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Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Eleven Police Technology Information Exchange.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Eleven Police Technology Information Exchange."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Chapter Eleven Police Technology Information Exchange

2 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Learning Objectives The value of information exchange between state, local, and federal agencies The value of information exchange between state, local, and federal agencies The issue of Interoperability The issue of Interoperability The various factors that make information exchange difficult The various factors that make information exchange difficult Some of the potential solutions to information exchange Some of the potential solutions to information exchange

3 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Introduction We will look at information exchange in two primary ways: The exchange of tactical information The exchange of tactical information The exchange of strategic information The exchange of strategic information

4 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Integration - Defined A completely integrated criminal justice system would be a network designed to provide each agency from the police to the courts, to the prison system, with the information it needs to make a decision. criminal justice systemcriminal justice system

5 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster The Importance of Integration Interoperability is the process of connecting different agencies or units with agencies using communication technologies so that they can communicate directly.

6 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Tactical Importance of Integration Tactical information is used to make immediate decisions. Incorrect or incomplete information can cause poor decisions The inability to share critical information is dangerous. Screen Capture provided by FAAC Inc

7 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Strategic Importance of Integration Strategic information is generally used to make long-term or more deliberated decisions. Incorrect or incomplete information can cause poor decisions The inability to share critical information is dangerous. Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services

8 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Why Can’t Agencies Exchange Information? Fragmentation has created organizational islands. Organizations are influenced by: Sub-culture Budgets Community Priorities Copyright Protected: 2005 Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

9 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster More on Fragmentation The entire criminal justice system tends to perform the function of information management exchange poorly because each island enters information into the system separately, differently, and repeatedly. criminal justice systemcriminal justice system

10 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Fragmentation Results As state and local agencies adapt new ideas and technologies, they tend to adapt them to their own ways of doing business. These agencies end up with an assortment of systems, applications, databases, and communications schemes – often different from neighboring or even overlapping agencies

11 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster What Should Integration Look Like? An integrated criminal justice information sharing system must: Fulfill the needs of the agency employing the system and Fulfill the needs of the agency employing the system and Address the needs of other agencies. Address the needs of other agencies.

12 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster What Should Integration Look Like? For any system integration to be successful, it must be founded on standards in: Data entry Data entry Protocols Protocols Policies Policies Software Software Hardware systems Hardware systems

13 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster For these transactions to be complete, they need to employ several different concepts: Context – an agreement between the agencies that the exchange is going to be about a certain subject Context – an agreement between the agencies that the exchange is going to be about a certain subject Protocol – Rules for how information is going to be exchanged and used Protocol – Rules for how information is going to be exchanged and used Integration

14 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Information would be captured once and reused during subsequent decision- making points Information would be captured once and reused during subsequent decision- making points Would have the ability to automatically query databases of other organizations Would have the ability to automatically query databases of other organizations Would have the ability to push and pull only data that was needed Would have the ability to push and pull only data that was needed Have the ability to receive notifications Have the ability to receive notifications A fully integrated system...

15 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Why aren’t law enforcement agencies using Web-based standards? Agencies only need certain portions of each other’s data Agencies only need certain portions of each other’s data Except, databases are often incompatible (data fields, values, and attributes are nonstandard) Except, databases are often incompatible (data fields, values, and attributes are nonstandard) Are Internet Standards a Solution?

16 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Extensible Mark-up Language is a root markup language that is derived from and similar to HTML Extensible Mark-up Language is a root markup language that is derived from and similar to HTML Intended primarily for the transmission of text information Intended primarily for the transmission of text information Can be used to pass other binary data such as images Can be used to pass other binary data such as images Uses tags to identify information so disparate applications and systems can easily recognize the data Uses tags to identify information so disparate applications and systems can easily recognize the data The XML Solution

17 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster XML separates style from content Style is the way in which an agency decides it wants its data presented Style is the way in which an agency decides it wants its data presented Content is the part of the total that each picks for its own style

18 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Tactical Communications There are two common technological strategies and one operational strategy that can improve communications between different agencies.

19 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Trunked Radio Systems - allow for the programming of other agency frequencies into the radio system carries in the vehicle Trunked Radio Systems - allow for the programming of other agency frequencies into the radio system carries in the vehicle Gateway Interface – permanently installed or used during major tactical incidents Gateway Interface – permanently installed or used during major tactical incidents Technological Solutions

20 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Organizational Solution Incident Command System (ICS) – Provides common terminology and organization structures for successful joint field operations Incident Command System (ICS) – Provides common terminology and organization structures for successful joint field operations

21 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Agency Partnerships There are ways that agency partnerships can improve interoperability and the exchange of data information. Direct pooling of physical resources Direct pooling of physical resources Pool data, not facilities Pool data, not facilities Contract communications with a larger agency Contract communications with a larger agency Create regional systems Create regional systems

22 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Two ways of looking at information- integration partnerships Horizontal Partnership– between agencies at the same level of government Horizontal Partnership– between agencies at the same level of government Vertical Partnership – Involves agencies at varying levels of government. More complex Vertical Partnership – Involves agencies at varying levels of government. More complex

23 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Economies of Scale Based on economic theory that the more you produce of a good, the less that it costs for each additional unit. In government services, economy of scale can be realized by expanding the geographic boundaries of service

24 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Economies of Scale Combining Technology Resources Eighty-five percent of most state and local law enforcement budgets are personnel costs, not equipment costs. How many fewer people will it take to run an operation? Will there be significant savings over the long term?

25 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Information Sharing is the transfer of information from one system to another via an intermediate system. Information Sharing is the transfer of information from one system to another via an intermediate system. Instead of pooling facilities, agencies agree to send their data to a central data warehouse Instead of pooling facilities, agencies agree to send their data to a central data warehouse This does not address voice communications. This does not address voice communications. Economies of Scale Combining Technology Resources

26 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Contract information services with a private vendor or with a larger agency. Typically used by small municipal police department that contracts with a country law enforcement agency Economies of Scale Combining Technology Resources

27 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Economies of Scale Combining Technology Resources For a predetermined fee, the larger agency: Conducts the PSAP Computer-aided dispatch Radio systems maintenance Controls access to databases Photograph provided by Randall Larson, Editor, Magazine

28 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Regional System Agencies form joint communications projects. Agencies form joint communications projects. Sometimes referred to as Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA) or Joint Powers Authorities (JPA) Sometimes referred to as Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA) or Joint Powers Authorities (JPA) Some agencies form not-for-profit organizations to create and manage a regional system Some agencies form not-for-profit organizations to create and manage a regional system

29 Copyright : Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Police Technology Police Technology Explore leadership at leadership


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