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Training Employees 8 Human Resources Management and Supervision OH 8-1.

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1 Training Employees 8 Human Resources Management and Supervision OH 8-1

2 Chapter Learning Objectives
Explain benefits of training. Differentiate between training and education. Identify elements in successful training programs. Explain the content that training materials should include. Describe the (ADDIE) training development process. Describe the steps of an evaluation of training activity. Instructor’s Notes Indicate that these objectives (competencies) drive the information in the chapter and in this session. Ask the following question, “What are the benefits of training?”

3 Benefits of Training Improved job skills
Applies basic foodservice skills Prepares employees for new assignments Needed for equipment operation Necessary for new procedures Increases job proficiency Increases sales and profitability Instructor’s Notes The function of training is to improve the skills, knowledge, and attitudes of employees for their jobs. Effective training improves the quality of employee work, promotes employee growth, keeps employees challenged and satisfied, and creates talent to help the organization grow. Foodservice operations of all sizes require trained employees. Indicate that there are other reasons for training. Additional Thoughts Many industry observers speak against identifying trainees since the purpose of doing so is often an “excuse” for providing a less-than-standard quality of products or service while a staff member is being trained. Guests who are paying the same amount for lower quality will have a lowered perception of value because they will realize that it is at their expense that the new employee is being trained.

4 Other Reasons for Training
Helps non-English speaking employees Transfers values Creates consistency Increases employees’ morale and confidence Instructor’s Notes Training may be required to compensate for lack of education or experience in some entry-level employees. In addition, training may be required for remedial skills, especially in math and reading. Indicate that there are still other reasons for training.

5 Other Reasons for Training continued
Combats turnover Reduces legal liabilities Increases safety Increases guest satisfaction and profitability Instructor’s Notes Training helps demonstrate that employees are appreciated and may help to increase job satisfaction and commitment which, in turn, reduces turnover. Point out that the informal learning that takes place on the job is not an alternative to training. Training done properly will help ensure that the desired results are realized in a timely manner. Training is both an opportunity and a vehicle for other opportunities. Having all employees in the same role participate in the same training helps ensure the equal treatment that is the cornerstone of equal opportunity laws. The cost of accidents outweigh the cost of properly training employees about safety procedures. Managers can either spend a lot of money regaining lost customers or spend less money for proper staff training. Indicate that the lack of training can have serious legal consequences.

6 Negligent Training The lack of training or inadequate training
Customers may sue companies for problems they have experienced that are blamed on the lack of effective training. Special concerns include food safety, equipment care/use, and personal safety/security. Instructor’s Notes Managers should document all training received by all employees.

7 Safety Training Hopefully, this employee received the proper training and consistently follows the proper operating instructions when operating this potentially dangerous piece of equipment. Instructor’s Notes Indicate that there are differences between training and education. Additional Thoughts Employees as well as customers can sue restaurants. Consider staff who have not been taught, for example, how to operate potentially dangerous equipment or handle potentially dangerous chemicals.

8 Differences Between Training and Education
Goal Training—to improve job skills and performance Education—to improve knowledge not connected to a job Focus Training—about learning “how” Education—about learning “what” Timeframe Training—short-term Education—long-term Instructor’s Notes If applicable, refer students to Exhibit 8d (page 178) in the chapter to review differences between training and education. Learning new skills, specifics of the job, and immediate application are important reasons why training is an important management responsibility. Indicate that there are several methods of training.

9 Forms of Training Instructor’s Notes
If applicable, ask the students to review Exhibit 8f (pages 180–182) in the chapter to review alternative training methods. Indicate that effective training programs have certain elements in common.

10 Elements of Good Training
The most effective training includes Only things relevant to the job Presentation of information that employees do not already know and cannot do Hands-on work to reinforce learning Instructor’s Notes Indicate that, to maximize learning, training should incorporate several elements.

11 Element 1—Content Based on Guidelines and Objectives
Guidelines, standards, procedures, and practices must be the foundation for training. Skills, knowledge, and attitudes to be learned should be stated as learning objectives that drive the content of training programs. Instructor’s Notes Learning objectives should be stated in terms of what the learner will be able to do, not what the instructor wants to do. Indicate that learning objectives often contain four parts: Performance—what the trainee will be able to do Conditions—under what situations the trainee will be able to do it Standards—how well the trainee will be able to do it Repetition—how often/long the trainee will be able to do it Indicate that the next element in effective training is the use of appropriate learning methods and sequence.

12 Element 2—Effective Learning Methods and Sequence
Effective training Breaks the learning into manageable modules Teaches each module using a classic model (four-step training method) Instructor’s Notes Indicate that the classic training model breaks training into four steps.

13 Four-Step Training Method
Step 1 – Preparation Step 2 – Presentation Step 3 – Practice Step 4 – Performance Instructor’s Notes Preparation involves motivating the trainee to want to learn, and involves relating the training content to the job and to the employee’s success on the job. Presentation involves the task of providing the training. Practice allows the trainee to practice the task while the trainer observes and advises. Performance relates to following up after the training has been successfully practiced to provide feedback as necessary. A final step (integrative practice) allows the trainees to perform the entire task or a new task using the same methods.

14 Pattern of Training Instructor’s Notes
Note: The title of Exhibit 8h on page 186 should be “Pattern of Training.” Some simple tasks (example: presenting a menu to a guest) might be taught as one module. Complicated tasks (example: how to set a table) might require several modules. For each module, the four step method (prepare, present, practice, and perform) can be used. Indicate that the next element in effective training is to develop and use thoroughly prepared materials.

15 Element 3—Thoroughly Prepared Materials
Training materials should Cover the content of the training Provide primary and backup content Provide instructions for conducting the training Instructor’s Notes Training resources should identify the duties, responsibilities, and tasks to be taught. Other information includes equipment needed, safety-and sanitation-related aspects of the task, and the impact of the training on employees, customers, and other parts of the operation.

16 Element 4—Qualified and Prepared Trainers
Training skills include Motivating the learner Providing constructive feedback Adjusting the training based on the trainees’ needs Helping the learner transfer learning back to the job Instructor’s Notes The trainer must be able to perform the tasks being trained. Indicate that the final elements in effective training are sufficient practice and effective learning evaluation. Additional Thoughts Trainers must be taught how to train. A common problem arises when a “good” employee is promoted to supervisor and now must assume training responsibilities without being prepared to do so.

17 Final Elements—Practice and Evaluation
Trainees learn by doing. Validation of training helps to ensure that training teaches what is actually needed. Instructor’s Notes Training evaluation should address the extent to which training objectives are accomplished, the performance of the trainer and how, if at all, training can be improved. Ask students to answer the following questions.

18 How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
Training is about learning _______, and education is about learning _______. The first step in the four step training method is _______. Trainees (learners) must be motivated to learn. (True/False) Training evaluation should address the objectives of the training. (True/False) Instructor’s Notes How; what Preparation True Indicate that industry-recognized training programs can be very helpful training resources.

19 Industry-Recognized Training
Many “off-the-shelf” training resources are excellent and cost-effective. External resources must meet objectives of the program being planned. There are many sources of external training materials and training programs. Instructor’s Notes Indicate that some external training involves resources that are purchased and used in the operation, and other external training involves programs to which employees are sent. Indicate that sources of external training include the internet, workshops offered by training companies and professional associations, local colleges, and, for literacy training, the Literacy Volunteers of America, and other social service organizations. Indicate that a five-step training development model has been developed to incorporate basic training principles into a practical system for foodservice operations.

20 This restaurant manager must know and be able to do many things
This restaurant manager must know and be able to do many things. The task of training employees is one of his most important responsibilities, and the best training practices must be consistently used. Instructor’s Notes Make the following statement, “Let’s learn about the ADDIE method of developing training.”

21 Five-Step Training Model
Preview of ADDIE Analyze Design Develop Implement Evaluate Instructor’s Notes These steps can be used to create a wide range of training programs. In small operations where the manager or key workers develop training, this model can be used to create instructor-lead training. Indicate that the first step in the ADDIE model is to analyze.

22 ADDIE Training Model—Analyze
Effective analysis ensures the training is job- related. Problems should be carefully analyzed to determine their cause, and then training can be directed to problem resolution. A needs assessment can determine skills and knowledge of trainees. Instructor’s Notes Point out that part of analysis is determining if the situation for which a manager wants to provide training can be addressed adequately by training. Ask, “In what situations would training be inappropriate?” Indicate that a task analysis yields a thorough description of all of the elements of a job, and this information can drive the content of training programs designed to correct operating problems. Indicate that the second step in the five-step ADDIE training model is design.

23 ADDIE Training Model—Design
Training objectives must be developed, and training program content must be organized with the proper sequence. Procedures for evaluation should be considered as training is designed. Instructor’s Notes Being clear about the goals and overall structure of the training sets the groundwork for the detailed planning that will make it successful. The sequence of activities should be designed to motivate and focus trainees and to assure that the content is aligned with training objectives. Procedures that will be used to evaluate the training should be considered as the materials and program are designed. Indicate that the next step in the ADDIE model is development.

24 ADDIE Training Model—Develop
Most time in creating training is spent on program development. Some training materials may be available; others will likely need to be developed. Instructor’s Notes Examples of training materials to be developed include the instructor’s guide, trainee materials, activities and exercises, and job transition materials. Indicate that the next step in the ADDIE training model is implementation.

25 ADDIE Training Model—Implementation
Activities include Arranging for space Scheduling trainers and participants Preparing participants Practicing training delivery Duplicating materials and forms Instructor’s Notes Indicate that the final step in the ADDIE Training model is evaluation.

26 Four Levels of ADDIE Evaluation
Instructor’s Notes The reaction level of evaluation indicates how well the trainees liked the training and the trainer. The learning level of evaluation indicates whether the trainees gained the required knowledge and skills during the training. The behavior level of evaluation indicates whether the trainees apply the knowledge and skills on the job. The impact level indicates whether the newly applied knowledge and skills make the work more effective and profits greater. Indicate that trainers can do several things to obtain feedback about the effectiveness of training.

27 Procedures for Training Evaluation
Create a checklist to include all tasks covered by training and verify with trainees that they were addressed. Create an evaluation form. Evaluate progress of the training. Create an evaluation process. Make modifications to training materials and procedures as needed. Instructor’s Notes Indicate that a sample training evaluation form is shown in Exhibit 8L (page 196) in the chapter. Indicate that it will be necessary to retrain employees if they have difficulty in consistently performing to expectations.

28 Retraining Employees Good coaching can eliminate some causes of performance problems. Start with what the employee already knows, and then modify the original training to address deficiencies. After training, continue coaching and monitoring. Instructor’s Notes Indicate that the need for retraining is not always due to performance problems. Changes in the organization may require that employees learn new ways to perform required tasks. Good recruitment, selection, hiring, orientation, and initial training activities can prevent many difficulties that require retraining. Ask students to answer the following questions.

29 How Would You Answer the Following Questions?
The most important concern when selecting off-the-shelf training materials is their cost. (True/False) The first step in the ADDIE training model is _______. Training objectives are developed during the _______ step in the ADDIE training model. There are _______ levels of training evaluation in the ADDIE training model. Instructor’s Notes False Analyze Design Four Note: indicate that the last part of this discussion will provide a review of definitions for the key terms used in the chapter.

30 Key Term Review ADDIE Chunk Classical model of training
Design document Four P approach (or four Ps) Four-step training method Instructional design Integrative practice Instructor’s Notes ADDIE—acronym for the five steps in a popular training development model: analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate Chunk—same as training module Classical model of training—training method in which each training model goes through four steps: preparation, presentation, practice, and performance Design document—detailed training plan written in a report format Four P approach (or Four Ps)—same as classic model of training Four-step training method—same as classic training model Instructional design—systematic process of developing instruction based on adult learning principles Integrative practice—final aspect of the classic training model in which the trainee properly demonstrates several training modules in the proper sequence Indicate that there were some final key terms used in the chapter.

31 Key Term Review continued
Job instruction training Learning objectives Needs assessment Negligent training Task analysis Validation Instructor’s Notes Job instruction training—same as classic model of training Learning objectives—skills, knowledge, and attitudes to be learned by trainees during the training program Needs assessment—process that determines a participant’s readiness for training and his/her existing skills and knowledge Negligent training—willful lack of training or inadequate training Task analysis—process used to determine the proper or best way to perform job duties Validation—process of comparing the content of training and its evaluation methods to the actual job done by an experienced staff member to determine whether the content of the training and the correct work procedures are the same.

32 Chapter Learning Objectives— What Did You Learn?
Explain benefits of training. Differentiate between training and education. Identify elements in successful training programs. Explain the content that training materials should include. Describe the ADDIE training development process. Describe the steps of an evaluation of training activity. Instructor’s Notes Ask students to do a personal assessment of the extent to which they know the information or can perform the activity noted in each objective.

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