Presentation on theme: "NORM Training Shauna Landsberger MSPH Graham George, President"— Presentation transcript:
1 NORM Training Shauna Landsberger MSPH Graham George, President Enviroklean Product Development Inc, (EPDI),Houston, Texas
2 Outline NORM and TENORM in Oil Field Texas State Regulations Worker Safety TrainingTraining Health Risks of working with NORMObstacles of Working in the Oil and Gas FieldContinuing Education in the Oil Field
3 NORM and TENORM in the Oil Field Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM)
4 Geological Information Uranium and Thorium collect between layers of sandstones.Hydrocarbons collect in “traps” made by faults and shales.
5 Geological Information 238U and 232Th are naturally present in the Earth’s crust and mantle.They are found in small amounts and are not significant components in most mineralsGeological LocationsShales tend to absorb radionuclides and act as traps for hydrocarbons.Deposits can be located at the boundaries of sandstone layers.
6 Geological Information Decay products of 238U and 232Th are 226Ra (t1/2 = 1630 years) and 228Ra (t1/2 = 5.8 years), respectively238U and 232Th are insoluble and usually remain in place in the formation.226Ra and 228Ra are more soluble than their parents and are mobilized by liquidUranium, Thorium, and Radium “have an affinity for crude oil”
7 Oil and Gas WellsArial distribution in the continuous United States producing oil and gas wells through 1994.(US Department of the Interior, 1999)
8 Oil and Gas Wells Three phases of oil and gas wells will be discussed. Drilling and Workover OperationsProductionAbandonment
9 How Norm Is Brought to the Surface NORM is brought up to the surface by the transport of gas and oil productsProduced waterDrilling mud and sludgeEvaporation ponds and pits
10 Drilling and Workover Operations Drilling mud (a liquid used to lubricate the bit, bring cuttings to the surface, and hold back the formation) also come in contact with NORM and can be contaminated.
14 Formation of Radioactive Sludge in Production Equipment
15 Abandonment Wells may be abandoned for a variety of reasons: The well is lost due to catastrophic equipment failure.Drilling complications do not allow the desired producing zones to be accessed.The well is producing too much water.It is no longer economically feasible to continue operations.
17 NORM RegulationsNORM is regulated by state organizations rather than federal organizationTexas has two organizations in charge of NORM regulations in TexasRail Road Commission (RRC)Regulates disposal of oil and gas NORMTexas Department of State Health Services (DSHS)Regulates NORM contaminated substances such as soil and equipment.Set regulations for storage, transportation and commercial distribution of the products from oil and gas drilling including produced water
18 Who Can Benefit from NORM Training Employees working with NORMEither with decontamination or maintenance of equipment in the oil and gas fieldEmployees of Oil and Gas CompaniesAnyone from a field worker to an executive
19 Worker Safety Training Job Site SafetyEmergency PreparednessPersonal Protective EquipmentRadiation Safety Officer (RSO)
20 Job Site SafetyJob site safety is an important concept to teach in the class and fieldIt is ultimately the responsibility of the RSO on site to make sure that company protocols and safety measures are taken into effectIt is also important for all employees to know the basic safety measures before starting work on a job site
21 Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) Radiation Safety Officer is responsible for the day to day safety measures and on the job site training while in the fieldThey are in charge of a safety meeting each day on the job site before work can startIn charge of “frisking out” each employee as they leave the job site
23 Emergency Preparedness Teaching emergency procedures of the company is importantDuring the class each person should know the basic emergency procedures that happen on job siteOnce on the job site the emergency procedures will be reinforced and shown where the emergency equipment is such as shower, eye wash, phone numbers, map to nearest emergency room
25 Stressing the Importance of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) All workers must wear PPE while on job siteThis must be stressed during the class and everyday while in the fieldPPE can include:Gloves, fire retardant clothing, hard hat, safety glasses, steel toed boots, mask, self contained breathing apparatus, H2S monitor, TLD badge
27 Teaching Health Risks from NORM Exposure It is important to stress the importance of health effects when working with NORM both to the worker and the general publicThe radionuclides that pose the most risk in the oil and gas field are Ra-226, Ra-228, Rn-222 andPb-210More detail on the specific side effects is reinforced
28 Teaching Health Risks from NORM Exposure It is vital to stress that if all the safety measures and precautions talked about during the course reduce the risk of the health effects from working with NORMThe goal is for the employees to know there is risk involved in working with NORM but they have ways to reduce the risk“Frisking Out” is also revisited during this part of the course
29 Obstacles of Training in Texas Oil and Gas Field English may not be the first language of the participants in the classThere is a variety of educations levelsWhich means teaching to all levels of educationIt is critical to go over the basics of radiation including basic chemistry
31 Continuous EducationIt is important that the workers are continuing to be reinforced with the key points they learned during the trainingOn the job site training is important and new jobs and situations come upIt is also important to keep up with any changing laws or regulations from state government agencies