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NORM MOHAMMED AL-KAABI Kerbala University- College of Science Physics Dep. HOW TO DEAL WITH THE NORM RADIATION AHMAD UMER ABDULLAH Research and Development.

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Presentation on theme: "NORM MOHAMMED AL-KAABI Kerbala University- College of Science Physics Dep. HOW TO DEAL WITH THE NORM RADIATION AHMAD UMER ABDULLAH Research and Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 NORM MOHAMMED AL-KAABI Kerbala University- College of Science Physics Dep. HOW TO DEAL WITH THE NORM RADIATION AHMAD UMER ABDULLAH Research and Development

2 X Reservoir rock contains small amounts of natural uranium and thorium and their radioactive daughters. One daughter, radium, is water soluble- dissolves in the reservoir water. X Radium can precipitates with the barium and calcium ions to make any scales slightly radioactive (NORM). X Clay and fine particles can absorb the radium from the formation water. Why NORM Occurs Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 2 April 30, 2012

3 Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 3 April 30, 2012 Why NORM Occurs

4 Hazards of NORM Scale Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 4 April 30, 2012  Because NORM scale generally contains so little activity, the external radiation field is generally low. However some old tubular, separators or pumps may give measurable radiation fields.  Because of the high alpha content, NORM scale is a significant internal hazard.  Therefore priority is to stop NORM scale particles being inhaled or ingested.  This alpha toxicity also makes safe disposal important.

5 Where it Appears NORM scale appears within the well fluid handling system : Tubing string (especially tailpipe) Subsurface safety valves Wellheads Manifolds Separators Oil coolers Produced water pipework. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 5 April 30, 2012 It can also appear in the service water system, in pig wax in storage cells etc.

6 Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Miscellaneous Valves 6

7 Pipework Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 7

8 Oil Cooler Plates Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 8

9 Oil Separators Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 9

10 X Incompatible waters mix as they pass through perforations - this starts scale depositing in the tailpipe and tubing, then throughout the plant. X Deposition is heaviest in areas of turbulence – beyond bends, valves, restrictions. X Also where temperature or pressure changes occur such: tubular, chokes, separators, coolers. X Separator deposits - clays may absorb radionuclides directly from water. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 10 April 30, 2012 How it Gets There

11 What Scales Look Like X Pure barium sulphate is hard dense white solid. Pure NORM scale can be like that (especially in tubular). X More usually thin, eggshell-like, light or dark brown. X Can be stratified, like rings in a tree trunk. X Separator sludge are granular suspensions. X Sometimes deep in the surface matrix, so not visible. X Pig waxes are black tarry materials, often with chunks of rust and scale mixed in. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 11 April 30, 2012

12 Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 12 April 30, 2012 What Scales Look Like

13 X NORM can also be found in gas wells where no fluids are present. X Here it is due to radioactive lead-210 plating out on surfaces from the gas. X The gas is radioactive because of the radioactive radon gas in the formation accumulating in it. X This radon then decays to the lead-210. X This layer is thin and cannot always be seen. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. April 30, 2012 NORM in Gas Wells 13

14 Worker Protection  Protection from External Exposure  Protection from Internal Exposure Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 14

15 Protection from External Exposure Protection from Internal Exposure Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 15

16 X Minimize the time, you will minimize the dose. X Pre-plan the experiment/procedure to minimize exposure time. Three Effective Strategies-Time- Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Protection from External Exposure 16

17 Three Effective Strategies-Distance- X Doubling the distance from the NORM source can reduce your exposure intensity by 25%. X Use forceps, tongs, and trays to increase your distance from the NORM source. X Move the item being worked on away from the radiation area if possible. X Know the NORM intensity where you perform most of your work, and move to lower dose areas during work delays. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Protection from External Exposure 17

18 Three Effective Strategies -Shielding- X Position shielding between yourself and the NORM source at all permissible times. Take advantage of permanent shielding (i.e. equipment or existing structures). X Select appropriate shielding material during the planning stages of the experiment. X Plexiglas, plywood and lead are effective in shielding radiation exposure. Protection from External Exposure Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Exposure risk will increase when vessels are opened for maintenance. 18

19 Protection from External Exposure Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Plexiglas Lead 19

20 Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Protection from internal Exposure Inhalation of NORM -contaminated dust or radon. Ingestion of NORM -contaminated particulates or liquids. Absorption of NORM -contaminated particulates or liquids through the skin. The Three Internal Exposure Pathways for a Worker in the Petroleum Industry are: 20

21 Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Protection from internal Exposure The risks from maintenance activities include: The risks from maintenance activities include:  Improper safety procedures for entering pressure vessels due to the build-up of radon gas.  Sanding, grinding or polishing activities on equipment containing NORM scales that produce airborne NORM particulates.  Handling of filters that are heavily contaminated with radon progeny, without wearing protective gloves. 21

22 Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep.  Respiratory protection, including air purifying respirators (half face, with goggles, or full face), self- contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).  Protective clothing, including coveralls gloves and footwear (i.e. CSA-approved safety boots, shoe covers, etc.) 22

23 Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 23

24 Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep.  Radiation monitoring equipment, including a radiation survey instrument, personal dosimeter or alarming dosimeter. 24

25 Radiation Badges X In any work associated with radiation that could result in exposure above 10% of the limit, users should wear a radiation badge. X Badges are designed to be worn to measure an individuals’ exposure on a one or two-month cycle. X If lead aprons are worn, badges should be clipped to the shirt collar. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 25 Personal Protective Equipment(PPE)

26 Use of NORM Warning Signs and Barricades X Signs and barricades restrict access of unauthorized workers or members of the public to certain process areas. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 26

27 Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Pre-Use inspections for PPE Visual inspection of the integrity of the equipment. Pre-use review of maintenance records for previously-used PPE, including confirmation of no contamination, general maintenance schedules and operational checks of proper PPE function, as required. Correct Use NORM workers must received appropriate training in the correct use of PPE, prior to its issuance. 27

28 Personal Protective Equipment(PPE) Post-Use inspections for PPE -prior to restocking for future use - Conduct a visual check of equipment integrity. Conduct function tests of correct PPE operation, as applicable. Record results of function tests. Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. 28

29 Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep Kerbala University-Science College-Physics Dep. Thank you for your attention!


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