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Invasive Weeds on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie Sasha Shaw Education Specialist King County Noxious Weed Program.

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Presentation on theme: "Invasive Weeds on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie Sasha Shaw Education Specialist King County Noxious Weed Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 Invasive Weeds on the Middle Fork Snoqualmie Sasha Shaw Education Specialist King County Noxious Weed Program

2 Agenda Weed Definitions Weed Definitions Middle Fork Weed Priorities Middle Fork Weed Priorities Priority Weeds Present in the Watershed Priority Weeds Present in the Watershed Class A and B Noxious Weeds Class A and B Noxious Weeds Other Priority Invasive Weeds Other Priority Invasive Weeds Other Widespread Weeds and Lower Priority Plants Present but not Surveyed Other Widespread Weeds and Lower Priority Plants Present but not Surveyed Noxious Weeds Threatening to Invade Noxious Weeds Threatening to Invade

3 What is an Invasive Weed? Invasive knotweed is one of the toughest plants to control and damages some of the highest quality habitats Introduced / non-native Introduced / non-native Ability to out-compete native plants Ability to out-compete native plants Lack of predators or natural controls Lack of predators or natural controls Ability to modify local ecology Ability to modify local ecology Aggressive ability to reproduce Aggressive ability to reproduce

4 What is a Noxious Weed? Non-native plant that impacts agriculture, wildlife, human health, land values or natural resources Non-native plant that impacts agriculture, wildlife, human health, land values or natural resources Defined and regulated by state law (RCW 17.10) Defined and regulated by state law (RCW 17.10) county lists are chosen from the state list county lists are chosen from the state list regulated in parts of the state regulated in parts of the state where they have limited distribution

5 What are the Weed Classes? Class A Weeds – new invaders, control required statewide, still a chance to eradicate Class A Weeds – new invaders, control required statewide, still a chance to eradicate Class B and C Designates – control required in King County, still have a chance to stop them from getting established Class B and C Designates – control required in King County, still have a chance to stop them from getting established Non-Designates and Weeds of Concern – widespread invasive weeds in King County, control not required but definitely a good idea whenever possible! Non-Designates and Weeds of Concern – widespread invasive weeds in King County, control not required but definitely a good idea whenever possible!

6 Middle Fork Snoqualmie Weed Priorities King County Noxious Weeds King County Noxious Weeds Class As, B-designates, and C-selects Class As, B-designates, and C-selects Non-designates and Weeds of Concern that are limited in distribution and still controllable Non-designates and Weeds of Concern that are limited in distribution and still controllable Non-native species newly introduced or not previously reported in the valley Non-native species newly introduced or not previously reported in the valley Excluded from the survey: species that are already pervasive in the valley and unlikely to be controlled valley-wide Excluded from the survey: species that are already pervasive in the valley and unlikely to be controlled valley-wide

7 Middle Fork Snoqualmie Weed Surveys Completed 2005 and 2006 Roadsides (10 ft in on both sides) Roadsides (10 ft in on both sides) Farther in where disturbance or weed infestations were observed Farther in where disturbance or weed infestations were observed Disturbed Sites Disturbed Sites Quarries, cut banks, logging landings Quarries, cut banks, logging landings Camping sites, pullouts, trailheads, parking lots Camping sites, pullouts, trailheads, parking lots Open talus fields, stream crossings Open talus fields, stream crossings River by raft and river bars on foot River by raft and river bars on foot

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9 Priority Weeds Identified in the Middle Fork Valley Himalayan and Evergreen Blackberry Himalayan and Evergreen Blackberry Bohemian Knotweed Bohemian Knotweed Scotch Broom Scotch Broom Reed Canary Grass Reed Canary Grass English Holly English Holly English Ivy English Ivy Butterfly Bush Butterfly Bush Tansy Ragwort* Tansy Ragwort* Yellow Hawkweed* Yellow Hawkweed* Canada Thistle Canada Thistle Hedge Bindweed Hedge Bindweed Common Tansy Common Tansy Yellow Archangel Yellow Archangel Yellow Flag Iris Yellow Flag Iris European Mountain-Ash European Mountain-Ash Spotted Knapweed* Spotted Knapweed* Bittersweet Nightshade Bittersweet Nightshade Poison-hemlock Poison-hemlock Listed in order of total area found. Weeds with * are designated for control in King County.

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11 Class A and B Noxious Weeds (Please notify the county noxious weed program if these are found)

12 Tansy Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) First year rosettes have round- lobed leaves, reddish stems Flowering stems are 1-6 ft tall with clusters of yellow, daisy flowers Flowers June to October. Seeds are viable for 10 to 16 years. Class B Noxious Weed

13 Tansy Ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)

14 Yellow Hawkweed ( Hieracium caespitosum) Flowers: Yellow, in tight clusters Leaves: Hairy on top and bottom, glandular and stellate hairs Roots: stoloniferous, rhizomatous

15 Non-native Hawkweeds Stiff hairs on stems, leaves Stiff hairs on stems, leaves Basal rosette of spatula shaped leaves Basal rosette of spatula shaped leaves Small flowers, often in tight clusters near tops of stems Small flowers, often in tight clusters near tops of stems Flower buds and bracts covered with black hairs Flower buds and bracts covered with black hairs Stolons Stolons Black hairs on flower buds

16 Yellow Hawkweed (Hieracium caespitosum) Rosettes: March-April Rosettes: March-April Bolting: April- early June Bolting: April- early June Flowers: May- July Flowers: May- July Seeding: July to September Seeding: July to September

17 Native White Hawkweed: (Hieracium albiflorum)

18 Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) Grows feet tall, perennial Grows feet tall, perennial Pink to purple flowers, on the tips of stem branches Pink to purple flowers, on the tips of stem branches Floral bracts tipped with dark fringe Floral bracts tipped with dark fringe Bolting: April to July Bolting: April to July Flowering: May to October Flowering: May to October Seeding: August to October Seeding: August to October

19 Spotted Knapweed Closeups

20 Other Priority Invasive Weeds in the MF

21 Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus discolor)

22 Himalayan Blackberry ( Rubus armeniacus, R. discolor )

23 Evergreen Blackberry ( Rubus laciniatus )

24 Good Guy Look-Alike: Native Trailing Blackberry (Rubus ursinus)

25 Bohemian Knotweed (Polygonum bohemicum)

26 Hollow, upright, bamboo like stems often reddish or red-speckled

27 Typical stand of Bohemian knotweed

28 Japanese Knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)

29 Giant Knotweed (Polygonum sachalinense) Giant knotweed in early spring with last years dead stems Large leaves give giant knotweed its common name elephant ear bamboo

30 Bohemian knotweed hybrid with seeds

31 Knotweed rapidly spreads along rivers as fragments get moved by floods and grow into new clones downriver Knotweed Invasion on Rivers

32 Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius)

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34 Scotch broom removal with weed wrenches

35 Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii) Leaves gray green above and white and fuzzy on the underside, finely toothed on margins Can grow 5 to 8 feet in a single season

36 Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii) Butterfly bush has invaded along the Tolt River Seedlings thrive in open sandy soil

37 Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) Button-like flowers are clustered at top of plant Leaves are fern-like with sharply toothed edges and a strong odor

38 Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)

39 Bittersweet Nightshade (Solanum dulcamara)

40 Bittersweet Nightshade

41 Hedge Bindweed (Calystegia sepium)

42 Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)

43 Spreads by seed to new sites Spreads underground to form dense infestations in sunny fields University of Wisconsin

44 Native Thistles Cirsium brevistylum Cirsium edule

45 Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum) 6 to 10 feet tall in 2 nd year Stems round and hollow, with purplish blotches Stems round and hollow, with purplish blotches Acutely toxic when ingested; causes skin irritation Acutely toxic when ingested; causes skin irritation Leaves ferny, parsley-like

46 Poison Hemlock

47 European Mountain-ash (Sorbus aucuparia)

48 Native Mountain-ash (Sorbus sitchensis)

49 English Holly (Ilex aquifolium) Tree 15 to 50 feet tall and 15 feet wide Tree 15 to 50 feet tall and 15 feet wide Bark smooth and gray Bark smooth and gray Leaves glossy, persistent, dark green, wavy and spiny Leaves glossy, persistent, dark green, wavy and spiny Flowers are small and white Flowers are small and white Berries are bright red or orange and found in small bundles like the flowers Berries are bright red or orange and found in small bundles like the flowers

50 English or Atlantic Ivy (Hedera hibernica, H. helix) Ivy leaves are evergreen, lobed, dull green, with light veins

51 English or Atlantic Ivy (Hedera hibernica, H. helix) mature ivy leaves are shiny green and not lobed mature ivy leaves are shiny green and not lobed umbrella-like clusters of greenish-white flowers in the fall umbrella-like clusters of greenish-white flowers in the fall black, berry-like fruit in winter, seeds mature in spring black, berry-like fruit in winter, seeds mature in spring

52 Yellow Archangel Lamiastrum galeobdolon (a.k.a. Lamium) Small yellow mint-type flowers in leaf axils Slivery markings on leaves of this popular garden plant make it easy to spot invading into shady forests

53 Yellow Archangel: Big Finn Hill Park

54 Yellow Flag Iris (Iris pseudacorus) Class C Noxious Weed – Control Not Required

55 Yellow Flag Iris (Iris pseudacorus) Young shoots Invading a river bank Class C Noxious Weed – Control Not Required

56 Loose leaf sheath Largeligule Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) Tall rhizomatous grass, 3 to 6 feet Tall rhizomatous grass, 3 to 6 feet Sturdy, hollow stems, sometimes reddish near top Sturdy, hollow stems, sometimes reddish near top Loose leaf sheath Loose leaf sheath Leaf blades flat, no hairs, to ¾ inch wide Leaf blades flat, no hairs, to ¾ inch wide Large ligule Large ligule Leaves come off stem at 45 degree angle Leaves come off stem at 45 degree angle

57 Reed Canarygrass Identification Flowers June-July Flowers June-July Flowers on 3 to 7 inch long clusters high above leaves Flowers on 3 to 7 inch long clusters high above leaves Flowers clusters are branched and compressed into a spike- type shape Flowers clusters are branched and compressed into a spike- type shape Reddish colored rhizome Reddish colored rhizome Forms dense stands, excluding other plants and filling in small waterways, blocking fish passage and increasing flooding Forms dense stands, excluding other plants and filling in small waterways, blocking fish passage and increasing flooding jlindsey/commanster

58 Other Common Weeds and Garden Escapees Present but not Surveyed (too pervasive for control or not of immediate concern) Bull Thistle Bull Thistle Common Foxglove Common Foxglove Herb Robert/Roberts Geranium Herb Robert/Roberts Geranium Common St. Johnswort Common St. Johnswort Oxeye Daisy Oxeye Daisy Creeping Buttercup Creeping Buttercup Hawksbeard, Hairy Cats Ear and Common Dandelion Hawksbeard, Hairy Cats Ear and Common Dandelion Other Weeds and Garden Escapees Other Weeds and Garden Escapees

59 Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) Large spines on stems, leaves and under the flower head

60 Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare)

61 Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)

62 Herb Robert (a.k.a. Stinky Bob) (Geranium robertianum) Shallow roots make this plant easy to pull but seeds germinate all season so repeat visits to the same location are needed.

63 Herb Robert (a.k.a. Stinky Bob)

64 Stinky Bob Invasion Forests near Skykomish are losing their native understory to stinky bob.

65 St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum)

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67 Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)

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69 Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens)

70 Tall Buttercup (Ranunculus acris)

71 Hawksbeard (Crepis capillaris)

72 Cats Ear or False Dandelion (Hypochaeris radicata)

73 Nipplewort (Lapsana communis)

74 Wall Lettuce (Lactuca muralis)

75 Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola) sanangelo.tamu.edu/agronomy

76 Woodland Groundsel (Senecio sylvaticus)

77 Curly Dock (Rumex crispus) Reddish or greenish flowers in a long, slender, branching cluster at the top of a stem bearing leaves with very wavy margins

78 Curly Dock (Rumex crispus)

79 Broadleaf Dock (Rumex obtusifolius) New foliage emerges from the crown, tightly rolled and erect. Can grow 3 to 4 feet tall and wide

80 Periwinkle (Vinca minor)

81 Russian Comfrey (Symphytum X uplandicum or S. peregrinum)

82 Russian Comfrey

83 Native Plant Look Alike: Tall Bluebells (Mertensia paniculata)

84 Queen Annes Lace (Daucus carota)

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86 Burdock (Arctium minus)

87 Devils Beggartick (Bidens frondosa)

88 Creeping Woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata)

89 Noxious Weeds threatening to Invade (present nearby) Purple Loosestrife (wetlands, rivers in area) Purple Loosestrife (wetlands, rivers in area) Garden Loosestrife (on Snoqualmie River) Garden Loosestrife (on Snoqualmie River) Policemans Helmet (garden sites) Policemans Helmet (garden sites) Gorse (forests, fields) Gorse (forests, fields) Orange Hawkweed (meadows, gardens, roads) Orange Hawkweed (meadows, gardens, roads) Common Hawkweed (roadsides) Common Hawkweed (roadsides) Sulfur Cinquefoil (roadsides) Sulfur Cinquefoil (roadsides) Dalmatian Toadflax (roadsides) Dalmatian Toadflax (roadsides) Yellow Toadflax (roads and trails) Yellow Toadflax (roads and trails) Old Mans Beard (forest edges, trails) Old Mans Beard (forest edges, trails)

90 Orange Hawkweed ( Hieracium aurantiacum) Flowers orange, in tight clusters Flowers orange, in tight clusters Stems leafless with black hairs Stems leafless with black hairs From a few inches to 2 feet tall From a few inches to 2 feet tall Reproduces by seed and runners Reproduces by seed and runners Bolts: May-June Bolts: May-June Flowers: Late May to Sep/Oct Flowers: Late May to Sep/Oct Seeds: Late June to Fall Seeds: Late June to Fall Class B Noxious Weed

91 Tall Hawkweed (Hieracium piloselloides) Class C Noxious Weed – Control Required

92 Common Hawkweed (Hieracium lachenalii) Leaves coarsely toothed Leaves coarsely toothed Leaves larger at base and smaller up the stem Leaves larger at base and smaller up the stem Flower heads more loosely clustered than yellow hawkweed Flower heads more loosely clustered than yellow hawkweed No stolons No stolons Bolts in May Bolts in May Flowering May to August Flowering May to August Hieracium_species Class C Noxious Weed – Control Required

93 Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Key characteristics: perennial rhizomatous emergent with showy magenta flower spikes stems are square and branched leaves opposite, long and narrow up to 2.5 million tiny seeds/plant flowers July and August Class B Noxious Weed

94 Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Class B Noxious Weed

95 Garden Loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris) Sepals have distinct orange margins Class B Noxious Weed Yellow, primrose-like flowers clustered near top of the plant

96 Garden Loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris) Class B Noxious Weed

97 Policemans Helmet (Impatiens glandulifera) Annual with fleshy, reddish stems, 3-10 ft tall, flowers resemble English policemans helmet, vary in color from white to dark pink-purple Class B Noxious Weed

98 Policemans Helmet (Impatiens glandulifera) Can grow to 10 feet tall in one season Often found invading along creeks Class B Noxious Weed Emerges: April to May Flowers: Late May to September Seeds: August to October

99 Sulfur Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta) Class B Noxious Weed

100 Dalmatian Toadflax (Linaria dalmatica) Leaves bluish-green with waxy coating, heart-shaped Leaves bluish-green with waxy coating, heart-shaped Flowers bright yellow tinged with orange, like snapdragon flowers Flowers bright yellow tinged with orange, like snapdragon flowers Bolts: April- June Bolts: April- June Flowers: May-Sept Flowers: May-Sept Seeds: Aug- Sept Seeds: Aug- Sept Class B Noxious Weed

101 Yellow Toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) Perennial, 1 to 2.5 feet tall Flowers yellow, smaller than Dalmatian flowers May to September Leaves: Small, narrow, linear, pale green Class C Noxious Weed – Control Not Required

102 Gorse (Ulex europaeus) Budding: Feb-March Budding: Feb-March Flowers: March-May Flowers: March-May Seeds: June-July Seeds: June-July Class B Noxious Weed

103 Gorse invading a King County forest

104 Old Mans Beard (Clematis vitalba) Class C Noxious Weed – Control Not Required

105 Old Mans Beard or Wild Clematis Old Mans Beard covering trees at Magnuson Park Old Mans Beard on trees in Ravenna Park Class C Noxious Weed – Control Not Required

106 King County Noxious Weed Control Program Website Weed Photo Page: Search by Common Name or Latin Name Click thumbnail picture of plant

107 Sasha Shaw King County Noxious Weed Program 201 South Jackson St, Suite 600 Seattle, WA


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