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Dense Molecular Gas in Galaxies Near and Far Yu GAO Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "Dense Molecular Gas in Galaxies Near and Far Yu GAO Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing Chinese Academy of Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dense Molecular Gas in Galaxies Near and Far Yu GAO Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing Chinese Academy of Sciences

2 Talk Outline 1) Massive Star Formation & Dense Gas GMC Dense Cores, Importance of Dense Molecular Gas in Galaxies, SFR & Dense Gas Tracers, THz/sub-mm 2) HCN in Local Galaxies a) Observations of HCN in 65 Galaxies b) SF Rate vs. Dense Molecular Gas (the FIR--HCN Correlation) 3) HCN High-z (& GMC cores, FIRHCN correlation over 10 orders of mag.) 4) Global SF Law: from dense GMC Cores to Hyper/Ultraluminous Galaxies at High-z (SMGs)

3 Gas==>>Stars < 1% The least component

4 Gas: most important in shaping the Cosmic SF history

5 Stars are forming in giant molecular clouds (GMCs)

6 Diffuse a tomic gas HI, the gas reservoir for molecular clouds, And the supply for future star formation. PDRs

7 Gao 2008

8 M gas = 2 x M sun M dyn ~ 6 x M sun M BH = 3 x 10 9 M sun M dyn ~ M gas M dyn ~ M gas M dyn = 20 M BH M dyn = 20 M BH breakdown of relation seen at z=0? extra-nuclear overlap? The most distant CO images: extended dense gas Walter et al. (2004) VLA ---> EVLA Perhaps most famous QSO:J (z=6.42) Perhaps most famous QSO:J (z=6.42) 5 kpc reservoir

9 SCUBA: Zhu, Gao, Seaquist & Dunne 2007 CO: Gao, Zhu, Seaquist um contours on 8um image 850um contours on CO image

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11 CO in VV 114 (Iono et al. 2004, Yun et al. 1994) Note the much compact dense gas traced by CO(3-2) (SMA)

12 CO Contours overlaid on the optical images (false-color) Molecular gas density increases as merging advances Gao et al. 1999

13 2. Dense gas is the essential fuel for high mass star formation in Galaxies HCN Surveys in 53 Galaxies: Gao & Solomon 2004a ApJS Far-IR, HCN, CO Correlations : Gao & Solomon 2004b ApJ

14 SFR Dense Molecular Gas

15 More CO data of ULIGs (Solomon et al. 1997) that Lco > ~ 10^10 K km/s pc^2 Total Molecular Gas Mass

16 Baan, Henkel, Loenen et al Baan et al. (2008) Kohno 2007, et al. (2003) Imanishi (2006) Aalto et al. 2007, 2002, 1995 Solomon et al Nguyen et al Henkel et al Henkel, Baan, Mauersberger 1991 HCN,CS,HNC etc. in Local Gals.

17 3.New Obs.(+Literature) Complications: lens, LIR (SFR vs. AGN), CO(1-0)? Source Lfir Lhcn Lco hcn/co mag.f a H (Solomon+03) F J A B J < < J < < J < < J c B < < J < < J < < M < < J < < (HCN5-4)+4VLA ^limits (Carilli+05). 4 new searches with VLA (Gao+07), a couple sub-mm galaxies, >50hrs)

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19 Gao, Carilli, Solomon & Vanden Bout 2007 ApJ, 660, L93 ^^^ || ~15hrs VLA, stacking 3 lens components

20 r.m.s.~19uJy/beam More than 45hrs VLA

21 Gao, Carilli, Solomon & Vanden Bout 2007 ApJ, 660, L93

22 Wu, Evans, Gao et al ApJL Krumholz & Thompson 2007 Fit to GMCs Fit to Galaxies Fit to All

23 Resovled Local (FIR-HCN) SF Law ? In Dense Gas (M51 & N6946)

24 HCN contours on 8um in W3OH FCRAO SEQUOIA

25 SFR: IRAC 8um HCN Ma, Gao & Wu 2009 in prep. HCN Dense Gas

26 HCN/HCO+ con. over 8um image HCN/HCO+ > 2 AGN/XDR ???

27 4. Star Formation Schmidt Law: from GMC cores to ULIRGs (& high-z) Schmidt (1959): SFR~density(HI)^n, n=1-3, mostly 2-3 in ISM of our Galaxy. Kennicutt (1989): Disk-average [SFR~ density(HI+H2)^n] n is not well constrained. ~1-3, wide spread. Kennicutt (1998): n=1.4 ? Total gas (HI + H2) vs. Dense gas Better SF law in dense gas?

28 SFR vs. M_dense(H2): linear correlation

29 SFR vs. M(H2): No Unique Slope:1, 1.4, 1.7? HI-dominated LSB galaxies HI ~ H2 H2-dominated Gao & Solomon 2004b ApJ

30 Summary: Dense Gas in Galaxies Dense Molecular Gas High Mass Stars (FIR-HCN linear correlation) SFR ~ M(DENSE) the total mass of dense molecular gas (e.g. gas density >~100,000 cc), linear? HI H2 DENSE H2 Stars Schmidt law : HI Stars Kennicutt : HI + H 2 Stars Gao & Solomon: Dense H 2 Stars EVLA Q-band local ULIRGs CS(1-0) imaging survey ? From GMC Cores to High-z: Dense Gas Massive SF


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