Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Go to Section: Analyzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Go to Section: Analyzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Go to Section: Analyzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance, scientists have experimented with breeding various plants and animals. In each experiment shown in the table on the next slide, two pea plants with different characteristics were bred. Then, the offspring produced were bred to produce a second generation of offspring. Consider the data and answer the questions that follow. Section 11-1

2 Go to Section: 1.In the first generation of each experiment, how do the characteristics of the offspring compare to the parents characteristics? 2.How do the characteristics of the second generation compare to the characteristics of the first generation? Section 11-1 Parents Long stems short stems Red flowers white flowers Green pods yellow pods Round seeds wrinkled seeds Yellow seeds green seeds First Generation All long All red All green All round All yellow Second Generation 787 long: 277 short 705 red: 224 white 428 green: 152 yellow 5474 round: 1850 wrinkled 6022 yellow: 2001 green

3 Go to Section: 11–1 The Work of Mendel A. Gregor Mendels Peas B. Genes and Dominance C. Segregation 1. The F 1 Cross 2. Explaining the F 1 Cross Section 11-1 Section Outline

4 Go to Section: 11–1 The Work of Mendel Gregor Mendel ( ) was a monk at a monastery in Brunn, Austria He taught school and did other chores, but in his spare time he set out to study plant breeding He started breeding pea plants about 1855 He wanted to learn the rules of heredity so that better varieties could be produced Section 11-1

5 Go to Section: 11–1 cont. Mendels original pea plants were true-breeding. –When allowed to self-pollinate they produced offspring identical to themselves Mendel wanted to cross-pollinate the plants and study the results Mendel studied seven different pea plant traits (specific characteristic that varies from individual to individual) with 2 contrasting characteristics Section 11-1

6 Go to Section: Seed Shape Flower Position Seed Coat Color Seed Color Pod Color Plant Height Pod Shape Round Wrinkled Round Yellow Green Gray White Smooth Constricted Green Yellow Axial Terminal Tall Short YellowGraySmoothGreenAxialTall Section 11-1 Figure 11-3 Mendels Seven F 1 Crosses on Pea Plants

7 Go to Section: 11–1 cont. Mendel called each original pair of plants the P Generation (parental) and the offspring of these the F 1 generation (first filial) Mendel produced hybrids when he crossed parents with different traits; and to his surprise the offspring only resembled one of the parents Section 11-1

8 Go to Section: P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation TallShortTall Short Section 11-1 Principles of Dominance

9 Go to Section: P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation TallShortTall Short Section 11-1 Principles of Dominance

10 Go to Section: 11–1 cont. Mendel drew 2 conclusions from this experiment: 1.Biological inheritance is determined by factors that are passed from one generation to the next; today known as genes 2.Principle of Dominance which states that some alleles (different forms of a gene) are dominant and others are recessive Section 11-1

11 Go to Section: 11–1 cont. Dominant alleles will always exhibit that form of the trait and is represented with a capital letter ex. (T) - Tall Recessive alleles will only exhibit that form of the trait if the dominant allele is not present and is represented with a lower case letter ex. (t) - short Section 11-1

12 Go to Section: 11–1 cont. Mendel then allowed his F 1 hybrid plants to self-pollinate to produce an F 2 generation (second filial) –Traits controlled by the recessive alleles reappeared in ¼ of the F 2 generation –Mendel explained that the dominant allele masked the recessive allele in the F 1 generation and due to the segregation of alleles during gamete formation reappeared in the F 2 generation Section 11-1

13 Go to Section: P Generation F 1 Generation F 2 Generation TallShortTall Short Section 11-1 Principles of Dominance

14 Go to Section: Section 11-1 T t F 1 Generation TtTt Gametes T T t t F 2 Generation

15 Go to Section: Tossing Coins If you toss a coin, what is the probability of getting heads? Tails? If you toss a coin 10 times, how many heads and how many tails would you expect to get? Working with a partner, have one person toss a coin ten times while the other person tallies the results on a sheet of paper. Then, switch tasks to produce a separate tally of the second set of 10 tosses. Section 11-2

16 Go to Section: 1. Assuming that you expect 5 heads and 5 tails in 10 tosses, how do the results of your tosses compare? How about the results of your partners tosses? How close was each set of results to what was expected? 2. Add your results to those of your partner to produce a total of 20 tosses. Assuming that you expect 10 heads and 10 tails in 20 tosses, how close are these results to what was expected? 3.If you compiled the results for the whole class, what results would you expect? 4.How do the expected results differ from the observed results? Section 11-2

17 Go to Section: 11–2 Probability and Punnett Squares A. Genetics and Probability B. Punnett Squares C. Probability and Segregation D. Probabilities Predict Averages Section 11-2 Section Outline

18 Go to Section: 11–2 Probability and Punnett Squares Probability is the likelihood that a particular event will occur and Mendel realized that the principles of probability could be used in predicting the outcomes of genetic crosses Section 11-2

19 Go to Section: 11–2 cont. Punnett Squares can be used to predict and compare the genetic variations that will result from a cross –The gametes are shown along the top and left side –Possible gene combinations of the offsping appear in the boxes Section 11-2

20 Go to Section: Section 11-2 Tt X Tt Cross

21 Go to Section: Section 11-2 Tt X Tt Cross

22 Go to Section: 11–2 cont. Homozygous organisms are true-breeding which means they have two identical alleles for a particular trait Ex. TT Heterozygous organisms are hybrids that have two different alleles for the same trait Ex. Tt Section 11-2

23 Go to Section: 11–2 cont. Genotype vs. Phenotype The genotype is the actual genetic makeup of the traits, while the phenotype is the actual physical characteristics of an organism Section 11-2

24 Go to Section: 11–3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics A.Independent Assortment 1.The Two-Factor Cross: F 1 2. The Two-Factor Cross: F 2 B.A Summary of Mendels Principles C.Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles 1.Incomplete Dominance 2. Codominance 3.Multiple Alleles4. Polygenic Traits D.Applying Mendels Principles E.Genetics and the Environment Section 11-3 Section Outline

25 Go to Section: 11-3 Exploring Mendelian Genetics After proving that alleles segregate in the formation of gametes, Mendel wanted to know if they did so independently – did the segregation of one pair of alleles affect the segregation of other pairs? Two-Factor Cross – F1 - Mendel crossed homozygous round yellow peas (RRYY) with wrinkled green peas (rryy). - F1 were all round yellow (RrYy)

26 Go to Section: Two-Factor – F2 - Mendel knew F1s were heterozygous for both traits - when allowed to self-fertilize the F1 gave rise to F2s w/ a definite ratio - this led Mendel to his Principle of Independent Assortment - alleles for different characteristics segregate independently of each other – so as long as genes for two traits are on different chromosomes every combination of alleles is possible.

27 Go to Section: Section 11-3 Figure Independent Assortment in Peas

28 Go to Section: concluded that which is called the Gregor Mendel Law of Dominance Law of Segregation Pea plants Factors determine traits Some alleles are dominant, and some alleles are recessive Alleles are separated during gamete formation Section 11-3 Concept Map experimented with

29 Go to Section: Incomplete Dominance * when neither allele is dominant over the other - heterozygotes differ phenotypically from either homozygote Ex.: Four Oclock plants - RR = red - WW = white - RW = pink ** this is not blending because red and white flowers will reappear.

30 Go to Section: Section 11-3 Figure Incomplete Dominance in Four OClock Flowers

31 Go to Section: Section 11-3 Figure Incomplete Dominance in Four OClock Flowers

32 Go to Section: Codominance * situation in which both alleles contribute to the phenotype - both are expressed if present Ex.: chickens – white and black feathers are codominant - heterozygotes produce both white and black feathers ** A and B alleles in human blood types

33 Go to Section: Multiple Alleles * when a gene has more than two alleles - each individual still only gets two of the possible alleles that exist in the population Ex.: Human blood groups - three alleles = A, B, O - A and B are codominant - O is recessive

34 Go to Section: Polygenic Traits * traits which are influenced by several genes - results in a wide range of phenotypes Ex.: Human height, skin color, color in eyes of fruitflies

35 Go to Section: Height in Humans Height in pea plants is controlled by one of two alleles; the allele for a tall plant is the dominant allele, while the allele for a short plant is the recessive one. What about people? Are the factors that determine height more complicated in humans? Section 11-3

36 Go to Section: 1. Make a list of 10 adults whom you know. Next to the name of each adult, write his or her approximate height in feet and inches. 2. What can you observe about the heights of the ten people? 3. Do you think height in humans is controlled by 2 alleles, as it is in pea plants? Explain your answer. Section 11-3

37 Go to Section: Applying Mendels Principles * Mendels principles apply to all organisms - Thomas Hunt Morgan – began use of fruitflies - ideal organism - fast breeder - lots of young - many observable traits - small size - Environment also affects development of organisms

38 Go to Section: Sex Linkage - genes located on autosomes behave as we have studied - genes located on the sex chromosomes often exhibit a unique pattern of inheritance. - in mammals females have two X-chromosomes (XX) - in mammals males have an X and a Y chromosome (XY) - the Y chromosome has a gene (SRY) that makes the embryo male - but Y has fewer genes than X and so males only get one copy of some genes on the Y - genes that males only get one copy of are sex-linked and are expressed more often in males than females - color-blindness, muscular dystrophy

39 Go to Section: 11–4 Meiosis A.Chromosome Number B.Phases of Meiosis 1.Meiosis I 2.Meiosis II C. Gamete Formation D. Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Section 11-4 Section Outline

40 Go to Section:

41

42

43 How Many Chromosomes? Normal human body cells each contain 46 chromosomes. The cell division process that body cells undergo is called mitosis and produces daughter cells that are virtually identical to the parent cell. Working with a partner, discuss and answer the questions that follow. Section 11-4 Interest Grabber

44 Go to Section:

45 1.How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis? 2.If a sperm containing 46 chromosomes fused with an egg containing 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would the resulting fertilized egg contain? Do you think this would create any problems in the developing embryo? 3.In order to produce a fertilized egg with the appropriate number of chromosomes (46), how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have? Section 11-4 Interest Grabber continued

46 Go to Section: Section 11-4 Crossing-Over

47 Go to Section: Section 11-4 Crossing-Over

48 Go to Section: Section 11-4 Crossing-Over

49 Go to Section:

50 Meiosis I Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis

51 Go to Section: Meiosis I Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis Meiosis I

52 Go to Section: Meiosis I Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis Meiosis I

53 Go to Section: Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis Meiosis I

54 Go to Section: Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis Meiosis I

55 Go to Section: Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis II

56 Go to Section: Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis II

57 Go to Section: Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis II

58 Go to Section: Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis II

59 Go to Section: Meiosis II Meiosis I results in two haploid (N) daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original. Prophase IIMetaphase IIAnaphase IITelophase II The chromosomes line up in a similar way to the metaphase stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell. Meiosis II results in four haploid (N) daughter cells. Section 11-4 Figure Meiosis II

60 Go to Section: Forever Linked? Some genes appear to be inherited together, or linked. If two genes are found on the same chromosome, does it mean they are linked forever? Study the diagram, which shows four genes labeled A–E and a–e, and then answer the questions on the next slide. Section 11-5 Interest Grabber

61 Go to Section: 1.In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and b being on the same chromosome? 2.In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and c being on the same chromosome? Genes A and e? 3.How does the distance between two genes on a chromosome affect the chances that crossing over will recombine those genes? Section 11-5 Interest Grabber continued

62 Go to Section: 11–5Linkage and Gene Maps A.Gene Linkage B.Gene Maps Section 11-5 Section Outline

63 Go to Section: Earth Country State City People Cell Chromosome Chromosome fragment Gene Nucleotide base pairs Section 11-5 Comparative Scale of a Gene Map Mapping of Earths Features Mapping of Cells, Chromosomes, and Genes

64 Go to Section: Exact location on chromosomesChromosome 2 Section 11-5 Figure Gene Map of the Fruit Fly

65 Video Contents Videos Click a hyperlink to choose a video. Meiosis Overview Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1 Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 2 Segregation of Chromosomes Crossing Over

66 Video 1 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 1 Meiosis Overview

67 Video 2 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 2 Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 1

68 Video 3 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 3 Animal Cell Meiosis, Part 2

69 Video 4 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 4 Segregation of Chromosomes

70 Video 5 Click the image to play the video segment. Video 5 Crossing Over

71 Internet The latest discoveries in genetics Interactive test Articles on genetics For links on Punnett squares, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-4112.www.SciLinks.org For links on Mendelian genetics, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-4113.www.SciLinks.org For links on meiosis, go to and enter the Web Code as follows: cbn-4114.www.SciLinks.org Go Online

72 Section 1 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1.In the first generation of each experiment, how do the characteristics of the offspring compare to the parents characteristics? All offspring had the same characteristic, which was like one of the parents. The other characteristic seemed to have disappeared. 2.How do the characteristics of the second generation compare to the characteristics of the first generation? Both characteristics appeared in this generation. The characteristic that had disappeared in the first generation did not appear as often as the other characteristic. (It appears about 25 percent of the time.)

73 Section 2 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1. Assuming that you expect 5 heads and 5 tails in 10 tosses, how do the results of your tosses compare? How about the results of your partners tosses? How close was each set of results to what was expected? Results will vary, but should be close to 5 heads and 5 tails. 2. Add your results to those of your partner to produce a total of 20 tosses. Assuming that you expect 10 heads and 10 tails in 20 tosses, how close are these results to what was expected? The results for 20 tosses may be closer to the predicted 10 heads and 10 tails. 3.If you compiled the results for the whole class, what results would you expect? The results for the entire class should be even closer to the number predicted by the rules of probability. 4.How do the expected results differ from the observed results? The observed results are usually slightly different from the expected results.

74 Section 3 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1. Make a list of 10 adults whom you know. Next to the name of each adult, write his or her approximate height in feet and inches. Check students answers to make sure they are realistic. 2. What can you observe about the heights of the ten people? Students should notice that there is a range of heights in humans. 3. Do you think height in humans is controlled by 2 alleles, as it is in pea plants? Explain your answer. No, height does not seem to be controlled by two alleles, as it is in pea plants. Height in humans can vary greatly and is not just found in tall and short phenotypes.

75 Section 4 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1.How many chromosomes would a sperm or an egg contain if either one resulted from the process of mitosis? 46 chromosomes 2.If a sperm containing 46 chromosomes fused with an egg containing 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would the resulting fertilized egg contain? Do you think this would create any problems in the developing embryo? = 92; a developing embryo would not survive if it contained 92 chromosomes. 3.In order to produce a fertilized egg with the appropriate number of chromosomes (46), how many chromosomes should each sperm and egg have? Sperm and egg should each have 23 chromosomes.

76 Section 5 Answers Interest Grabber Answers 1.In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and b being on the same chromosome? One (between A and B) 2.In how many places can crossing over result in genes A and c being on the same chromosome? Genes A and e? Two (between A and B and A and C); Four (between A and B, A and C, A and D, and A and E) 3.How does the distance between two genes on a chromosome affect the chances that crossing over will recombine those genes? The farther apart the genes are, the more likely they are to be recombined through crossing over.

77 End of Custom Shows This slide is intentionally blank.


Download ppt "Go to Section: Analyzing Inheritance Offspring resemble their parents. Offspring inherit genes for characteristics from their parents. To learn about inheritance,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google