Presentation on theme: "The Global Star Formation Law in Dense Molecular Gas Yu Gao Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Sept. 7, (IAUS 284)"— Presentation transcript:
The Global Star Formation Law in Dense Molecular Gas Yu Gao Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Sept. 7, 2011@SED2011 (IAUS 284)
Outline of this talk What are the star formation (SF) recipes? SFR-gas (HI, CO) scaling laws: Schmidt law, SF laws in other forms Why do we need a SFR-DenseGas law A linear FIR(SFR)-HCN (dense gas tracer)relation for all star-forming systems: SF law in DenseGas Major Issues and debates Conclusion+Solutions?!
Star formation laws Schmidt (1959): SFR~density(HI)^n, n=1-3, mostly 2-3 in ISM of our Galaxy. Kennicutt (1989): Disk-average [SFR~ density(HI+H2)^n] n is not well constrained. ~1-3, wide spread. Kennicutt (1998): n=1.4 ? Total gas (HI + H2) vs. Dense gas Better SF law in dense gas? (Hubble law, Georges Lemaître & H 0 analogy)
SFR vs. M(H2): No Unique Slope:1, 1.4, 1.7? HI-dominated LSB galaxies HI ~ H2 H2-dominatedLIRGs/ULIRGs Gao & Solomon 2004b ApJExtragalactic SF=CO until 90’s
Bigiel’s talk @SFR50 SF thresholds may simply reflect the change of the dominant cold gas phase in galaxies from HI ->H2 & from H2->denseH2 Schruba+2011 ~linear in H2!
DenseCores in nuclear regions of LSB spirals? Deep CO obs. (~20 hrs on 12m) in UGC 7321 (HST/WFPC2 R+I image) First CO detections in a few edge-on LSB spirals using the 12m (Matthews & Gao 2001) CO detected in a few positions in NGC 4244
Matthews, Gao, Uson & Combes 2005 SFR(FIR) ~ M(H2) correlation of LSBs roughly follows that of normal spiral disks ( nuclear regions, linear relation: L_FIR/M(H2)=31)
GMCs enbed in diffuse a tomic gas （ HI ）, the gas reservoir for molecular clouds, and the supply for future star formation. PDRs
Stars are forming in giant molecular clouds (GMCs)
High Density Tracers Merging/interactions trigger gas infall to nuclear regions Nuclei of Galaxies should possess denser gas as GMCs have to survive to tidal forces (must be denser) Critical density: the radiating molecule (eg, CO) suffers collisions at the rate: n(H2) sigma v = A ( Einstein coefficient A ~ nu^3 mu^2 ) * High-J (>~3) levels of CO (nu ~ J) higher critical density to be excited (>10 5 cm -3 ) * & High dipole moment molecules HCN, HNC, HCO+, CS (mu ~ 30x > CO), etc.. * X factor ? CO-to-H2, HCN-to-DenseH2 conversions
Dense gas is the essential fuel for high mass star/SSC formation in Galaxies HCN Surveys in 53 Galaxies: Gao & Solomon 2004a ApJS Far-IR, HCN, CO Correlations : Gao & Solomon 2004b ApJ
Baan, Henkel, Loenen + 2008 Baan et al. (2008) Kohno 2007, et al. (2003) Imanishi (2006) Aalto et al. 2007, 2002, 1995 Solomon et al. 1992 Nguyen et al. 1992 Henkel et al. 1990 Henkel, Baan, Mauersberger 1991 HCN,CS,HNC etc. in SF gals. Best case studies: Arp 220 & NGC 6240 (Greve + 2009)
FIR – CS(3-2): linear! (IRAM 30m) FIR – CS(5-4): linear! (SMT 10m, still limited data; Wang, Zhang & Shi 2011 MN)
Poster by Z. Zhang fresh results from the APEX telescope
Concluding Remarks SF: quiescent (few Dense Cores=DCs), normal, active/burst modes (starbursts: active formation of DCs) DCs in Dense Molecular Gas Complexes High Mass Stars/Clusters (SF in different environments: SMGs/hi-z QSOs; ULIRGs/Starbursts; Spirals; LSBs; DCs) SF thresholds: change of the dominant cold gas phase in galaxies from HI ->H2 & from H2->denseH2 (FIR-HCN, CS Linear Correlations) SFR ~ M(DenseH2): the total mass of dense molecular gas in galaxies & all star-forming systems (spanning 10 orders of mag.)? SFR-DenseGas: Counting DCs(=SF units) in Galaxies? Gao & Solomon: Dense H 2 DCs/StarsClusters