Presentation on theme: "A Framework for Sustainability"— Presentation transcript:
1A Framework for Sustainability Northern Great Lakes Visitor CenterMarch 19, 2007
2JERRY HEMBD Northern Center for Community and Economic Development University of Wisconsin-SuperiorUniversity of Wisconsin-Extension
3Beginning Notes A work in progress Indicative rather than definitive Questions and discussion at the end
4Four Challenges Posed by the Transition to Sustainability We need more accurate models, metaphors, and measures to describe the human enterprise relative to the biosphere.It will require a marked improvement and creativity in the arts of citizenship and governance.The public’s discretion will need to be informed through greatly improved education.It will require learning how to recognize and solve divergent problems, which is to say a higher level of spiritual awareness.Source: David Orr. The Last Refuge: Patriotism, Politics, and the Environment in an Age of Terror. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004.
5The Three Waves of Community Economic Development Plus OneThree Waves Portion Derived from:Blakely, Edward J., and Bradshaw, Ted K. Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice. 3d ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2002.Drabenstott, Mark. “Rethinking Federal Policy for Regional Economic Development.” Economic Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (First Quarter 2006).Eberts, Randall W. “Overview of State and Local Economic Development Policies and Practice in the United States.” In Local Governance for Promoting Employment—Comparing the Performance of Japan and Seven Countries, pp Edited by Sylvain Giguere, Yoshio Higuchi, and the Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training. Tokyo, Japan: The Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training, 2005.Shaffer, Ron; Deller, Steve; and Marcouiller, Dave. “Rethinking Community Economic Development.” Economic Development Quarterly, February 2006.
6First Wave Industrial Recruiting 1950s to early 1980s DriverExport baseGoalAttract outside firmsStrategiesFinancial incentivesIndustrial parksKeys to successGovernment funds for subsidies and tax breaksIndustrial infrastructure
7Second Wave Cost Competition Early 1980s to early 1990s DriverEfficiency and scale economiesGoalRetention and expansion of existing firmsStrategiesReduce taxesDeregulationIndustry consolidation and cost cuttingKeys to successHealth of existing firmsTraining programsSocial and physical resources
8Third Wave Regional Competitiveness Early 1990s to present DriverInnovation and entrepreneurshipGoalEnhance regional resources to promote industrial clustersStrategiesEntrepreneurshipClustersBuilding regional collaborationKeys to successDistinct regional assets such asHuman capitalHigher educationAmenitiesCreative economyLeadership and development of quality environmentBridging economic and community development
9Paradigm Change Death by a thousand cuts Let a thousand flowers bloom Linear thinkingReductionismEconomic growthLet a thousand flowers bloomSystems thinkingSustainabilityEmergent properties
10Fourth or “New” Wave Sustainability Revolution and Paradigm Change Early 1980s and still evolving DriversSustainable development and systems thinkingGoalSustainabilityEmerging StrategiesEco-municipality movement (The Natural Step)LocalizationValuing ecosystem services (e.g., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)Sustainable agriculture and local food systemsSustainable tourismThe “triple bottom line” of businessEco-industrial development (industrial ecology)
11“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”IntergenerationalequitySource: World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. The Brundtland Report. Oxford University Press, 1987, p. 43.
12“It contains two key concepts: the concept of “needs,” in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.”IntragenerationalequityLimits
13Community Views and Contexts From Circles to Systems
14View of Community as Three Unconnected Circles “Silos” View
15View of Community As Three Interconnected Circles “Linkages” View
16Community Capitals Model Financial CapitalBuilt CapitalNatural CapitalPolitical CapitalHealthy Ecosystem Vital Economy Social Well-BeingCultural CapitalSocial CapitalHuman CapitalSource: Cornelia Butler Flora, North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2004
17View of Community as Three Concentric Circles “Systems” View
20Types of Systems – A Beginning Closed systemImports and exports energy only; matter circulates within the system the Earth approximates such a system energy flows through, material cycles within finite, nongrowingOpen systemTakes in and gives out both matter and energy the economy is such a system it can change in size
21The natural world is “the envelope that contains, sustains and provisions the economy.” Herman Daly
22Finite Global Ecosystem Growing Economic Subsystem Solar EnergyEnergySource FunctionsSink FunctionsResourcesFinite Global EcosystemWaste HeatRecycled MatterNatural Capital (Ecosystem)Manmade Capital (Economy)Growing Economic SubsystemWelfareEconomic serviceEcosystem serviceEmpty WorldSource: Daly, Herman. Ecological Economics. Island Press, 2004
23Major Categories of Ecosystem Services ProvisioningRegulatingCulturalSupportingSource: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Washington, DC: Island Press.
24“Life Support” Functions of Ecosystem Services FoodWaterPest controlFlood controlClimate regulationRecreation
25Ehrlich-Holdren “IPAT” Equation I = environmental impact of the economyP = population growingA = average material standard of living growing rapidly (consumption)T = throughput (resource consumption,pollution, and ecosystem impacts) per unit ofoutput technology term to compensate for P and AOriginal Source: Ehrlich, P., and Holdren, J“Impact of Population Growth.” Science 171:
39The Natural Step Resource Funnel Resource Availability and Ecosystem Ability to Provide Vital ServicesRaw materials, ecosystem services, declining integrity and capacity of natural systemsMargin for ActionSustainabilitySocietal Demand for ResourcesGrowth in population, resource requirements as affluence increases, increased demands as technology spreads.Source: Nattrass, Brian, and Altomare, Mary. The Natural Step for Business. New Society Publishers, 1999.
40The Four System Conditions for Sustainability In the sustainable society, nature is not subject to systematically increasing…concentrations of substances extracted from the Earth’s crust;concentrations of substances produced by society;degradation by physical means;and, in that society,4. human needs are met worldwide.
41The PP4SD DistinctionSustainability is a goal. It is the capacity for continuance into the long-term future.Sustainable development is the process of moving towards this ideal end-state. It is controversial because there is often disagreement on the best way to make progress - or even if we should try.
44Business Model Global Environment Risk and Opportunity Supply Chain OrganizationCustomer ChainInputsSuppliesOutputsProductRisk and Opportunity
45Sustainable Business Model Global EnvironmentSupply ChainOrganizationCustomer ChainInputsSuppliesOutputsProductsReduction in material and energy flowsSustainable Sourcing100% ConsumableRenewable sourcesBiodiversityFactor reductionWorld Business Council for Sustainable DevelopmentSafe edible outputsDesign for reuseReliable quality sources
47Spheres of Concern and Influence Sphere of concernSphere of influence
48Freshwater Ecosystems Provide: Water supplies for irrigation, industries, cities, and homes;Fish, waterfowl, mussels and other foods for people and wildlife;Water purification and filtration of pollutants;Flood mitigation;Drought mitigation;Groundwater recharge;Water storage;Provision of wildlife habitat and nursery grounds
49Freshwater Ecosystems Provide: Soil fertility maintenance;Nutrient delivery to deltas and estuariesDelivery of freshwater flows to maintain estuaries salinity balances;Aesthetic, cultural and spiritual values;Recreational opportunities; andConservation of biodiversity, which preserves resilience and options for the futureSOURCE: S. Postel, Liquid Assets: The Critical Need to Safeguard Freshwater Ecosystems (Washington, DC: Worldwatch Institute, 2005).
50Some Underlying Questions Time frameScale and throughputGrowth – developmentPopulation – consumptionEquity
51More and/or Better MORE Economic growth/development BETTER Community developmentDIFFERENT Sustainable development
52Concluding Notes Context matters The force (of a paradigm change) is with usEducation as a responsibilityTransformational educationEducation for sustainability and not education about the environmentContent and process
54‘Education as usual’ is no longer an option. Livelihood is about quality of life; living standard is about quantity of material possessions.Education aimed solely at raising living standards relates to concepts of employment, jobs and careers based on individualism and personal success. Education for livelihood is just the opposite. It is about relationships, mutuality, reciprocity, community, coherence, wholeness, and ecology.Most schools and universities are dominated by materialist and consumerist goals. They have taken on the mission of literacy instead of meaning, information instead of transformation, and training instead of learning. Modern-day educators have become servants of the economy and they are oblivious to the catastrophic consequences for the people and the planet.‘Education as usual’ is no longer an option.Quoted from: Satish Kumar, “Education for Sustainability.” Resurgence 226 (September/October 2004): 3.
55Northern Center for Community and Economic Development Jerry Hembd, DirectorUniversity of Wisconsin-Superior Belknap & Catlin, PO Box 2000 Superior, Wisconsin Phone:Fax: Website: