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1 Rosemary Ross Johnston University of Technology Sydney.

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1 1 Rosemary Ross Johnston University of Technology Sydney

2 Characteristics of learning futures Perception and skills in using, adapting and growing existing knowledge Perception and skills in using, adapting and growing existing knowledge Interdisciplinary and multimodal carrying and transferring of knowledge and ideas Interdisciplinary and multimodal carrying and transferring of knowledge and ideas Critical reflection on self and others Critical reflection on self and others Cultural awareness and understandings of difference Cultural awareness and understandings of difference Multimodal literacy skills: critical literacy, imaginative literacy, visual literacy Multimodal literacy skills: critical literacy, imaginative literacy, visual literacy Personal resilience, ethics and citizenship Personal resilience, ethics and citizenship

3 Ideas of Knowledge as story – narratives expressed in multiple modes, texts, and media; as story – narratives expressed in multiple modes, texts, and media; as ecology – webs relating humans to internal and external environments, including technology; as ecology – webs relating humans to internal and external environments, including technology; as genealogy – ways of relating human presents to common and/or uncommon pasts. as genealogy – ways of relating human presents to common and/or uncommon pasts. The young of the birds are fed with flowers and fishbones but the young of the humans are fed with words. (Samoa ) The young of the birds are fed with flowers and fishbones but the young of the humans are fed with words. (Samoa )

4 The Power of Words and Language Language articulates and produces identity Language articulates and produces identity Language articulates what it is to be: many races believe that words produced reality. Language articulates what it is to be: many races believe that words produced reality. J. L. Austin: theory of the performative (How to Do Things With Words 1962), argues the integral relationship of speech to act. In a performative utterance the word brings about the act which constitutes the reality, eg I now pronounce you man and wife. J. L. Austin: theory of the performative (How to Do Things With Words 1962), argues the integral relationship of speech to act. In a performative utterance the word brings about the act which constitutes the reality, eg I now pronounce you man and wife. Judith Butler extends this idea into a theory she applies to gender Judith Butler extends this idea into a theory she applies to gender Thus Its a girl! is an utterance that begins a process of girling (Gender Trouble 1990). Thus Its a girl! is an utterance that begins a process of girling (Gender Trouble 1990).

5 The Power of Reading and Literature Literature is the expression of the human need to communicate, as readers and/or writers, as speakers and/or listeners, using or transgressing particular conventions and narrative modes. Literature is the expression of the human need to communicate, as readers and/or writers, as speakers and/or listeners, using or transgressing particular conventions and narrative modes. Books are sites of the cultures deepest moral questionings (Parker 1998, p.15) Books are sites of the cultures deepest moral questionings (Parker 1998, p.15) They express a sense of the density of our lives (Murdoch 1983, pp.43-9). Eg Fox (Wild and Brooks) tells a dense story: of courage (I am blind in one eye but life is still good, Dog tells Magpie), of community (Fly, Dog. Fly! I will be your missing eye and you will be my wings), of moral dilemmas (fear, jealousy, loyalty, possessiveness). They express a sense of the density of our lives (Murdoch 1983, pp.43-9). Eg Fox (Wild and Brooks) tells a dense story: of courage (I am blind in one eye but life is still good, Dog tells Magpie), of community (Fly, Dog. Fly! I will be your missing eye and you will be my wings), of moral dilemmas (fear, jealousy, loyalty, possessiveness).

6 Moral awareness of the other Language gives shape and organisation to thought Language gives shape and organisation to thought Thinking is the most profound aspect of literacy Thinking is the most profound aspect of literacy Thoughts impact and subtly change the self who thinks them Eliot Thoughts impact and subtly change the self who thinks them Eliot I think therefore I am (Descartes) I think therefore I am (Descartes) I am with others, therefore I am (Ubunto) I am with others, therefore I am (Ubunto) Literature, thinking and the literacy of the imagination Literature, thinking and the literacy of the imagination

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8 Critical literacy reading with a knowledge of language and how it works reading with a knowledge of language and how it works reading with a growing appreciation of the many possible contexts for text reading with a growing appreciation of the many possible contexts for text reading with an awareness of where the text positions a reader reading with an awareness of where the text positions a reader reading with a perception of the ideas and values and attitudes (and motivations) that constitute the implicit framework of the text and out of which texts are generated reading with a perception of the ideas and values and attitudes (and motivations) that constitute the implicit framework of the text and out of which texts are generated

9 Critical literacy includes visual literacyreading and understanding social signsand cultural literacy. Cultural literacy Cultural literacy knowledge of the world (cultural schemata) knowledge of the world (cultural schemata) knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of diverse ways of being knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of diverse ways of being awareness of the enclosures of our own thinking awareness of the enclosures of our own thinking openness to different ways of doing things, different sorts of formats, different ideas about beginnings and endings, different ideas even about what language should be, and different ideas about literacy openness to different ways of doing things, different sorts of formats, different ideas about beginnings and endings, different ideas even about what language should be, and different ideas about literacy

10 Critical literacy Knowing readers and writers (access to purposeful models), and speakers (exposure to the speaking of others beyond their immediate world and also classroom response), and listeners (listening with both inner and outer ears: listening is more than hearing ). Knowing readers and writers (access to purposeful models), and speakers (exposure to the speaking of others beyond their immediate world and also classroom response), and listeners (listening with both inner and outer ears: listening is more than hearing ).

11 Definitions Visual literacy pertains to an idea of language, inspired by an age of visual communicative modes (film, television, DVD, video and then digital cameras, computer screens and interfaces, mobile technologies) that use other marks and signs, very often alongside the conventional marks and signs that are the letters of the alphabet, to communicate story, to describe character, to convey movement, to indicate time and place, to give shape to an abstraction, to outline a plan, to develop a thesis, to explain an idea. Visual literacy pertains to an idea of language, inspired by an age of visual communicative modes (film, television, DVD, video and then digital cameras, computer screens and interfaces, mobile technologies) that use other marks and signs, very often alongside the conventional marks and signs that are the letters of the alphabet, to communicate story, to describe character, to convey movement, to indicate time and place, to give shape to an abstraction, to outline a plan, to develop a thesis, to explain an idea.

12 Changing ideas of text and language Two minor revolutions: Two minor revolutions: 1) text has been expanded to include any communication involving language 2) language has expanded to include anything that is communicative: graphics and illustrations, images and moving images, in all sorts of combinations and often including audio. (Some stress the centrality of the image, rather than the centrality of writing, in the communication process).

13 Focalisation the way we see things and the way we hear things the way we see things and the way we hear things authors may write from the perspectives and ideas of a particular character, or from the position of omniscient (all-knowing) narrator authors may write from the perspectives and ideas of a particular character, or from the position of omniscient (all-knowing) narrator illustrators shows us how things appear from a particular angle. illustrators shows us how things appear from a particular angle. whose eyes, whose ears? whose eyes, whose ears? relationship to agency relationship to agency

14 Critical literacy Critical literacy reading (seeing) assumptions and attitudes hiding in unexpected places reading (seeing) assumptions and attitudes hiding in unexpected places Eg. Robinson Crusoe (Daniel Defoe), The Wind in the Willows (Kenneth Grahame) Eg. Robinson Crusoe (Daniel Defoe), The Wind in the Willows (Kenneth Grahame) - assumptions that indigenous people need to be civilised - assumptions that indigenous people need to be civilised - assumptions that the wilderness needs to be tamed and frontiers of civilisation extended - assumptions that the wilderness needs to be tamed and frontiers of civilisation extended - the historical context of patriotic conquest - the historical context of patriotic conquest - the importance of power and empire - the importance of power and empire - class structure - class structure

15 Window, Island in My Garden, Paddock, The Story of Rosy Dock, The Hidden Forest, As I Grew Older, Enora and the Black Crane, The Burnt Stick, V is for Vanishing, Way Home, The Rabbits, The Red Tree. Window, Island in My Garden, Paddock, The Story of Rosy Dock, The Hidden Forest, As I Grew Older, Enora and the Black Crane, The Burnt Stick, V is for Vanishing, Way Home, The Rabbits, The Red Tree. - cultural assumptions that the wilderness must be protected against the onset of civilisation - cultural assumptions that the wilderness must be protected against the onset of civilisation - the significance of the natural environment in sustainable futures - the significance of the natural environment in sustainable futures - equal rights of indigenous peoples to maintain their culture. - equal rights of indigenous peoples to maintain their culture.

16 Reader response We can also examine any text through a lens that helps us to understand how we are reading it, what attitudes we are bringing to our reading, and how this may influence our reaction to characters and story. We can also examine any text through a lens that helps us to understand how we are reading it, what attitudes we are bringing to our reading, and how this may influence our reaction to characters and story. Reading is a visual literacy. Reading is a visual literacy.

17 Subjectivity sense of Iness in a world of others who are also Is sense of Iness in a world of others who are also Is psychoanalytical term pertaining to significance of sense of self, of being an I who is separate and individual from all the other Is in the world. psychoanalytical term pertaining to significance of sense of self, of being an I who is separate and individual from all the other Is in the world.

18 18 Wild Girl, Wild Boy by David Almond ELAINEWild … Girl… Wild … Boy … Thats the title. Thats the title. Once … there …was … a … girl … called … Elaine … Ah. Yes. Phew. Thats the start … She … lived …with … She holds up the paper and looks at her words. ELAINELook at it! Look at it! Im so stupid. No, Im not! I have problems … writing. Something to do with the way I … see or something.

19 19 THE CHORUS OF VOICES - Have you seen the way she just stares out the window with her gob hanging open? - Like shes catching flies. Like a little kid. - Like a baby.- And the state of her books? - Like a spiders crawled over them. - Like somebodys chucked spaghetti on them. Hey, Elaine, has somebody chucked spaghetti on your books? Hey, Elaine, has somebody chucked spaghetti on your books? - No, thats her writing, man! - Now leave Elaine alone. Oh dear, Elaine. Were going to have to do better than that, arent we? - Concentrate, girl!-Keep your mind on your work. - Elaine has severe difficulty in maintaining concentration on the task in hand.

20 The Power of Words –Poetic Images The woods are lovely, dark and deep, The woods are lovely, dark and deep, And I have promises to keep, And I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep And miles to go before I sleep And miles to go before I sleep Stopping by Woods on A Snowy Evening (Robert Frost) And miles to go before I sleep Stopping by Woods on A Snowy Evening (Robert Frost) Give me my Romeo, and when I shall die Give me my Romeo, and when I shall die Take him and cut him out in little stars, Take him and cut him out in little stars, And he will make the face of heaven so fine And he will make the face of heaven so fine That all the world will be in love with night That all the world will be in love with night And pay no worship to the garish sun. And pay no worship to the garish sun. (Act 3, scene ii) (Act 3, scene ii)

21 The Fisherman and the Theefyspray by Paul Jennings and Jane Tanner Deep in the still cold shadows the last Deep in the still cold shadows the last Theefyspray looked out of her lonely lair. Theefyspray looked out of her lonely lair. There was not one other like her now. Not in the heavens. Or the hills. There was not one other like her now. Not in the heavens. Or the hills. Or the deeps of the hushed green sea. Or the deeps of the hushed green sea.

22 The Power of Words Social Issues and Advocacy Words have creative power Words have creative power Words build powerful STORY Words build powerful STORY Words – organised into narratives both oral and written – have changed the world Words – organised into narratives both oral and written – have changed the world Speeches of Churchill, Martin Luther King, J. F. Kennedy Speeches of Churchill, Martin Luther King, J. F. Kennedy Political documents: declarations of rights Political documents: declarations of rights Indigenous writing, black American writing, womens writing Indigenous writing, black American writing, womens writing

23 Cassius to Brutus in Shakespeares Julius Caesar Cassius to Brutus in Shakespeares Julius Caesar Know you how much the people may be movedBy that which he will utter? Know you how much the people may be movedBy that which he will utter? Literature as persuasive communication Literature as persuasive communication against the social issue of slavery against the social issue of slavery Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Toms Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Toms Cabin, against unjust social systems against unjust social systems Waris Dirie, Desert Flower Waris Dirie, Desert Flower against disadvantage and exploitation against disadvantage and exploitation Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist

24 Literature and social issues Homeless children (compare to Dickens) Homeless children (compare to Dickens) Way Home (Hathorn and Rogers) Way Home (Hathorn and Rogers) Story, character, voice, images, themes of an uncaring city Story, character, voice, images, themes of an uncaring city Boat children Boat children Onion Tears (Diana Kidd) Onion Tears (Diana Kidd) Only the Heart (Brian Caswell and David Phu an Chiem) Only the Heart (Brian Caswell and David Phu an Chiem) Boy Overboard (Morris Gleitzman) Boy Overboard (Morris Gleitzman)

25 Onion Tears by Diana Kidd (1989), Story of the Vietnamese child, Nam-Huong. It was just a little boat with hundreds of people in it with scared eyes and sad eyes and eyes drowned in tears – and Grandpa and me. Grandpa was squashed up close to me and he held my hand and put his arm around me when the waves leapt at us across the deck like snarling tigers. It was just a little boat with hundreds of people in it with scared eyes and sad eyes and eyes drowned in tears – and Grandpa and me. Grandpa was squashed up close to me and he held my hand and put his arm around me when the waves leapt at us across the deck like snarling tigers. Sometimes, when we were too wet and cold to sleep, Grandpa told me stories for hours and hours until his voice got lost in the wind and the waves … Sometimes, when we were too wet and cold to sleep, Grandpa told me stories for hours and hours until his voice got lost in the wind and the waves … …[O]ne day I opened my eyes, there was only the sea screaming around us. …[O]ne day I opened my eyes, there was only the sea screaming around us. And Grandpas hand was limp in mine. And Grandpas hand was limp in mine.

26 And for a moment I was on the boat again, and the water was gold around the silent bodies I saw floating there – floating on the saffron sea, staring at the saffron sun – and I saw my Grandpa there, silently floating away. And for a moment I was on the boat again, and the water was gold around the silent bodies I saw floating there – floating on the saffron sea, staring at the saffron sun – and I saw my Grandpa there, silently floating away. GRANDPA! GRANDPA! I screamed … GRANDPA! GRANDPA! I screamed … And all the world was crying – even the wind and the waves and the gulls that circled above him. And all the world was crying – even the wind and the waves and the gulls that circled above him. (Diana Kidd, Onion Tears 1989) (Diana Kidd, Onion Tears 1989)

27 (Brian Caswell and David Phu an Chiem, Only the Heart 1997) Then she lays the open knife on the bed next to him and moves across to the mirror, smearing a last message in blood across the glass, and without looking back she walks from the cabin. Then she lays the open knife on the bed next to him and moves across to the mirror, smearing a last message in blood across the glass, and without looking back she walks from the cabin. At the railing she pauses for just a moment to look out across the sea. It is calm. Green-blue and patient. And welcoming, as she opens her arms to it, and plunges from the deck in a graceful arching dive … At the railing she pauses for just a moment to look out across the sea. It is calm. Green-blue and patient. And welcoming, as she opens her arms to it, and plunges from the deck in a graceful arching dive … The sea is calm – as calm as such a creature can ever be – and she rides on its back, lulled by the movement of the swell, unaware of the exact moment when the waves close over her. Aware only of the silence and the way the sky looks green and suddenly far away. She is weightless. She is free. The sea is calm – as calm as such a creature can ever be – and she rides on its back, lulled by the movement of the swell, unaware of the exact moment when the waves close over her. Aware only of the silence and the way the sky looks green and suddenly far away. She is weightless. She is free. She is smiling as she opens herself to the waters and breathes in eternity. She is smiling as she opens herself to the waters and breathes in eternity.

28 Environmentalism A long tradition of artistic greenies A long tradition of artistic greenies Picture books – with their unique combination/synergy of verbal and visual – are ideally suited to urging an ideological stance of environmentalism Picture books – with their unique combination/synergy of verbal and visual – are ideally suited to urging an ideological stance of environmentalism Change in images of the wild, the beast Change in images of the wild, the beast Jeannie Bakers oeuvre Jeannie Bakers oeuvre

29 History Books written in a present about a past Books written in a present about a past History is always reconstructed, organised, mediated History is always reconstructed, organised, mediated Such organisation will reflect contemporary ideas, issues and concerns Such organisation will reflect contemporary ideas, issues and concerns My Place (Wheatley and Rawlins 1988) My Place (Wheatley and Rawlins 1988)

30 Indigenous cultures have traditionally passed on knowledge, wisdom, and life-learning through telling stories and describing ecologies and genealogies not only in the language of words, but in the languages of rock art and body painting, singing and songlines and song cycles, drama and dance. These are story arts, multimodal communications. Indigenous cultures have traditionally passed on knowledge, wisdom, and life-learning through telling stories and describing ecologies and genealogies not only in the language of words, but in the languages of rock art and body painting, singing and songlines and song cycles, drama and dance. These are story arts, multimodal communications.

31 Two-way learning The Papunya School Book of Country and History, produced by the children and staff of Papunya School, in Central Australia: At Papunya School, ngurra – country – is at the centre of our learning. It is part of everything we need to know …. But as well as learning in this traditional way, we can also find out about our country and our history by putting some of the pieces of the story into a book. The Papunya School Book of Country and History, produced by the children and staff of Papunya School, in Central Australia: At Papunya School, ngurra – country – is at the centre of our learning. It is part of everything we need to know …. But as well as learning in this traditional way, we can also find out about our country and our history by putting some of the pieces of the story into a book. Tjulkura and Anangu teachers work together, using totemic honey ant imagery to connect the two knowledge systems: We want to see the children learning both ways and coming out bright orange and yellow together, like honey ants. (45) Tjulkura and Anangu teachers work together, using totemic honey ant imagery to connect the two knowledge systems: We want to see the children learning both ways and coming out bright orange and yellow together, like honey ants. (45)

32 FANTASY Ideas of time: time shift, fictional futures Ideas of time: time shift, fictional futures Ideas of alternative worlds (The Lord of the Rings, by Tolkien) Ideas of alternative worlds (The Lord of the Rings, by Tolkien) Projections, predictions and warnings Projections, predictions and warnings Primary and secondary worlds (Narnia series, by C.S Lewis) Primary and secondary worlds (Narnia series, by C.S Lewis) Themes of good versus evil Themes of good versus evil Like history, fantasy may relate to ideological concerns of the present Like history, fantasy may relate to ideological concerns of the present The magic threshold The magic threshold

33 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix Didactic impulse is to represent power of good and the very real insidious and seductive power of evil Didactic impulse is to represent power of good and the very real insidious and seductive power of evil The power of relationships to transform lives (Dedication to family who make my world magical) The power of relationships to transform lives (Dedication to family who make my world magical) The power of imagination The power of imagination The potential of the extraordinary in the everyday The potential of the extraordinary in the everyday The battle for minds, to control thoughts of others; capacity of Dark Lord to invade thoughts The battle for minds, to control thoughts of others; capacity of Dark Lord to invade thoughts The rapid escalation of a climate of suspicion and repression of ideological difference The rapid escalation of a climate of suspicion and repression of ideological difference The seduction of power The seduction of power

34 Ideas about death: a tattered black curtain or veil, someone standing behind Ideas about death: a tattered black curtain or veil, someone standing behind Ideas about brains, thoughts, Time Ideas about brains, thoughts, Time The mind is a complex and many- layered thing The mind is a complex and many- layered thing The redemptive power of love, sacrifice and blood (p.736) The redemptive power of love, sacrifice and blood (p.736) Symbol of phoenix = resurrection and rebirth (Clement of Rome) Symbol of phoenix = resurrection and rebirth (Clement of Rome)

35 You see, your daemons a wonderful friend and companion when youre young, but at the age we call puberty, the age youre coming to very soon, darling, daemons bring all sort of troublesome thoughts and feelings, and thats what lets Dust in. A quick little operation before that, and youre never troubled again. And your daemon stays with you, only … just not connected. Like a … like a wonderful pet, if you like. The best pet in the world! Wouldnt you like that? You see, your daemons a wonderful friend and companion when youre young, but at the age we call puberty, the age youre coming to very soon, darling, daemons bring all sort of troublesome thoughts and feelings, and thats what lets Dust in. A quick little operation before that, and youre never troubled again. And your daemon stays with you, only … just not connected. Like a … like a wonderful pet, if you like. The best pet in the world! Wouldnt you like that? Oh, the wicked liar, oh, the shameless untruths she was telling. And even if Lyra hadnt known them to be lies … she would have hated it with a furious passion. Her dear soul, the darling companion of her heart, to be cut away and reduced to a little trotting pet? (Pullman ) Oh, the wicked liar, oh, the shameless untruths she was telling. And even if Lyra hadnt known them to be lies … she would have hated it with a furious passion. Her dear soul, the darling companion of her heart, to be cut away and reduced to a little trotting pet? (Pullman )


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