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Sustainable Cities Dr Andrew Tallon Department of Geography and Environmental Management, UWE.

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Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Cities Dr Andrew Tallon Department of Geography and Environmental Management, UWE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sustainable Cities Dr Andrew Tallon Department of Geography and Environmental Management, UWE

2 Outline of talk Introduction Introduction Sustainability and cities Sustainability and cities Definitions and components of sustainable cities Definitions and components of sustainable cities Compact versus dispersed cities Compact versus dispersed cities Case study: Beijing, China Case study: Beijing, China

3 Sustainability and cities 1.Cities as a threat to environment 2% world’s land surface; 50% world’s population; consume 75% world’s resources; generate majority of world’s waste and population 2% world’s land surface; 50% world’s population; consume 75% world’s resources; generate majority of world’s waste and population 2.Environment as a threat to cities Environmental problems generated by cities felt most severely within cities Environmental problems generated by cities felt most severely within cities 3.Impacts of environmental problems Environmental problems impact most severely upon most vulnerable groups Environmental problems impact most severely upon most vulnerable groups

4 Defining sustainability Brundtland (1987) ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’…but Brundtland (1987) ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’…but 1.What are ‘needs’ now? 1.What are ‘needs’ now? 2.What will ‘needs’ in future be? 2.What will ‘needs’ in future be? 3.Why should people care about future needs? 3.Why should people care about future needs? 4.‘Needs’ not absolute (developed and developing world) 4.‘Needs’ not absolute (developed and developing world)

5 Characteristics of a sustainable city Physical properties Physical properties Provisions of the city Provisions of the city Environmental and ecological conditions Environmental and ecological conditions Socio-economic conditions Socio-economic conditions Visual-formal quality Visual-formal quality

6 Definition ‘[a city that] enables all its citizens to meet their own needs and to enhance their well-being without damaging the natural world or endangering the living conditions of other people, now or in the future’ (Giradet, 2003: 9) ‘[a city that] enables all its citizens to meet their own needs and to enhance their well-being without damaging the natural world or endangering the living conditions of other people, now or in the future’ (Giradet, 2003: 9)

7 The ‘compact city’ Supposed advantages of compact city Conservation: farmland, rural ecosystems, biodiversity Conservation: farmland, rural ecosystems, biodiversity Reduced need for cars/fuel consumption Reduced need for cars/fuel consumption Public transport, walking, cycling Public transport, walking, cycling Efficient use of energy for heating; reduced urban heat island Efficient use of energy for heating; reduced urban heat island Access to services/facilities Access to services/facilities Efficient utility/infrastructure provision Efficient utility/infrastructure provision Urban regeneration in mixed-use neighbourhoods Urban regeneration in mixed-use neighbourhoods ‘Community’; ‘liveable’ ‘Community’; ‘liveable’ Greater social equality Greater social equality High density urban living High density urban living

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9 The ‘dispersed city’ Problems of decentralised urban forms Extensive consumption of land Extensive consumption of land High rates of storm water pollution High rates of storm water pollution High rates of water consumption High rates of water consumption Increased fuel consumption Increased fuel consumption High rates of energy consumption High rates of energy consumption Low rates of waste water recycling Low rates of waste water recycling Failure to accommodate extensive or efficient public transport Failure to accommodate extensive or efficient public transport

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11 Critique of the compact city Unpractical: impossible to halt suburbanisation process Unpractical: impossible to halt suburbanisation process Unrealistic: planning limited in its power Unrealistic: planning limited in its power Undesirable: people do not want to live in ever denser neighbourhoods Undesirable: people do not want to live in ever denser neighbourhoods

12 Case study: Beijing, China Population: 9m (1980); 19.6m (2010); 6 million migrants Population: 9m (1980); 19.6m (2010); 6 million migrants Rapid industrialisation policy since 1970s Rapid industrialisation policy since 1970s Land and property market from 1980s Land and property market from 1980s Rapid economic growth: average 18% Rapid economic growth: average 18% Service sector dominant since 1990s (retail, real estate, business services, science and technology) Service sector dominant since 1990s (retail, real estate, business services, science and technology)

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16 Beijing: urban sustainability challenges Strong growth and change from low-end manufacturing to service-oriented economy Strong growth and change from low-end manufacturing to service-oriented economy Increase in population, production, consumption, mobility (largest consumer of cars) Increase in population, production, consumption, mobility (largest consumer of cars) Population 19.6m (forecast 18m by 2020) Population 19.6m (forecast 18m by 2020) Pressure on jobs, housing, transport, welfare Pressure on jobs, housing, transport, welfare Urban poverty Urban poverty Air pollution, fresh water shortage, insufficient waste treatment Air pollution, fresh water shortage, insufficient waste treatment

17 Beijing: urban sustainability challenges Climate change; reduction in rain Climate change; reduction in rain Shift in focus from public welfare to private sector Shift in focus from public welfare to private sector Over-reliance on export; dependence on FDI Over-reliance on export; dependence on FDI Housing, transport pressures in centre (4.8m motor vehicles; x10 since 1990) Housing, transport pressures in centre (4.8m motor vehicles; x10 since 1990) Disappearing heritage (Hutong) Disappearing heritage (Hutong) Lack of clear, coherent, systematic development Lack of clear, coherent, systematic development

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29 Beijing: policy responses Economic clusters for high-end services Economic clusters for high-end services Multi-centres (e.g. Olympic Park) Multi-centres (e.g. Olympic Park) Sustainable development strategy Sustainable development strategy Traffic management (restricted car driving; lottery for licence; public transport; road development) Traffic management (restricted car driving; lottery for licence; public transport; road development) Aim: world city status Aim: world city status

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