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Feeder Cattle Market Grades Joshua B. Elmore, PAS Advisor III, Natural Resource Programs Auburn University Animal Sciences Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Feeder Cattle Market Grades Joshua B. Elmore, PAS Advisor III, Natural Resource Programs Auburn University Animal Sciences Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeder Cattle Market Grades Joshua B. Elmore, PAS Advisor III, Natural Resource Programs Auburn University Animal Sciences Department

2 Feeder Cattle Standards are : Common trade language between buyers and sellers. A tool for penning cattle at officially graded sales. Used to certify feeder cattle grades for futures contracts. Basis for federal-state livestock market news reporting.

3 U.S Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle Grow rapidly and efficiently Produce a carcass with acceptable quality and high cutability. Adequate frame Body capacity High lean to fat ratio up to market weight Muscle without excess fat Thrifty Healthy Acceptable structural correctness

4 Growth and Development of Bone, Muscle and Fat Choice

5 The standards describe the various types of feeder cattle being produced and are used as a basis for market reporting and as a common trade language between buyers and sellers. Updated October of 2000 to reflect changes in the genetic composition, production, marketing and management of beef cattle. U.S Standards for Grades of Feeder Cattle

6 Feeder Cattle are evaluated by a combination of : – Frame Size – Muscling

7 Frame Sizes Large Medium Small

8 U.S Standards for grades of Feeder Cattle Under ordinary development and feeding conditions, different framed animals reach slaughter potential at different weights.

9 Frame Size- Large Tall and long bodied ½ inch fat: Steers finish > 1250 lbs Heifers finish > 1150 lbs

10 Frame Size- Medium Slightly tall Slightly long bodied ½ inch fat: Steers finish 1100 to 1250 lbs Heifers finish 1000 to 1150 lbs

11 Frame Size- Small Not as tall as Medium Short bodied ½ inch fat: Steers finish < 1100 lbs Heifers finish < 1000 lbs

12 USDA/MRP/AMS

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15 15 Evaluating Frame Size Flank to Flank Hip HeightHip Height Chest to Ground

16 Frame Size – Relative to maturity Length of tail Coarseness of hair in switch Width of muzzle Coarseness of hair on poll Size of feet, ears, base of horns, etc.

17 BIF Frame Score Measurement

18 BIF Frame Score Chart Age (months) BIF Frame Score (inches) 456 BullsHeifersBullsHeifersBullsHeifers Days Days Source: Beef Improvement Federations Guidelines for Uniform Beef Improvement Programs, 8 th Edition.

19 The Relationship of USDA Size and BIF Frame Scores USDA Frame SizeBIF Frame Score LargeEqual to or > 6 Medium4 and 5 SmallEqual to or < 3

20 USDA/MRP/AMS USDA Feeder Cattle Grades Muscle Thickness Scores No. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4

21 Anatomy Stifle Forearm LoinBack Stifle Gaskin

22 Evaluation of Muscling The basic shape of the hindquarter as viewed from behind. No. 1 Muscling No. 3 Muscling

23 USDA/MRP/AMS USDA Feeder Cattle Grades Muscle Thickness Scores No. 1No. 2No. 3No. 4

24 #1 Muscling Moderately thick throughout, showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with moderate width between the legs.

25 #1 Muscling Moderately thick throughout, showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with moderate width between the legs

26 Slightly thick throughout; showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with slight width between the legs. #2 Muscling

27 Slightly thick throughout; showing a rounded appearance through the back and loin with slight width between the legs. #2 Muscling

28 Thin through the forequarter an the middle part of the rounds; back and loin have a sunken appearance; legs are set close together. #3 Muscling

29 Thin through the forequarter an the middle part of the rounds; back and loin have a sunken appearance; legs are set close together. #3 Muscling

30 Less thickness than the minimum requirements for # 3. #4 Muscling

31 Muscle Grades # 1# 2# 3# 4

32 Inferior Grade Mismanaged – Disease/ Parasites Double muscled animals

33 33 Possible Feeder Cattle Grades Large Frame #1,#2,#3 or #4 Medium Frame #1,#2,#3 or #4 Small Frame #1,#2,#3 or #4 Inferior – This grade will include sick unthrifty cattle and double muscled cattle due to their inability to Quality grade.

34 Weight – Accuracy and completeness for selection Frame Size – Finish early and at a lighter weight – Earlier maturity at desired fat thickness Muscle Thickness at a given fatness is highly correlated with muscle to bone ratio.

35 Target Weights to Reach USDA Choice USDA Frame ScoreSteersHeifers Large1,250 lbs.1,150 lbs. Medium1,100 to 1,250 lbs.1,000 to 1,150 lbs. Small<1,100 lbs.<1,000 lbs.

36 USDA/MRP/AMS

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