Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Multiple Approaches to Educational Research: The East vs. the West Jianwei Zhang SUNY-Albany.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Multiple Approaches to Educational Research: The East vs. the West Jianwei Zhang SUNY-Albany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multiple Approaches to Educational Research: The East vs. the West Jianwei Zhang SUNY-Albany

2 Content Backgrounds Backgrounds Eastern and Western Habits of Mind Eastern and Western Habits of Mind Holistic vs. Analytical Thinking of Education Holistic vs. Analytical Thinking of Education Dialectical vs. Logical Thinking of Education Dialectical vs. Logical Thinking of Education Integrating the Eastern and Western Styles Integrating the Eastern and Western Styles Conclusions and Implications Conclusions and Implications

3 Backgrounds

4 Re-Shape Educational Research in the West and East Educational reform calls for better education research Educational reform calls for better education research Evidence-based movement in the US: scientifically-based research? (Feuer, Towne, & Shavelson, 2002; Berliner, 2002; Erickson & Gutierrez, 2002; Maxwell, 2003). Evidence-based movement in the US: scientifically-based research? (Feuer, Towne, & Shavelson, 2002; Berliner, 2002; Erickson & Gutierrez, 2002; Maxwell, 2003). Improving research methods as a challenge in China: Scientific vs. humanistic spirits (Jiang, 2004; Liu, 2003; Mao, 1999; Zhang, 1998; Zhou, 2001). Improving research methods as a challenge in China: Scientific vs. humanistic spirits (Jiang, 2004; Liu, 2003; Mao, 1999; Zhang, 1998; Zhou, 2001).

5 Educational Research in China and the Western World China History: Importing History: Importing Language: Chinese Language: Chinese Researchers: Univ. professors, governmental agencies, teachers Researchers: Univ. professors, governmental agencies, teachers Contexts: Stronger political control Contexts: Stronger political control The West Indigenous growth English (an international language) Univ. professors (Zhao et al., 2006) Weaker political influence (Hayhoe, 2001; Yang, 2005; Zhao et al., 2006).

6 My Focus How are the two communities approaching educational research differently, rooted in different philosophical traditions? How are the two communities approaching educational research differently, rooted in different philosophical traditions? Can we both benefit from an integration of the two perspectives? How? Can we both benefit from an integration of the two perspectives? How?

7 Eastern and Western Habits of Mind

8 Holistic vs. Analytical Westerners The world is relatively simple, reductable The world is relatively simple, reductable Attending more to objects Attending more to objects Narrower attribution to properties of objects Narrower attribution to properties of objects Committed to reasons Committed to reasons Easterners The world is complex Attending more to contexts and relationships Broader attribution to a net (objects + contexts) Committed to reasonableness (Nisbett, 2003)

9 Sunrise in Easterners and Westerners Eyes

10 Dialectical vs. Logical Westerners separate structure from content (Decontextualization) separate structure from content (Decontextualization) Either/or: Truth resides in one side Either/or: Truth resides in one side Debate Debate Easterners Experience and context- boundedness Both/and: A middle way approach to contradictions Compromise (Nisbett, 2003)

11 The Chinese Way of Knowing (broad learning, deep questioning, careful thinking, clear clarification, and faithful action) · (broad learning, deep questioning, careful thinking, clear clarification, and faithful action) · (see significance from little things) ( · ) (see significance from little things) ( · )

12 Holistic vs. Analytical Thinking of Education

13 Research Types China Holistic reflection on macro issues mainly rooted in epistemological / philosophical foundations Holistic reflection on macro issues mainly rooted in epistemological / philosophical foundations Educational psychology as psychology Educational psychology as psychology West Analytic investigation of micro issues mainly based on psychological foundations Psychologization of educational research as a tradition stemming from Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart, and Thorndike)

14 Research Focus: Articles in JYYJ and AERJ JYYJ Curriculum: 7.8% Learning: 5.0% Learning: 5.0% Leadership Leadership and policy: 14.2% and policy: 14.2% AERJ 1.7% 19.0% 5.2% (Zhao et al., 2008)

15 Article Styles: JYYJ and AERJ (Zhao et al., 2008)

16 Methods: An Analysis of Five Chinese Journals ( ) Data source: Zheng & Cui (2001)

17 Non-Empirical Articles Data source: Zheng & Cui (2001)

18 Adaptation of Experiments The Experiment on the New Curriculum ( ) The Experiment on the New Curriculum ( ) New Basic Education Experiment ( ) (Ye, 2004) New Basic Education Experiment ( ) (Ye, 2004) Agency Development Instructional Experiment ( ) (Pei, 2000) Agency Development Instructional Experiment ( ) (Pei, 2000) Rural Educational Reform Experiment ( ) Gong, 2000 Rural Educational Reform Experiment ( ) Gong, 2000

19 Adaptation of Experiments Educational experiment is more understood as an enterprise/field than a method for various fields A broad focus A broad focus The goal is to improve practice and generate theory The goal is to improve practice and generate theory No testable hypothesis and rigorous design No testable hypothesis and rigorous design Researchers co-work with teachers to create model practice that others can follow Researchers co-work with teachers to create model practice that others can follow In the contexts of such practice, researchers gain new insight ( ) In the contexts of such practice, researchers gain new insight ( )

20 Research-Based Innovative Practice as an Indigenous Approach () (Ye, 2004) Educational practice integrating research and targeting educational change and teacher development; Educational practice integrating research and targeting educational change and teacher development; Theory-penetrative; Theory-penetrative; Researchers and teachers work together to create, sustain, reflect on, and reshape innovation, leading to new theories and practices Researchers and teachers work together to create, sustain, reflect on, and reshape innovation, leading to new theories and practices

21 Holistic vs. Analytic

22 Dialectical vs. Logical Thinking of Education

23 Argumentory Structure Based on Logical Thinking claim data warrants backing (Toulmin, 2003)

24 Typical Rhetoric in Line with Logical Thinking (Western) Background Background Problem Problem Hypothesis or proposed proposition Hypothesis or proposed proposition Means of testing Means of testing Evidence Evidence Argument as to what the evidence means Argument as to what the evidence means Refutation of possible counterarguments Refutation of possible counterarguments Conclusion and recommendation Conclusion and recommendation (Nisbett, 2003)

25 Typical Rhetoric in Line with Dialectical Thinking (Eastern) Topic Topic Combing different ideas Combing different ideas Perspective A Perspective A Perspective B Perspective B Perspective C Perspective C … Dialectical analyses (Key contradictions and relationships) Dialectical analyses (Key contradictions and relationships) My understanding My understanding Elaboration, and establishing the reasonableness Elaboration, and establishing the reasonableness Implications Implications (ask) (learn) (think) (clarify) (act)

26 An Example: How Chinese Researchers Recreate Constructivism Preference of a moderate version of constructivism (e.g., Spiro et al., 1995) Preference of a moderate version of constructivism (e.g., Spiro et al., 1995) Student-as-agent, teacher-led (He 2003 Student-as-agent, teacher-led (He 2003 A dialectical view of knowledge construction Chen & Zhang, 1999; Zhang et al., in press A dialectical view of knowledge construction Chen & Zhang, 1999; Zhang et al., in press Cultural guidance vs. student meaning-making Cultural guidance vs. student meaning-making Situatedness vs. generalization Situatedness vs. generalization Individual vs. community Individual vs. community …

27 Integrating the Eastern and Western Styles

28 How to Judge the Value of Various Approaches A postmodernist view: no objective truth, no single correct approach. Then, how to judge the value of diverse perspectives and approaches? A postmodernist view: no objective truth, no single correct approach. Then, how to judge the value of diverse perspectives and approaches? Progress/improvement! (Popper, 1972; Kuhn, 1970; Thagard, 1989) Progress/improvement! (Popper, 1972; Kuhn, 1970; Thagard, 1989) Scientific progress is not a matter of getting closer to the truth; it is a matter of improving on existing knowledge. (Bereiter et al., 1997, p.331) Scientific progress is not a matter of getting closer to the truth; it is a matter of improving on existing knowledge. (Bereiter et al., 1997, p.331)

29 Progress! Progressive discourse committed to knowledge advancement Progressive discourse committed to knowledge advancement (Bereiter, 1994, 2002) Ideas as objects of discussion Ideas as objects of discussion Formulating improvable ideas Formulating improvable ideas Expanding the basis of discussion (accepted facts/ideas) Expanding the basis of discussion (accepted facts/ideas) Openness: Selective criticism based on knowledge- advancement goals; Nonsectarianism Openness: Selective criticism based on knowledge- advancement goals; Nonsectarianism Accumulative selection of knowledge (Dawkins, 1996) Accumulative selection of knowledge (Dawkins, 1996)

30 A Synthesis of Knowledge-Progress An accumulating base of facts Diverse ideas Accepted theories; Data from practice Idea Selective retention and rising-above Dialectical idea complexes

31 An Example of Selective Retention and Rising-above Cognitive Flexibility Theory (Spiro et al., 1995) Cognitive Flexibility Theory (Spiro et al., 1995) Well-structured domains Introductory knowledge acquisition Traditional teaching methods Ill-structured domains Advanced knowledge acquisition Constructivist methods

32 Dialectics in Dialogues Conceptual synthesis emerging from contradictions is a device for emergence of novelty (Valsiner & Rene, 2000 ) Conceptual synthesis emerging from contradictions is a device for emergence of novelty (Valsiner & Rene, 2000 ) Unity and contradiction of opposites within the same whole (Markova, 1990) Unity and contradiction of opposites within the same whole (Markova, 1990) Idea A Idea B |V Idea C

33 An accumulating base of facts Diverse ideas Selective retention and rising-above Accepted theories Data from practice Idea Dialectical idea complexes Analytical and Logical Thinking (Western)

34 An accumulating base of facts Diverse ideas Selective retention and rising-above Accepted theories Data from practice Idea Dialectical idea complexes Holistic and Dialectical Thinking (Eastern)

35 Surface vs. Deep Dialectics Surface Dialectics: Jump to a Middle Way before carefully examine the opposites Jump to a Middle Way before carefully examine the opposites Leading to comments merely, or a very vague, unimprovable idea Leading to comments merely, or a very vague, unimprovable idea Deep Dialectics: Carefully examine the alternatives together with their evidence and contexts (What re the ideas and what are they really about?) before achieving a synthesis Leading to a clear, improvable idea (Zhang et al., in preparation)

36 An Example of Surface Dialectics An excerption from Zhang (2003) An excerption from Zhang (2003) The evaluation of online collaborative inquiry learning should: 1. Combine external and self-evaluation, with an emphasis on self-evaluation… 2. Combine individual and group evaluation, highlighting group evaluation… 3. Combine product and process evaluation, emphasizing process…

37 An Example of Deep Dialectics Structure-Orientation Instructional Theory (Feng, 1992, 1998) Structure-Orientation Instructional Theory (Feng, 1992, 1998) Bruner s Theory: Develop cognitive structures through discovery learning experiences Transferable but slow Soviet psychology: Internationalizing intellectual skills through a guided/oriented process Efficient but hard to transfer Structure-Orientation: Structure-Orientation: Construct cognitive structures through an oriented process

38 How Can Dialectics Go Deep? Set out the idea elements that make up the alternative theories analytical thinking is needed Set out the idea elements that make up the alternative theories analytical thinking is needed Critically examine the strengths and weaknesses of the component ideas in light of the accumulated evidence and theories logical thinking is needed Critically examine the strengths and weaknesses of the component ideas in light of the accumulated evidence and theories logical thinking is needed Selectively integrate component ideas from different perspective into a new complex a dialectical whole Selectively integrate component ideas from different perspective into a new complex a dialectical whole

39 Conclusions and Implications

40 For Western Researchers… Learn from a holistic and dialectical way of thinking in order to understand education as a complex system Learn from a holistic and dialectical way of thinking in order to understand education as a complex system Debate advances knowledge only when it is dedicated to achieving a synthesis that superordinates both sides (see also, Bereiter, 2002) Debate advances knowledge only when it is dedicated to achieving a synthesis that superordinates both sides (see also, Bereiter, 2002)

41 For Eastern Researchers… Build on their holistic and dialectical style of thinking Build on their holistic and dialectical style of thinking Enculturate the analytical and logical way of thinking, so that the holistic and dialectical thinking can really go deep Enculturate the analytical and logical way of thinking, so that the holistic and dialectical thinking can really go deep This is more than research method training, but a way of thinking, talking, and doing. This is more than research method training, but a way of thinking, talking, and doing.

42 My Experiences of Integrating the Two Styles of Thinking Socio-cognitive dynamics/dialectics (Zhang et al., in press) Socio-cognitive dynamics/dialectics (Zhang et al., in press) The known vs. Unknown The known vs. Unknown Individual vs. Community knowledge Individual vs. Community knowledge Empirical practices vs. Conceptual work Empirical practices vs. Conceptual work Local understanding vs. Societal knowledge Local understanding vs. Societal knowledge

43 My Experiences of Integrating the Two Styles of Thinking Toward a holistic understanding: From conversation threads to inquiry threads Toward a holistic understanding: From conversation threads to inquiry threads (Zhang et al., in press)

44 Bridging the Two Cultures Using Technologies Cross-cultural exchanges can help make the values and beliefs of different cultures visible (Lin & Hatano, 2003) Cross-cultural exchanges can help make the values and beliefs of different cultures visible (Lin & Hatano, 2003) Telecommunication technology brings about new opportunities for such cross- cultural exchanges and collaborations Telecommunication technology brings about new opportunities for such cross- cultural exchanges and collaborations

45 The Knowledge Society Network (http:// ikit.org/ksn.html ) A bold design experiment: use new knowledge media to maximize society s knowledge resources and the effective and equitable mobilization of knowledge A bold design experiment: use new knowledge media to maximize society s knowledge resources and the effective and equitable mobilization of knowledge Cross-cultural: 12 nations (inc. mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan) Cross-cultural: 12 nations (inc. mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan) (Teo et al., submitted)

46 Monthly Virtual Meetings in the Knowledge Society Network #14 from Hong Kong: "Bootstrapping to knowledge building." #14 from Hong Kong: "Bootstrapping to knowledge building." #15 from Singapore: "Fostering Knowledge Building Communities - Potentials and Challenges." #15 from Singapore: "Fostering Knowledge Building Communities - Potentials and Challenges." #24 - "Instructional Design and Teacher Roles." #24 - "Instructional Design and Teacher Roles." #27 - "Development of Knowledge Building Communities across the Knowledge Society Network." #27 - "Development of Knowledge Building Communities across the Knowledge Society Network." More at More at Researchers and practitioners from Asia Western researchers and practitioners More concerns with contextual factors Dialectical thinking (e.g., Teacher s role)

47 Thanks!

48 Keyword Analysis of The Call for Proposals of Educational Science during the 10th 5-Year Plan Empirical Empirical Comparative Comparative Historical Historical Practical Practical Conceptual Conceptual 554 research items (e.g., strategies and policies on vocational education in rural areas)

49 ( ) ( )

50 The construction of the framework of a discipline: The construction of the framework of a discipline: bottom-up vs. top (definition of a discipline, define and differentiate basic terms, goals and standards) down bottom-up vs. top (definition of a discipline, define and differentiate basic terms, goals and standards) down Core concepts and principles vs. core relations/contradictions Core concepts and principles vs. core relations/contradictions

51 Why Not Experiments? The effect of a factor/treatment? The answer is: It depends; Any factor cannot be examined alone; The effect of a factor/treatment? The answer is: It depends; Any factor cannot be examined alone; An experiment in a limited period of time tell very little about the effect of an educational treatment; An experiment in a limited period of time tell very little about the effect of an educational treatment; Why do we need experimental/control studies if our theories and experiences have already led us to believe in a method? (ethical issues with experiments vs. with control) Why do we need experimental/control studies if our theories and experiences have already led us to believe in a method? (ethical issues with experiments vs. with control)

52 My Experiences of Integrating the Two Styles of Thinking Social Network Analysis: Gaining insight into the holistic structure (Zhang et al., 2006) Social Network Analysis: Gaining insight into the holistic structure (Zhang et al., 2006)

53 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


Download ppt "Multiple Approaches to Educational Research: The East vs. the West Jianwei Zhang SUNY-Albany."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google