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Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Six Police Technology A Brief History of.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Six Police Technology A Brief History of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Six Police Technology A Brief History of Police Technology Police TechnologyPolice Technology

2 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Learning Objectives Explore the development of police technology against the backgrounds of the policing models – political, professional, and community based models Explore the development of police technology against the backgrounds of the policing models – political, professional, and community based models Expand understanding of tactical and strategic information by looking at how technology changed the nature of fingerprint evidence Expand understanding of tactical and strategic information by looking at how technology changed the nature of fingerprint evidence

3 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Learning Objectives Understand the difference between policy and procedure and look at how technology may impact policy and procedure Understand the difference between policy and procedure and look at how technology may impact policy and procedure Further explore fragmentation and the market-place. Further explore fragmentation and the market-place.

4 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Introduction Look at history of technology two ways: What happened and consequences of new technologies What happened and consequences of new technologies Following a specific piece of Following a specific piece of information that has been information that has been critical to solving crimes for critical to solving crimes for more than one hundred years more than one hundred years (fingerprinting) (fingerprinting)

5 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology in Time Most CJ scholars divide the history of American policing into three eras: Political Political Professional Professional Community Oriented Community Oriented

6 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Political Policing Era Most police forcespolice established in the late 19 th century consisted or men who had been appointed for limited terms by local Politicians. Patronage – an officers primary source of information came from the people who lived in the community or their beat Photograph provided by Cultural Tourism DC.

7 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Professional Policing Government and policing evolved out of the patronage system into a civil service system. Government and policing evolved out of the patronage system into a civil service system. Prized hierarchy, centralization rules, and standards became the professional policing model. Prized hierarchy, centralization rules, and standards became the professional policing model. Control of day-to-day operations from politics to professional police managers. Control of day-to-day operations from politics to professional police managers.police

8 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Technology impacting the model Through the 1950s and 1960s, the idea that policepolice supervisors and managers should police control the production of service began to take hold. Supervisors and managers began to count the numbers of calls for service an officer handled Supervisors and managers began to count the numbers of calls for service an officer handled Timed how fast he arrived at the scene of a call Timed how fast he arrived at the scene of a call

9 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster You get what you count... Officer were not walking the community any longer Officer were not walking the community any longer They were evaluated on the number of calls they handled and They were evaluated on the number of calls they handled and How fast they got to the call. How fast they got to the call.

10 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Incident Driven Policing Through the 1970s there continued to be a reliance on what was to be seen as incident-driven policing. The advent of the computer made it possible to organize and review this information on incidents and response. The development of only added to the police ability to handle incidents.police Photograph provided by Gary Allen, Dispatch Magazine

11 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Incident Driven Policing As officers judged on the number of calls they handled rose through the ranks, the concept of professionalism increased. As officers judged on the number of calls they handled rose through the ranks, the concept of professionalism increased. police managers did not rely on community input police managers did not rely on community input police The idea that the police were the professionals who knew best, responded quickly, and handled incidents became organizationally entrenched. The idea that the police were the professionals who knew best, responded quickly, and handled incidents became organizationally entrenched.police Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governors Office of Emergency Services

12 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster The professional model and the technology changed the relationship between the police and the community The professional model and the technology changed the relationship between the police and the communitypolice This introduced a new problem of the growing distance between police officers and the communities they served. This introduced a new problem of the growing distance between police officers and the communities they served.police Incident Driven Policing

13 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Community Oriented Policing Founded on two social science theories: Normative Sponsorship Theory – Most people are good. People will work together if the goal is within the normal standards of the community. Normative Sponsorship Theory – Most people are good. People will work together if the goal is within the normal standards of the community. Critical Social Theory – Looks at the way the community comes together to analyze a problem that is preventing the attainment of their goals or needs. Critical Social Theory – Looks at the way the community comes together to analyze a problem that is preventing the attainment of their goals or needs.

14 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Problem Oriented Policing Shares many of the same characteristics of community-oriented policing. Shares many of the same characteristics of community-oriented policing. Concentrates on situational crime prevention. Concentrates on situational crime prevention. Looks at the community of the problem. The Definition of community would shift as problems were solved (versus static geographic communities). Looks at the community of the problem. The Definition of community would shift as problems were solved (versus static geographic communities).

15 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Technologys Impact on Policing Style Political Model Professional Model Incident Driven Technology

16 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Changing the Value of Information The increasing ability to obtain, organize, analyze and recall information has increased its value The increasing ability to obtain, organize, analyze and recall information has increased its value

17 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Changing the Value of Information One of the earliest applications of science to criminal investigation is fingerprint classification. One of the earliest applications of science to criminal investigation is fingerprint classification. Visible – left by touching a substance before touching a surface (e.g., blood on a counter) Visible – left by touching a substance before touching a surface (e.g., blood on a counter) Latent – hidden fingerprints left behind by the natural oils from our hands. (Best obtained when surface is clean, dry, smooth and non- porous.) Latent – hidden fingerprints left behind by the natural oils from our hands. (Best obtained when surface is clean, dry, smooth and non- porous.)

18 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Changing the Value of Information At the beginning of the 20 th Century fingerprints were routinely taken from offenders and the cards stored. At the beginning of the 20 th Century fingerprints were routinely taken from offenders and the cards stored. At this time, for a match each print must be compared against millions of cards At this time, for a match each print must be compared against millions of cards

19 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Changing the Value of Information At first, systems of classification enable fingerprint specialist to narrow the search from millions of cards to thousands – but still a hand search and analysis At first, systems of classification enable fingerprint specialist to narrow the search from millions of cards to thousands – but still a hand search and analysis The computer enabled the automation of the process.

20 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Automated Fingerprint Identification System The process of analyzing fingerprints is dactylography. The process of analyzing fingerprints is dactylography. Software used sophisticated and complex algorithms to recognize and compare minutiae. However; Software used sophisticated and complex algorithms to recognize and compare minutiae. However; Computer processing speeds were slow Computer processing speeds were slow Hardware and software to store the information had not yet been developed Hardware and software to store the information had not yet been developed

21 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster National Crime Information Center NCIC organized in 1967 by the FBI to handle fingerprints cards and requests for comparison. NCIC organized in 1967 by the FBI to handle fingerprints cards and requests for comparison. Began to incorporate criminal histories and correlate them to offender fingerprint cards on file. Began to incorporate criminal histories and correlate them to offender fingerprint cards on file. Medium of transmission was U.S. mail and eventually fax. Medium of transmission was U.S. mail and eventually fax.

22 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Local agencies forged ahead developing their own applications similar to NCIC creating fragmentation Local agencies forged ahead developing their own applications similar to NCIC creating fragmentation AFIS technology began to be used routinely especially in the investigation of cold cases. AFIS technology began to be used routinely especially in the investigation of cold cases – the FBI launched IAFIS and made available nationwide the fingerprints of 33 million criminals – the FBI launched IAFIS and made available nationwide the fingerprints of 33 million criminals. Automated Fingerprint Identification System

23 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Automated Fingerprint Identification System Digital scanning – obtains an image on the fingerprint, examines and compares. Capacitance scanning – uses a charged coupled device (CCD) Capacitance scanning – uses a charged coupled device (CCD) Optical Scanning – light source illuminates the suspects fingertips Optical Scanning – light source illuminates the suspects fingertips Photograph provided by Cross Match Technologies, Inc.

24 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Differences are important for two reasons: Capacitance scanner does not contain the CCD and is more readily miniaturized Capacitance scanner does not contain the CCD and is more readily miniaturized Capacitance scanner is actually taking measurements and is not easily fooled. Capacitance scanner is actually taking measurements and is not easily fooled. Automated Fingerprint Identification System

25 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster NCIC 200 NCIC 2000 promises to take fingerprint technology into the field Photograph provided by Cross Match Technologies, Inc.

26 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Policy and Procedure Procedures are a set of instructions on how to do something. Procedures are a set of instructions on how to do something. Policy is a broad statement on how things should be done – how we want human beings to exercise judgment. Policy is a broad statement on how things should be done – how we want human beings to exercise judgment.

27 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Fragmentation The nature of United States Law enforcement has caused policies, procedures and technology to develop different from agency to agency.

28 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Fragmentation 17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies. 17,000 state and local law enforcement agencies. Different community expectations and standards Different community expectations and standards Difference equipment acquisitions according to size of budget Difference equipment acquisitions according to size of budget Expertise develops at different rates Expertise develops at different rates

29 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Fragmentation Fragmentation – policy, procedure and technology – causes problems whenever agencies must or should work together Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governors Office of Emergency Services

30 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Explore Military Books at Military BooksMilitary Books


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