Presentation on theme: "Feeder Cattle Market Grades"— Presentation transcript:
1Feeder Cattle Market Grades Joshua B. Elmore, PASAdvisor III, Natural Resource ProgramsAuburn University Animal Sciences Department
2Feeder Cattle Standards are : 4/2/2017Feeder Cattle Standards are :Common trade language between buyers and sellers.A tool for penning cattle at officially graded sales.Used to certify feeder cattle grades for futures contracts.Basis for federal-state livestock market news reporting.Feeder Cattle Standards are:Common trade language between buyers and sellers.A tool for penning cattle at officially graded sales.Used to certify feeder cattle grades for futures contracts.Basis for federal-state livestock market news reporting.US Feeder Cattle Standards
3U.S Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle Grow rapidly and efficientlyProduce a carcass with acceptable quality and high cutability.Adequate frameBody capacityHigh lean to fat ratio up to market weightMuscle without excess fatThriftyHealthyAcceptable structural correctnessIn all species, the feeder animal must be able to grow rapidly and efficiently and at slaughter time, produce a carcass with acceptable quality and high cutability. Therefore, desirable feeder livestock must have adequate frame and body capacity, acceptable structural correctness, and the potential to maintain a high lean-to- fat ratio up to market weight. They should have the ability to produce muscle without laying down excess fat. It is also of utmost importance that the feeder animals of all species are thrifty, healthy, and free of any internal/ external parasites. Thriftiness refers to the ability of a feeder animal to gain weight rapidly and efficiently.
4Growth and Development of Bone, Muscle and Fat ChoiceThis is the growth and development curve for muscle, fat, and bone.A goal for efficient production is maximum muscle and minimum fat. Fat is generally considered undesirable and along with bone is regarded as waste. However, a small amount of external fat on beef carcasses protects the carcass from dehydration and fat within the muscle is important to the quality grade of beef as well as the flavor of beef.The arrow on the right side of the chart shows the approximate point of Choice quality grade of beef. At this point the carcasses would have approximately 30% fat. Keep in mind the Choice grade is the measurement of quality in beef carcasses.
5U.S Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle The standards describe the various types of feeder cattle being produced and are used as a basis for market reporting and as a common trade language between buyers and sellers.Updated October of 2000 to reflect changes in the genetic composition, production, marketing and management of beef cattle.The Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 originally mandated the standards for feeder-calf grades. They offer a valuable tool for marketing of cattle and calves and certify the grades used to make contracts for cattle on the futures market. The standards describe the various types of feeder cattle being produced and are used as a basis for market reporting and as a common trade language between buyers and sellers.Changes were made to the grading standards for live feeder cattle in October 2000 to reflect changes in the genetic composition, production, marketing and management of beef cattle.
6U.S Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle Feeder Cattle are evaluated by a combination of :Frame SizeMusclingThe grade of feeder cattle is determined by evaluating two general value-determining characteristics: frame size and muscle thickness.• Frame size is a skeletal measurement that considers height and body length in relation to age.• Thickness refers to the development of the animal's muscling in relation to its skeletal size.
7Frame Sizes Large Medium Small Frame-size standards for thrifty feeder cattle are assigned one of three marks, L (large frame), M (medium frame) and S (small frame). Large-frame steers and heifers are expected to reach a U.S. Choice carcass grade at Yield Grade 3 (about 0.5 in. of fat at the 12th rib) at a weight heavier than 1,250 lbs.
8U.S Standards for grades of Feeder Cattle Under ordinary development and feeding conditions, different framed animals reach slaughter potential at different weights.Under ordinary development and feeding conditions, different framed animals reach slaughter potential at different weights.
9Frame Size- Large Tall and long bodied ½ inch fat: Steers finish > 1250 lbsHeifers finish > 1150 lbsLarge frame animals are:Tall and long bodied½ inch fat:Steers finish weight over 1250 lbsHeifers finish weight over 1150 lbs
10Frame Size- Medium Slightly tall Slightly long bodied ½ inch fat: Steers finish 1100 to 1250 lbsHeifers finish 1000 to 1150 lbsMedium frame animals are:Slightly tallSlightly long bodied½ inch fat:Steers finish between 1100 to 1250 lbsHeifers finish between 1000 to 1150 lbs
11Frame Size- Small Not as tall as Medium Short bodied ½ inch fat: Steers finish < 1100 lbsHeifers finish < 1000 lbsSmall frame animals are:Not as tall as MediumShort bodied½ inch fat:Steers finish less than 1100 lbsHeifers finish less than 1000 lbs
15Evaluating Frame Size Hi p Height Flank to Flank Chest to Ground Feeder Cattle GradingEvaluating Frame SizeHipHeightFlank to FlankWhen evaluating frame size we evaluate hip height, chest to ground height and flank to flank length.Chest to GroundLivestock Knowledge CD
16Frame Size – Relative to maturity 4/2/2017Frame Size – Relative to maturityLength of tailCoarseness of hair in switchWidth of muzzleCoarseness of hair on pollSize of feet, ears, base of horns, etc.Older calves for their weight are usually lowered one frame size. Indicators of age include the tail significantly below hocks, the degree of twist in switch, and a wide muzzle.US Feeder Cattle Standards
17BIF Frame Score Measurement USDA Frame size is different than BIF Frame score, however both measurements work together to supply a common end result. Frame scores are an objective, numerical description of cattle skeletal size which reflect the growth pattern and potential mature size of an animal.The Beef Improvement Federation has recommended that height measurements for the calculation of frame score be taken at the hip directly over the hook bones as illustrated.Frame score is considered to be moderately to highly heritable. As such, sire selection can significantly change frame scores. With a heritability estimate of 0.40, about 40% of a bull's difference in frame score from herd average will appear in the progeny.Frame score measurements are descriptive of animal type and growth patterns in beef cattle. They are useful in evaluating animal nutritional requirements and characterizing target market weights, and aid in selection decisions. A certain amount of sorting may be required for each group to attain their optimum carcass weight and not be overfed or underfed.
18BIF Frame Score (inches) BIF Frame Score ChartAge(months)BIF Frame Score (inches)456BullsHeifers40.840.342.942.344.944.4205 Days18.104.22.168.346.145.3822.214.171.124.21043.747.345.749.347.7365 Days47.045.049.051.01448.550.448.052.450.01649.651.649.953.650.81850.547.549.554.451.4Source: Beef Improvement Federation’s Guidelines for Uniform Beef Improvement Programs, 8th Edition.Frame score values typically range from 2 to 9 and are calculated from hip height and age. Frame scores are frequently reported as supplementary information to weight and other performance data in sire catalogs. They are a tool used to project mature size, provide an indication of composition, and characterize performance potential and nutritional requirements of an animal.
19The Relationship of USDA Size and BIF Frame Scores USDA Frame SizeBIF Frame ScoreLargeEqual to or > 6Medium4 and 5SmallEqual to or < 3Frame size provides an estimate of rate of maturity, mature size, and carcass cutability at a given live weight. Frame size is visually appraised. Frame score is measured in terms of hip height adjusted to a standard age.Some seedstock breeders provide adjusted hip height measurements or frame score data on their sale bulls. Frame score is useful in evaluating and describing the composition of growth in young bulls.If frame scores are not available, visual appraisal of frame size and of fat is the most practical method of evaluation for most bull buyers. Fat bulls are not only poor risks in terms of carcass cutability of their progeny but also in terms of reproductive function.The selection emphasis given to frame size and leanness traits will vary depending on breed type and intended use. Frame size of the bull should be matched with that of the cow herd to produce calves that will be the most acceptable in the marketplace. The emphasis on these traits should be much greater in terminal sires than in dual purpose or maternal sires.
20USDA Feeder Cattle Grades Muscle Thickness Scores 4/2/2017USDA Feeder Cattle Grades Muscle Thickness ScoresThe thickness (muscling) grades range from Number 1-4. “Inferior” cattle are unthrifty and are not expected to perform normally in their present state and include those that are “double muscled.” Inferior cattle can have any combination of thickness and frame size.No. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4USDA/MRP/AMSUS Feeder Cattle Standards
22Evaluation of Muscling The basic shape of the hindquarter as viewed from behind.The basic shape of the hindquarter as viewed from behind with a number 1 muscled animal exhibiting a circular appearance and a number 3 muscled animal exhibiting a triangular shape.No. 3 MusclingNo. 1 Muscling
23USDA Feeder Cattle Grades Muscle Thickness Scores 4/2/2017USDA Feeder Cattle Grades Muscle Thickness ScoresThe thickness (muscling) grades range from Number As we view these animals, the stifle to stifle width translates the shapeNo. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4USDA/MRP/AMSUS Feeder Cattle Standards
24#1 MusclingMuscle score 1 cattle are thrifty and moderately thick throughout.Moderately thick throughout, showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with moderate width between the legs.
25#1 Muscling1++1--They are moderately thick and full in the forearm and gaskin, showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with moderate width between the legs, both front and rear.Cattle show this thickness with a slightly thick covering of fat; however, cattle eligible for this grade may carry varying degrees of fat.Moderately thick throughout, showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with moderate width between the legs.
26#2 MusclingMuscle score 2 cattle show a high proportion of beef breeding, are thrifty and tend to be slightly thick throughout.Slightly thick throughout; showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with slight width between the legs.
27#2 Muscling2--2++They tend to be slightly thick and full in the forearm and gaskin, showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with slight width between the legs, both front and rear.Cattle show this thickness with a slightly thin covering of fat; however, cattle eligible for this grade may carry varying degrees of fat.Slightly thick throughout; showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with slight width between the legs.
28#3 MusclingMuscle score 3 cattle express a forearm and gaskin that are thin, and the back and loin have a sunken appearance.Thin through the forequarter an the middle part of the rounds; back and loin have a sunken appearance; legs are set close together.
29#3 Muscling3--3++The legs are set close together, both front and rear.Cattle show this narrowness with a slightly thin covering of fat; however. Cattle eligible for this grade may show varying degrees of fat.Thin through the forequarter an the middle part of the rounds; back and loin have a sunken appearance; legs are set close together.
30#4 Muscling Less thickness than the minimum requirements for # 3. Muscle score 4 cattle are thrifty but have less thickness than the minimum requirements specified for the number 3 grade.Less thickness than the minimum requirements for # 3.
31Muscle Grades # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 Feeder Cattle Grading This slide exhibits the differences of width between the legs evaluated across all muscle scores.# 1# 2# 3# 4Livestock Knowledge CD
32Inferior Grade Mismanaged – Disease/ Parasites Double muscled animals “Inferior” cattle are unthrifty and are not expected to perform normally in their present state and include those that are “double muscled.” Inferior cattle can have any combination of thickness and frame size. These cattle can fall into this category due to :MismanagementDiseaseParasitismAny condition that must be corrected before the animal can perform normally!
33Possible Feeder Cattle Grades Feeder Cattle GradingPossible Feeder Cattle GradesLarge Frame #1,#2,#3 or #4Medium Frame #1,#2,#3 or #4Small Frame #1,#2,#3 or #4Inferior – This grade will include sick unthrifty cattle and double muscled cattle due to their inability to Quality grade.We have possible 13 grades. They are L1, L2, L3, L4, M1, M2, M3, M4, S1, S2, S3, S4 and Inferior.This will give potential buyers an even clearer picture of the calves offered for sale.Producers and buyers alike will benefit as the entire beef industry looks to improve the quality and consistency of the product that eventually finds its way to the dinner table.Livestock Knowledge CD
34Accuracy and completeness for selection WeightAccuracy and completeness for selectionFrame SizeFinish early and at a lighter weightEarlier maturity at desired fat thicknessWeight will always be important as long as we market on a per pound basis. While many farmers/ ranchers are proficient at estimating weights, scales are a valuable tool for your enterprise. Scales increase the accuracy and completeness of weight information in the selection program.Although weight is a very important factor in the selection and production of livestock, it can be misleading because it fails to indicate the composition of the animal. In other words, some animals are heavy simply because they are fat. Frame size is an indirect indicator of composition, since larger framed animals are leaner at a given weight. When used together, weight and frame size indicate both the grow ability and the relative composition of the animal.The larger the frame the higher the rate of gain, the longer the period required to fatten and the greater the slaughter weight necessary to achieve a given slaughter grade.The greater the muscle thickness the larger the ribeye area, the more desirable the yield grade, the higher the muscle to bone ratioMuscle Thickness at a given fatness is highly correlated with muscle to bone ratio.
35Target Weights to Reach USDA Choice USDA Frame ScoreSteersHeifersLarge1,250 lbs.1,150 lbs.Medium1,100 to 1,250 lbs.1,000 to 1,150 lbs.Small<1,100 lbs.<1,000 lbs.