2What Symbols Stand ForA symbol is often an ordinary object, event, person, or animal to which we have attached extraordinary meaning and significance.
3We use a rectangle of dyed cloth to symbolize a country. FlagsWe use a rectangle of dyed cloth to symbolize a country.
4Common SightsWe use a picture of a skull and crossbones to symbolize poison or danger.We send red roses as a symbol of love.
5Where Do Symbols Come From? Symbols can be inherited or inventedThe most familiar symbols have been inherited, meaning, they have been handed down over time
6“Inherited”For example: no one really knows who first thought of using a lion as a symbol of power, courage and dominationOnce these qualities were associated with the animal, images of lions appeared on flags, banners, coats of arms and castle wallsThe lion became a public symbol that shows up in art and literature, even today!Can you think of some examples of how lions are used as a symbol of courage and power?
7People through out history have endowed ordinary objects with meanings far beyond their simple meaning,Five linked rings symbolize the OlympicsA crown symbolizes royaltyAn olive branch symbolizes peace
9InventedWriters often take a new object, character, or event and make it the embodiment of some human concern.Some invented symbols in literature have become so widely known that they often have gained the status of public symbols.
10“Invented”Peter Pan is a symbol for eternal childhood.
11Why Create Symbols?You may ask why writers don’t just come right out and say what they mean.Symbols allow writers to suggest layers and layers of meaning-possibilities that a simple, literal statement could never convey.A symbol is like a pebble cast into a pond: It sends out ever widening ripples of meaning
12You Know It!In the short story Marigolds, a poor woman has no beauty in her world except the dazzling marigolds she plants around her ramshackle house. The children in the story, who are as poor as the old woman, hate the flowers and all that they stand for, In a moment of thoughtless hatred and violence, one girl destroys all the bright flowers.
13What do you think the marigolds stand for? You Know It!While the flowers are REAL flowers in the story, we also get the sense that they symbolize something else, something larger than the flowers themselves…What do you think the marigolds stand for?
14Well…Some readers might think they symbolize hope and beauty and that the children are so angry about their poverty that they want to destroy anything that expresses the beauty of another world.
15MarigoldsOther readers will have different ideas about what the marigolds stand for, but most will agree that the marigolds work on more than just a literal level in the story.
16SymbolsYou may not be able to articulate fully what a certain symbol means, but you will always find that the symbol, if it s powerful and well chosen, will speak forcefully to your emotions and to your imagination.You may also find that you will remember and think about the symbol long after you have forgotten other parts.
17Allegory: Split Level Stories An allegory is a story in which characters, settings and actions stand for something beyond themselves.In some types of allegories, the characters and setting represent abstract ideas of moral qualities.In other types, characters and situations stand for historical figures and events.
18An allegory can be read on one level for its literal or straightforward meaning And on a second level for its symbolic, or allegorical, meaning.Allegories are often intended to teach a moral lesson or to make a comment about goodness and vice.
19Some of the most famous allegories feature characters and places whose names describe what they symbolize.
20In an old English play called Everyman, the main character is named Everyman (he stands for exactly what his name indicates).One day, Everyman is summoned by Death to give an accounting of his lifeEveryman asks his friends Fellowship, Beauty, Strength and Good Deeds to go with him to tell Death that he has led a good life.
21Only Good Deeds stays with him until the end The allegory in Everyman doesn’t get in the way of a very good storyIn fact Everyman written in the 1400s, is still revived in theaters today and it still gets good reviews!
22What Are Some More Allegories? Here we have a picture of a serpent (snake) and an apple.What are some things that come to mind when you see this image?Often times, a serpent or snake is used to symbolize temptation or trouble. This allegory stems from its Biblical reference.What does the apple stand for?
23Symbolism vs. AllegoryA symbol is a word, place, character, or object that means something beyond what it is on a literal level.An allegory involves using many interconnected symbols or allegorical figures in such as way that in nearly every element of the narrative has a meaning beyond the literal level, i.e., everything in the narrative is a symbol that relates to other symbols within the story.
24Symbols and Allegory in stories we have read The Most Dangerous Game: Zaroff: Allegory for ________________ The Necklace: Necklace: Symbol for ________________