Presentation on theme: "Weed Identification Made Easy"— Presentation transcript:
1Weed Identification Made Easy Chelan County Noxious Weed DepartmentJulie Sanderson, Field Supervisor
2Many options for killing weeds Weeds can be controlled with herbicides, with biological control agents such as insects or pathogens, with cultural methods such as grazing or changes in water or fertilizer treatments, and by mechanical methods such as hoeing, hand pulling or cultivation.
3Always use Integrated Weed Management Integrated Weed Management involves using any or all of the methods of weed control based on best management practices for the land that is infested with weeds. Control methods include prevention, mechanical control, cultural control, chemical control and biological control.
4It’s The Law (RCW 17-10) Stand-Alone Or Combination Of These Methods: PreventionMechanicalBiologicalChemicalCultural“Control” meansto prevent allseed productionWashington State Law RCW makes it the land owners’ responsibility to control noxious weeds on their property. Any of these methods can be used, but they must result in control, defined as the prevention of seed production and spread of the weeds from the owners property.
5Use the right chemical for the job BeforeAfterIf herbicide is part of your integrated weed management plan, it is important to know which plant you are spraying, and which herbicide will be effective for controlling it.Bohemian knotweed
6WEED IDENTIFICATIONThe first step to integrated weed management is knowing which weed you are trying to control!Begin your weed control plan by identifying all of the weeds that you are trying to control so that you know the names of the weeds that you are trying to control.
7What’s in a name? Information! Plant family, specific Latin name, common nameLife cycle – Is it annual, perennial, biennial?Toxicity information – Can I touch it, what if my dog eats it? Is it allelopathic?Herbicide use- Is it listed on the label, is there resistance?Noxious weed status- Is it listed in my state or county?(This one can be translated directly from the slide text)
8Know your enemy! Why learn to identify weeds? What information do you need?Knowing the right name allows access to information about the specific plant that needs to be controlled.How does the biology of the plant affect control options?What is the most effective chemical for control?Is the plant listed on the herbicide label?Is there any herbicide resistance known for the plant?(This one can be translated directly from the slide text)Yellow starthistleCentaurea solstitialis
9Look alike weeds may require different control methods What’s in a name?Look alike weeds may require different control methodsDo you know whichname belongs toeach plant?Yellow starthistlePerennial sowthistlePrickly lettuceRush skeletonweed(This one can be translated directly from the slide text)
10Look alike weeds may require different control methods What’s in a name?Look alike weeds may require different control methodsYellow starthistlePerennial sowthistlePrickly lettuceRush skeletonweedYellow starthistle is a Class B Designate plant that is mandatory to control in Chelan County. It is an annual, produces abundant seed, and can be toxic to horses.
11Look alike weeds may require different control methods What’s in a name?Look alike weeds may require different control methodsYellow starthistlePerennial sowthistlePrickly lettuceRush skeletonweedPerennial sowthistle is a Class C noxious weed, not selected for mandatory control in Chelan County, but which can become very invasive on some sites. It can be difficult to control because of the stout roots and rhizomes.
12Look alike weeds may require different control methods What’s in a name?Look alike weeds may require different control methodsYellow starthistlePerennial sowthistlePrickly lettuceRush skeletonweedPrickly lettuce is an annual nuisance weed. It is not on the noxious weed list. It can be controlled by mowing, pulling, or with contact herbicides.
13Look alike weeds may require different control methods What’s in a name?Look alike weeds may require different control methodsYellow starthistlePerennial sowthistlePrickly lettuceRush skeletonweedRush skeletonweed is a Class B Designate noxious weed requiring mandatory control. It has deep perennial rhizomes, pulling and cutting can promote more rosettes to emerge and increase patch size. Persistent chemical control works best for this one.
14The 8 Great Things to Notice About Plants Plant Character Analysis1. Plant Habit2. Leaf Arrangement3. Leaf Shape and Texture4. Inflorescence TypeFlower structureFruit TypeRoots and underground structuresOther ObservationsTo learn to identify the weeds that you work with, it is important learn the plant characteristics, or “the 8 great things to notice about plants”. Looking at these characteristics is very useful when looking at plants that look alike.
151. Plant HabitThis is one of the first things a person may notice about a plant. Habit is the general appearance, characteristic form or mode of growth of a plant. Simply stated it is how the whole plant looks when it is growing. For example a plant can be erect, meaning that the stems stand straight up. Or a plant can be creeping, the stems are flat on the ground.
162. Leaf arrangementAlways look at how the leaves of the plant are arranged in relation to each other. They can be alternating step-like up the stem, or clustered at the base of the stem. Some plants have pairs of leaves attached on opposite sides of the stem at each node.
173. Leaf shape and textureAlso pay close attention to the shape and texture of the leaf. There are many shapes possible, from long and narrow to almost round in outline. The texture could be waxy, smooth and glossy, or with various kinds of hair, from course and prickly to short and velvety.
184. Inflorescence Type axillary raceme solitary panicle spike head The inflorescence is the structure that contains the flowers. This picture uses circles to represent each flower. The arrangement of the flowers is characteristic for each species and many families. For example the umbel arrangement is found in the carrot family species such as poison hemlock. The head type of inflorescence is found in many weedy species including dandelion, ox-eye daisy and the knapweeds.headumbelcorymbIllustrations by Suzanne McCullough from the Botany Handbook of Florida, 1965 ORH 89-3, Florida Department of AgricultureAnd Consumer Services, and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
195. Flower StructureThe arrangement and number of flower parts are important characteristics to observe when trying to identify a plant. For example, plants in the mustard family usually have 4 petals, 4 sepals and 6 stamens.
206. Fruit Types Legume Follicle If a plant is already mature when you find it, you can look at the fruit and seeds. The fruit may be a dry capsule that splits open to shed seeds, or a fleshy berry. All plants in the pea family have a legume fruit, which splits open like a pea pod to shed the seeds.FollicleIllustrations by Suzanne McCullough from the Botany Handbook of Florida, 1965 ORH 89-3, Florida Department of AgricultureAnd Consumer Services, and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
217. Roots and Underground structures Rhizomes and StolonsFibrousIt is a good idea to dig up some plants to see the roots when you are trying to identify a plant. Most descriptions of plants will contain information about the roots. Knowing what kid of roots a weed has can be useful information when making a control plan.Tap rootIllustrations by Suzanne McCullough from the Botany Handbook of Florida, 1965 ORH 89-3, Florida Department of AgricultureAnd Consumer Services, and the Florida Federation of Garden Clubs, Inc.
228. Other Observations Unusual odor Sticky texture Plant juice – milky, sticky, viscous, wateryOverall color – bright green, gray, yellowBracts, spines, thorns or hairsAssociated insectsSome other characteristics can be useful for plant identification, so make a note about odors, textures and color as well as any unusual thorns, spines or hairs. You may notice many insects all of the same type on a plant, these could be biological control agents.
23And how to tell them apart More look alike weedsAnd how to tell them apartThe following slides show some weeds that look similar and show what characteristics can be useful to identify each of them.
24Knapweeds, which one???Four different species of knapweeds that are common in Chelan County. How can we tell which is which?
25Look at the bracts Russian knapweed Diffuse knapweed All class B noxious weedsAn easy character to look at when the plants are flowering is the structure of the flower head bracts. For example, the diffuse knapweed bracts have a very sharp point on the end. Russian knapweed has a soft papery bract. Meadow and spotted knapweed bracts differ in the number, color and size of the appendages on the bracts.Meadow knapweedSpotted knapweed
26Big green brushy looking stuff? Kochia - Class BPigweeds (redroot and white)LambsquartersRussian thistleSeveral of our common weeds mature and have a generally round an highly branched or ‘bushy’ form. To tell these apart you may have to look at the flowers and the leaves.
27Look at the flowers kochia pigweed lambsquarters Russian thistle The flowers on all four of these plants are small, greenish and inconspicuous, but if you look at them closely, you can see that the flower structure is distinctly different for each one.lambsquartersRussian thistle
28Tumbleweeds – ready to roll. The rounded, highly branched habit of some weeds makes it easy for them to be blown long distances by the wind after the plant matures and the seeds are ready to drop off.
29Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) The term tumbleweed refers to any of several species that disperse seeds by tumbling:Russian thistleDiffuse knapweedKochiaTumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus)(This one can be translated directly from the slide text)
30So many thistles, so little time… Canada thistle**Bull thistle**Musk thistle**Scotch thistle** **most common thistles herePlumeless thistleSlenderflower thistleItalian thistleMilk thistleNative thistle (Cirsium undulatum)**Many people are concerned about controlling thistles. There are eight different species of thistles on the noxious weed list, and a few native thistles that occur in our area as well.
31Most common thistles Look at a combination of characters: Here are four of the most common thistles in this area. While many people know a thistle when they see one, they may not know which thistle it is. By looking at a combination of characters, the flowers, stems and leaf surfaces, you can learn to distinguish the different thistle species.Canada thistleBull thistleMusk thistleScotch thistleLook at a combination of characters:flowers, stems, and leaf surfaces.
32Canada thistle - Class C Canada thistle is a Class C noxious weed in Washington State. The combination of characters listed here can help you to identify this plantSmall flowers <1”, spineless bractsSmooth spineless stemGreen glossy leaves, not hairy, very spiny along marginsClass C noxious weed
33Bull thistle Larger flowers 1.5-2” with long spiny bracts Bull thistle is also a Class C noxious weed. Notice that the flower head is quite a bit larger, and there are fewer heads on each branch. The hairy leaf surface makes this plant easy to identify even in the rosette stage.Larger flowers 1.5-2” with long spiny bractsStem spiny, somewhat wingedLeaf surface hairyClass C noxious weed
34Musk thistle Flowers large 1.5-3”, broad spiny bracts, Musk thistle has the largest head of our weedy thistles. Notice the broad bracts under the flowers, resembling a small artichoke. The leaves are green and smooth, like Canada thistle, but the root is a strong tap root in musk thistle, which is different from the perennial rhizomes in Canada thistle.Flowers large 1.5-3”, broad spiny bracts,“artichoke –like’Stems spiny somewhat wingedLeaves green, not hairyClass B noxious weed
35Scotch thistle – Class B Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.orgBonnie Million, National Park Service, Bugwood.orgScotch thistle is a Class B noxious weed. It is a high priority to control this thistle in most of the state. Notice the strongly winged and spiny stems. Also the greyish green color is characteristic of this species.Flowers 1 -2”, narrow spiny bractsStem spiny, strongly wingedLeaves gray-green, with fine wooly hairClass B noxious weed
36Daisies, we love them, we love them not. Scentless mayweedOxeye daisyDaisies, we love them, we love them not.There are several weedy daisies that look very similar. But by looking closely at some of the leaf characteristics, you can tell them apart.Stinking mayweedEnglish daisy
37Daisies with finely divided leaves Stinking mayweedScentless mayweed – Class CStinking mayweed has leaves that are finely divided with short curved segments. Scentless mayweed, which is a Class C noxious weed also has finely divided leaves, but the segments are long, narrow and straight.
38Daisies with oval, toothed basal leaves English daisyOxeye daisy – Class CBoth of these daisies have oval leaves. Oxeye daisy, a Class C noxious weed has rounded teeth along the leaf margins, while English daisy has smoother leaf margins with only a few shallow lobes or teeth.
39Other Ways to Identify Weeds Use reference booksUse online resourcesAsk someone who knows weedsThis has been a brief introduction to the use of plant characteristics for identification of weedy species. There is a lot more information available on this topic in libraries and on the internet. Also, remember that it can be very useful to talk to other people who know plants in your area.
40Weed Identification Made Easy??? (Well…a little easier, I hope)Chelan County Noxious Weed DepartmentJulie Sanderson, Field Supervisor
41Thanks to Bugwood.org for the use of photos and figures: Image NumberCitatonJulia Scher, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.orgUSDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.orgCindy Roche, Bugwood.orgForest & Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.orgJoseph M. DiTomaso, University of California - Davis, Bugwood.orgJohn M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.orgRichard Old, XID Services, Inc., Bugwood.orgRobert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.orgBonnie Million, National Park Service, Bugwood.org24090Sara Rosenthal, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.orgSteve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org21042Eric Coombs, Oregon Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.orgMary Ellen (Mel) Harte, Bugwood.orgPeggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.orgDave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.orgLeslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org580002Loke T. Kok, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.orgDan Tenaglia, Missouriplants.com, Bugwood.orgRicky Layson, Ricky Layson Photography, Bugwood.org580013Montana Statewide Noxious Weed Awareness and Education Program Archive, Montana State University, Bugwood.orgCaleb Slemmons, University of Maine, Bugwood.orgMichael Shephard, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org