3References1Crane and Campbell (1994). The Mango. Univ. Florida, IFAS, Fact Sheet HS-2.2Pernezny and Marlatt (1993. Common diseases of Mango in Florida. Univ. Florida, IFAS, PP-23.
4Mango has been cultivated in India for 4,000 years 10th century?1861BC1800s - Spanish16th centuryCommon mango from Bangladesh, NE India (in the evergreen tracts of the valley of Assam), and in MyanmarProbably domesticated several millenia ago in IndiaTwo centers of domestication1. Monembryonic - from India2. Polyembryonic - “Saigon” area = Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, southern Vietnam, Myanmar, other parts of IndoChinap37-40, The Mango, Litz (ed.), 1997Portuguese
13Vegetative Structure Tree Large trees, 9 to up to 30 m Canopy trees of Tropical ForestsTrees dispersed in wildDeep tap rootLong-lived (300 years old)3
14Vegetative Structure Leaves The leaves are simple. The length and breadth varies from 12 to 45 cm and 2 to 12 cm, respectively.Leathery in texture.3
15Vegetative Structure Roots Effective root system of an 18 year old mango tree may observe a 1.2 m depth with lateral spread as far as 7.5 m.3
16Flowers Inflorescence - Flowers Terminal paniclesUp to 4,000 flowersFlowersMost maleFew hermaphroditicInsect pollinatedFlies, thripsAbility to set fruit related to # hermaphroditic flowersFlower over 4-6 weeks4
17Flowers Small amounts of pollen are produced in mango. the mango is self-fertile but cross-pollination increases fruit set.4
18Alexander, 1986. The Mango in Australia, CSIRO. FlowersAlexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO.4
20Fruits The fruit is a, fleshy drupe. It varies considerably in size, shape, colour, presence of fibre, flavour, taste and several other characters.4
21Health benefits and Economic Importance: 1 Mangos are rich in vitamins A, B and C and potassium.2Mangos are a good for our daily diets.3Mangos are high in fibre but low in calories4Used in making baby foods.5Bark used as fuel
22Adaptation Temperature Limitations - Flowers/fruit killed below 4 C- Cool temp (5 C) during flowering decrease set- Below -1 C damage young trees- Below -3 C damage established treesVery high temperatures may cause fruit sun burningBest growth between C
23Adaptation Excessive rains during flowering Reduce fruit set Adapted to areaswith distinctdry seasonAnthracnoseBacterial blackspotFruit fliesExcessive rainduring fruitingFor good floralinitiation a dryperiod of 3-4months desirableBest productionin dry areaswith irrigationFor good floralinitiation a dryperiod of 3-4months desirableBest productionin dry areaswith irrigationFor good floralinitiation a dryperiod of 3-4months desirableBest productionin dry areaswith irrigation
24Adaptation Best soils Sensitive to saline and sodic soils - Deep, well drained, fertile, loam, high OM- pH 6.0 to 7.0Sensitive to saline and sodic soils
25Adaptation Poor pollination, flower/fruit drop if dry wind - Leaf rub Windbreaks used to minimize wind damage such as:-- Limb breakagePoor pollination,flower/fruit drop if dry wind- Leaf rub
26Dietary value, per 100 gram edible portion: Water (%) Calories Protein (%) Fat (%) Carbohydrates (%) Crude Fiber (%)Vitamin A (IU) Thiamin, B1 (mg) Riboflavin, B2 (mg) Niacin (mg) Vitamic C (mg) Calcium (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Iron (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg)
27Indian Type Highly colored fruit Susceptible to Many with red blushYellow to orange ground colorSusceptible toAnthracnoseMildewStrong flavor (hints of turpentine)Monoembryonic
28Indochinese Type Poorly colored Resistant Fruit shape Pale green/yellowNo red blushResistantAnthracnoseMildewFruit shapeOften cylindrical or flattenedLack strong aromatic flavorsMost are less acidicPolyembryonic
29Mono vs Poly EmbryonicAlexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO.
31Mono vs Poly Embryonic Polyembryonic Monoembryonic IndoChinese race Indian raceSexualVariable from seedBreeding implicationsPolyembryonicIndoChinese raceAsexualTrue from seedZygotic is suppressedAlexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO.
32Florida developed Mango Varieties Indian Types with Red Blush First Important Commercial Variety in FloridaHadenMulgobaSeedling selectionsCapt. HadenCoconut Grove,FL1910Thick skinDominated the Florida for 25 yearsReplacedS to anthracnoseInconsistent productionInternal breakdownJune to July
33Florida developed Mango Varieties Indian Types with Red Blush Two Main Mango Varieties in Florida KeittTommy AtkinsSeedling selectionsDiscoverer’s nameMade in Florida1920s and 1939Thick skinsShip wellSome R to anthracnoseProductiveJune to JulyAugust to early October
34Florida developed Mango Varieties Indian Types with Red Blush Used Commercially throughout the AmericasKeittHadenKentTommy AtkinsJune to JulyJune to JulyJuly to AugustAugust to early OctoberSusceptible to Anthracnose
35Asia Uses Different Varieties MulgobaCarabaoManilaNam Doc MaiThailandIndia??PhilippinesVarieties from SE Asia are frequently longer and flatter than Indian types
36Propagation Seed:- Vegetative - Monoembryonic varieties:- Viable for 80 – 100daysCultivate as soon aspossible- RootstocksScions ifpolyembryonicVegetative - Monoembryonic varieties:-- Approach Grafting- 4 years to full production
37Production Pruning varies Spacing 10 x 10 M Standard trees 6 x 6 M Dwarf treesPruning variesOpen center with frequent tipping to induce more terminals
38Fertilization Zn deficiency corrected with Zinc sulphate Heavy N application cancause Soft NoseCorrected withSoil applicationof CaNO3,CaSO4,CaCO3Mango can usually absorb adequate nutrients from fertile soil
39Forcing FloweringCessation of vegetative growth needed to induce vegetative to reproductive transformation- Water stress- Cold periodInduction of early floweringReduce irrigation toinduce water stress- Foliar applications of- KNO3 (2 - 8%, 1 or2 times)- NH4NO3 (1-4%, 1or 2 times)
40Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloesporioides Most important disease in FloridaAttacksFowers, young fruitsLeaves, young twigsBlack sunken irregular lesionsCausing leaf spottingFruit stainingFruit rot.
41Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloesporioides Most important disease in FloridaAttacksFlowers, young fruitsLeaves, young twigsBlack sunken irregular lesionsCausing leaf spottingFruit stainingFruit rot
42Anthracnose Spread and Control Spread by rainsControlled by weekly Cu sprays- From panicle appearance until fruitset.- Follow with mid May & mid June Cusprays until harvest .
43Harvesting - by hand First harvest in 4th year - Remove fruit first 3 years- Fruit set < 1%Fruit development perioddaysHarvest over 6-8 week period- Bloom over 6-8 week period
44Harvesting N latitudes - begins in April Pole harvesting Peak in summer monthsPole harvestingWater bath for latex
45Marketing Perishable - Quality problem - Necessity to harvest immature - Need more rapid shipping- Lowest storage temperature 12 C- Below 10 C chilling injuryHeat treatment for fruit flies