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Mango Production Prof. Dr. Mohamed S.S. El-Boray Head of Pomology Dept. Fac. Of Agric., Mansoura Univ.

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Presentation on theme: "Mango Production Prof. Dr. Mohamed S.S. El-Boray Head of Pomology Dept. Fac. Of Agric., Mansoura Univ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mango Production Prof. Dr. Mohamed S.S. El-Boray Head of Pomology Dept. Fac. Of Agric., Mansoura Univ.

2 Mango Family Anacardiaceae Family Anacardiaceae GenusMangifera GenusMangifera Speciesindica Speciesindica Common Names: Mango, Mangot, Manga, Mangou. Common Names: Mango, Mangot, Manga, Mangou.

3 References 1 Crane and Campbell (1994). The Mango. Univ. Florida, IFAS, Fact Sheet HS-2. Crane and Campbell (1994). The Mango. Univ. Florida, IFAS, Fact Sheet HS-2. 2 Pernezny and Marlatt (1993. Common diseases of Mango in Florida. Univ. Florida, IFAS, PP-23. Pernezny and Marlatt (1993. Common diseases of Mango in Florida. Univ. Florida, IFAS, PP-23.

4 Mango has been cultivated in India for 4,000 years BC 10th century? 16th century Portuguese 1800s - Spanish 1861

5 Table 1.. Worldwide mango availability Exporting country JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec Brazil Colombia Ecuador Guatemala Haiti India Israel Ivory coast Mexico Nicaragua Pakistan Peru Philippines South Africa USA Venezuela Egypt

6 Tropical Fruit Production Banana Mango Papaya (1000s MT) (1000s MT) FAOSTAT database,

7 Mango Production in the World FAOSTAT database,

8 12% World Production of Mango (1000 MT) Africa Americas Asia Total FAOSTAT database, % 79%

9 Total (1000 MT) World Production of Mango Mexico (1,517), Brazil (621), Haiti (253 India (11,100), China (3,276), Thailand (1,678), Pakistan (1,021), Philippines (873), Indonesia (854) Nigeria (730), Egypt (317), Madagascar (210), Congo (209) Africa Asia America FAOSTAT database,

10 Mango Per Capita Production in the World FAOSTAT database,

11 Africa 7.2 Asia 8.0 Americas 9.5 World Yields of Mango (MT/ha) FAOSTAT database,

12 Mango Yield in the World FAOSTAT database,

13 Vegetative Structure Tree Tree Large trees, 9 to up to 30 m Large trees, 9 to up to 30 m Canopy trees of Tropical Forests Canopy trees of Tropical Forests Trees dispersed in wild Trees dispersed in wild Deep tap root Deep tap root Long-lived (300 years old) Long-lived (300 years old)

14 Vegetative Structure Leaves Leaves The leaves are simple. The leaves are simple. The length and breadth varies from 12 to 45 cm and 2 to 12 cm, respectively. The length and breadth varies from 12 to 45 cm and 2 to 12 cm, respectively. Leathery in texture. Leathery in texture.

15 Vegetative Structure Roots Roots Effective root system of an 18 year old mango tree may observe a 1.2 m depth with lateral spread as far as 7.5 m. Effective root system of an 18 year old mango tree may observe a 1.2 m depth with lateral spread as far as 7.5 m.

16 Flowers Inflorescence - Inflorescence - Terminal panicles Terminal panicles Up to 4,000 flowers Up to 4,000 flowers Flowers Flowers Most male Most male Few hermaphroditic Few hermaphroditic Insect pollinated Insect pollinated Flies, thrips Flies, thrips Ability to set fruit related to # hermaphroditic flowers Ability to set fruit related to # hermaphroditic flowers Flower over 4-6 weeks Flower over 4-6 weeks

17 Flowers Small amounts of pollen are produced in mango. Small amounts of pollen are produced in mango. the mango is self- fertile but cross- pollination increases fruit set. the mango is self- fertile but cross- pollination increases fruit set.

18 Flowers Alexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO. Alexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO.

19 Only a few fruit set per panicle Drupes

20 Fruits The fruit is a, fleshy drupe. The fruit is a, fleshy drupe. It varies considerably in size, shape, colour, presence of fibre, flavour, taste and several other characters. It varies considerably in size, shape, colour, presence of fibre, flavour, taste and several other characters.

21 Health benefits and Economic and Economic Importance : Importance : 1 Mangos are rich in vitamins A, B and C and potassium. Mangos are rich in vitamins A, B and C and potassium. 2 Mangos are a good for our daily diets. Mangos are a good for our daily diets. 3 Mangos are high in fibre but low in calories 4 Used in making baby foods. 5 Bark used as fuel Bark used as fuel

22 Adaptation Temperature Limitations Very high temperatures may cause fruit sun burning - Flowers/fruit killed below 4 C - Cool temp (5 C) during flowering decrease set - Below -1 C damage young trees - Below -3 C damage established trees - Flowers/fruit killed below 4 C - Cool temp (5 C) during flowering decrease set - Below -1 C damage young trees - Below -3 C damage established trees Best growth between C

23 Adaptation Excessive rains during flowering Reduce fruit set Adapted to areas Adapted to areas with distinct with distinct dry season For good floral For good floral initiation a dry period of 3-4 months desirable Best production Best production in dry areas in dry areas with irrigation For good floral For good floral initiation a dry period of 3-4 months desirable Best production Best production in dry areas in dry areas with irrigation For good floral For good floral initiation a dry period of 3-4 months desirable Best production Best production in dry areas in dry areas with irrigation Anthracnose Anthracnose Bacterial black Bacterial black spot spot Fruit flies Fruit flies Excessive rain Excessive rain during fruiting during fruiting

24 Adaptatio n Best soils - Deep, well drained, fertile, loam, high OM - pH 6.0 to 7.0 Sensitive to saline and sodic soils Sensitive to saline and sodic soils

25 Adaptatio n Windbreaks used to minimize wind damage such as:- Windbreaks used to minimize wind damage such as:- - Limb breakage - Poor pollination, - flower/fruit drop if dry wind - Leaf rub

26 Dietary value, per 100 gram edible portion: Water (%) Calories Protein (%) Fat (%) Carbohydrates (%) Crude Fiber (%) Water (%) Calories Protein (%) Fat (%) Carbohydrates (%) Crude Fiber (%) Vitamin A (IU) Thiamin, B1 (mg) Riboflavin, B2 (mg) Niacin (mg) Vitamic C (mg) Calcium (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Iron (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Vitamin A (IU) Thiamin, B1 (mg) Riboflavin, B2 (mg) Niacin (mg) Vitamic C (mg) Calcium (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Iron (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg)

27 Indian Type Highly colored fruit Highly colored fruit Many with red blush Many with red blush Yellow to orange ground color Yellow to orange ground color Susceptible to Susceptible to Anthracnose Anthracnose Mildew Mildew Strong flavor (hints of turpentine) Strong flavor (hints of turpentine) Monoembryonic Monoembryonic

28 Indochinese Type Poorly colored Poorly colored Pale green/yellow Pale green/yellow No red blush No red blush Resistant Resistant Anthracnose Anthracnose Mildew Mildew Fruit shape Fruit shape Often cylindrical or flattened Often cylindrical or flattened Lack strong aromatic flavors Lack strong aromatic flavors Most are less acidic Most are less acidic Polyembryonic Polyembryonic

29 Mono vs Poly Embryonic Alexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO.

30 Propagation

31 Mono vs Poly Embryonic Monoembryonic Monoembryonic Indian race Indian race Sexual Sexual Variable from seed Variable from seed Breeding implications Breeding implications Polyembryonic Polyembryonic IndoChinese race Asexual True from seed Zygotic is suppressed Alexander, The Mango in Australia, CSIRO.

32 Florida developed Mango Varieties Indian Types with Red Blush First Important Commercial Variety in Florida Haden June to July Seedling selections Seedling selections Capt. Haden Capt. Haden Coconut Grove,FL Coconut Grove,FL Thick skin Thick skin Dominated the Florida for 25 years Dominated the Florida for 25 years Replaced Replaced S to anthracnose S to anthracnose Inconsistent production Inconsistent production Internal breakdown Internal breakdown Mulgoba

33 Florida developed Mango Varieties Indian Types with Red Blush Two Main Mango Varieties in Florida Tommy Atkins Keitt June to JulyAugust to early October Seedling selections Seedling selections Discoverers name Discoverers name Made in Florida Made in Florida 1920s and s and 1939 Thick skins Thick skins Ship well Ship well Some R to anthracnose Some R to anthracnose Productive Productive

34 Florida developed Mango Varieties Indian Types with Red Blush Used Commercially throughout the Americas Tommy Atkins Keitt June to July August to early October HadenKent June to July July to August Susceptible to Anthracnose

35 Asia Uses Different Varieties CarabaoNam Doc Mai India Thailand ManilaMulgoba ??Philippines Varieties from SE Asia are frequently longer and flatter than Indian types

36 Propagation Seed:- - Viable for 80 – 100 days days - Cultivate as soon as possible possible - Rootstocks - Scions if polyembryonic polyembryonicSeed:- - Viable for 80 – 100 days days - Cultivate as soon as possible possible - Rootstocks - Scions if polyembryonic polyembryonic Vegetative - Monoembryonic varieties:- - Approach Grafting - 4 years to full production Vegetative - Monoembryonic varieties:- - Approach Grafting - 4 years to full production

37 Production Spacing 10 x 10 M Standard trees 6 x 6 M Dwarf trees Pruning varies Pruning varies Open center with frequent tipping to induce more terminals

38 Fertilization Heavy N application can application can cause Soft Nose cause Soft Nose Corrected with Soil application of CaNO3, CaSO4, CaCO3 CaCO3 Mango can usually absorb adequate nutrients from fertile soil Mango can usually absorb adequate nutrients from fertile soil Zn deficiency corrected with Zinc sulphate

39 Forcing Flowering Cessation of vegetative growth needed to induce vegetative to reproductive transformation - Water stress - Cold period Induction of early flowering -Reduce irrigation to induce water stress induce water stress - Foliar applications of - KNO3 (2 - 8%, 1 or - KNO3 (2 - 8%, 1 or 2 times) 2 times) - NH4NO3 (1- 4%, 1 - NH4NO3 (1- 4%, 1 or 2 times) or 2 times)

40 Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloesporioides Most important disease in Florida Most important disease in Florida Attacks Attacks Fowers, young fruits Fowers, young fruits Leaves, young twigs Leaves, young twigs Black sunken irregular lesions Black sunken irregular lesions Causing leaf spotting Causing leaf spotting Fruit staining Fruit staining Fruit rot. Fruit rot.

41 Anthracnose Colletotrichum gloesporioides Most important disease in Florida Most important disease in Florida Attacks Attacks Flowers, young fruits Flowers, young fruits Leaves, young twigs Leaves, young twigs Black sunken irregular lesions Black sunken irregular lesions Causing leaf spotting Causing leaf spotting Fruit staining Fruit staining Fruit rot Fruit rot

42 Anthracnose Spread and Control Spread by rains Spread by rains Controlled by weekly Cu sprays Controlled by weekly Cu sprays - From panicle appearance until fruit - From panicle appearance until fruit set. set. - Follow with mid May & mid June Cu - Follow with mid May & mid June Cu sprays until harvest. sprays until harvest.

43 Harvesting - by hand First harvest in 4th year - Remove fruit first 3 years - Remove fruit first 3 years - Fruit set < 1% - Fruit set < 1% Fruit development period days days Harvest over 6-8 week period - Bloom over 6-8 week period - Bloom over 6-8 week period

44 Harvesting N latitudes - begins in April N latitudes - begins in April Peak in summer months Peak in summer months Pole harvesting Pole harvesting Water bath for latex Water bath for latex

45 Marketing Perishable - Quality problem Perishable - Quality problem - Necessity to harvest immature - Necessity to harvest immature - Need more rapid shipping - Need more rapid shipping - Lowest storage temperature 12 C - Lowest storage temperature 12 C - Below 10 C chilling injury - Below 10 C chilling injury Heat treatment for fruit flies Heat treatment for fruit flies

46 Any Questions about Mango?

47


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