taught.Other information includes equipment needed, safety-and sanitation-related aspects of the task, and the impact of the training on employees, customers, and other parts of the operation.
16Element 4—Qualified and Prepared Trainers Training skills includeMotivating the learnerProviding constructive feedbackAdjusting the training based on the trainees’ needsHelping the learner transfer learning back to the jobInstructor’s NotesThe trainer must be able to perform the tasks being trained.Indicate that the final elements in effective training are sufficient practice and effective learning evaluation.Additional ThoughtsTrainers must be taught how to train.A common problem arises when a “good” employee is promoted to supervisor and now must assume training responsibilities without being prepared to do so.
17Final Elements—Practice and Evaluation Trainees learn by doing.Validation of training helps to ensure that training teaches what is actually needed.Instructor’s NotesTraining evaluation should address the extent to which training objectives are accomplished, the performance of the trainer and how, if at all, training can be improved.Ask students to answer the following questions.
18How Would You Answer the Following Questions? Training is about learning _______, and education is about learning _______.The first step in the four step training method is _______.Trainees (learners) must be motivated to learn. (True/False)Training evaluation should address the objectives of the training. (True/False)Instructor’s NotesHow; whatPreparationTrueIndicate that industry-recognized training programs can be very helpful training resources.
19Industry-Recognized Training Many “off-the-shelf” training resources are excellent and cost-effective.External resources must meet objectives of the program being planned.There are many sources of external training materials and training programs.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that some external training involves resources that are purchased and used in the operation, and other external training involves programs to which employees are sent.Indicate that sources of external training include the internet, workshops offered by training companies and professional associations, local colleges, and, for literacy training, the Literacy Volunteers of America, and other social service organizations.Indicate that a five-step training development model has been developed to incorporate basic training principles into a practical system for foodservice operations.
20This restaurant manager must know and be able to do many things This restaurant manager must know and be able to do many things. The task of training employees is one of his most important responsibilities, and the best training practices must be consistently used.Instructor’s NotesMake the following statement, “Let’s learn about the ADDIE method of developing training.”
21Five-Step Training Model Preview of ADDIEAnalyzeDesignDevelopImplementEvaluateInstructor’s NotesThese steps can be used to create a wide range of training programs.In small operations where the manager or key workers develop training, this model can be used to create instructor-lead training.Indicate that the first step in the ADDIE model is to analyze.
22ADDIE Training Model—Analyze Effective analysis ensures the training is job- related.Problems should be carefully analyzed to determine their cause, and then training can be directed to problem resolution.A needs assessment can determine skills and knowledge of trainees.Instructor’s NotesPoint out that part of analysis is determining if the situation for which a manager wants to provide training can be addressed adequately by training. Ask, “In what situations would training be inappropriate?”Indicate that a task analysis yields a thorough description of all of the elements of a job, and this information can drive the content of training programs designed to correct operating problems.Indicate that the second step in the five-step ADDIE training model is design.
23ADDIE Training Model—Design Training objectives must be developed, and training program content must be organized with the proper sequence.Procedures for evaluation should be considered as training is designed.Instructor’s NotesBeing clear about the goals and overall structure of the training sets the groundwork for the detailed planning that will make it successful.The sequence of activities should be designed to motivate and focus trainees and to assure that the content is aligned with training objectives.Procedures that will be used to evaluate the training should be considered as the materials and program are designed.Indicate that the next step in the ADDIE model is development.
24ADDIE Training Model—Develop Most time in creating training is spent on program development.Some training materials may be available; others will likely need to be developed.Instructor’s NotesExamples of training materials to be developed include the instructor’s guide, trainee materials, activities and exercises, and job transition materials.Indicate that the next step in the ADDIE training model is implementation.
25ADDIE Training Model—Implementation Activities includeArranging for spaceScheduling trainers and participantsPreparing participantsPracticing training deliveryDuplicating materials and formsInstructor’s NotesIndicate that the final step in the ADDIE Training model is evaluation.
26Four Levels of ADDIE Evaluation Instructor’s NotesThe reaction level of evaluation indicates how well the trainees liked the training and the trainer.The learning level of evaluation indicates whether the trainees gained the required knowledge and skills during the training.The behavior level of evaluation indicates whether the trainees apply the knowledge and skills on the job.The impact level indicates whether the newly applied knowledge and skills make the work more effective and profits greater.Indicate that trainers can do several things to obtain feedback about the effectiveness of training.
27Procedures for Training Evaluation Create a checklist to include all tasks covered by training and verify with trainees that they were addressed.Create an evaluation form.Evaluate progress of the training.Create an evaluation process.Make modifications to training materials and procedures as needed.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that a sample training evaluation form is shown in Exhibit 8L (page 196) in the chapter.Indicate that it will be necessary to retrain employees if they have difficulty in consistently performing to expectations.
28Retraining EmployeesGood coaching can eliminate some causes of performance problems.Start with what the employee already knows, and then modify the original training to address deficiencies.After training, continue coaching and monitoring.Instructor’s NotesIndicate that the need for retraining is not always due to performance problems. Changes in the organization may require that employees learn new ways to perform required tasks.Good recruitment, selection, hiring, orientation, and initial training activities can prevent many difficulties that require retraining.Ask students to answer the following questions.
29How Would You Answer the Following Questions? The most important concern when selecting off-the-shelf training materials is their cost. (True/False)The first step in the ADDIE training model is _______.Training objectives are developed during the _______ step in the ADDIE training model.There are _______ levels of training evaluation in the ADDIE training model.Instructor’s NotesFalseAnalyzeDesignFourNote: indicate that the last part of this discussion will provide a review of definitions for the key terms used in the chapter.
30Key Term Review ADDIE Chunk Classical model of training Design documentFour P approach (or four Ps)Four-step training methodInstructional designIntegrative practiceInstructor’s NotesADDIE—acronym for the five steps in a popular training development model: analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluateChunk—same as training moduleClassical model of training—training method in which each training model goes through four steps: preparation, presentation, practice, and performanceDesign document—detailed training plan written in a report formatFour P approach (or Four Ps)—same as classic model of trainingFour-step training method—same as classic training modelInstructional design—systematic process of developing instruction based on adult learning principlesIntegrative practice—final aspect of the classic training model in which the trainee properly demonstrates several training modules in the proper sequenceIndicate that there were some final key terms used in the chapter.
31Key Term Review continued Job instruction trainingLearning objectivesNeeds assessmentNegligent trainingTask analysisValidationInstructor’s NotesJob instruction training—same as classic model of trainingLearning objectives—skills, knowledge, and attitudes to be learned by trainees during the training programNeeds assessment—process that determines a participant’s readiness for training and his/her existing skills and knowledgeNegligent training—willful lack of training or inadequate trainingTask analysis—process used to determine the proper or best way to perform job dutiesValidation—process of comparing the content of training and its evaluation methods to the actual job done by an experienced staff member to determine whether the content of the training and the correct work procedures are the same.
32Chapter Learning Objectives— What Did You Learn? Explain benefits of training.Differentiate between training and education.Identify elements in successful training programs.Explain the content that training materials should include.Describe the ADDIE training development process.Describe the steps of an evaluation of training activity.Instructor’s NotesAsk students to do a personal assessment of the extent to which they know the information or can perform the activity noted in each objective.