Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Global Star Formation Law in Dense Molecular Gas Yu Gao Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Sept. 7, (IAUS 284)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Global Star Formation Law in Dense Molecular Gas Yu Gao Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Sept. 7, (IAUS 284)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Global Star Formation Law in Dense Molecular Gas Yu Gao Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Sept. 7, (IAUS 284)

2 Outline of this talk What are the star formation (SF) recipes? SFR-gas (HI, CO) scaling laws: Schmidt law, SF laws in other forms Why do we need a SFR-DenseGas law A linear FIR(SFR)-HCN (dense gas tracer)relation for all star-forming systems: SF law in DenseGas Major Issues and debates Conclusion+Solutions?!

3 Star formation laws Schmidt (1959): SFR~density(HI)^n, n=1-3, mostly 2-3 in ISM of our Galaxy. Kennicutt (1989): Disk-average [SFR~ density(HI+H2)^n] n is not well constrained. ~1-3, wide spread. Kennicutt (1998): n=1.4 ? Total gas (HI + H2) vs. Dense gas Better SF law in dense gas? (Hubble law, Georges Lemaître & H 0 analogy)

4

5 Kennicutt 1998 n=1.4

6 Normal disk spirals IR circumnuclear starbursts

7 SFR vs. M(H2): No Unique Slope:1, 1.4, 1.7? HI-dominated LSB galaxies HI ~ H2 H2-dominatedLIRGs/ULIRGs Gao & Solomon 2004b ApJExtragalactic SF=CO until 90’s

8 Bigiel’s SF thresholds may simply reflect the change of the dominant cold gas phase in galaxies from HI ->H2 & from H2->denseH2 Schruba+2011 ~linear in H2!

9 DenseCores in nuclear regions of LSB spirals? Deep CO obs. (~20 hrs on 12m) in UGC 7321 (HST/WFPC2 R+I image) First CO detections in a few edge-on LSB spirals using the 12m (Matthews & Gao 2001) CO detected in a few positions in NGC 4244

10 Matthews, Gao, Uson & Combes 2005 SFR(FIR) ~ M(H2) correlation of LSBs roughly follows that of normal spiral disks ( nuclear regions, linear relation: L_FIR/M(H2)=31)

11 GMCs enbed in diffuse a tomic gas ( HI ), the gas reservoir for molecular clouds, and the supply for future star formation. PDRs

12 Stars are forming in giant molecular clouds (GMCs)

13 High Density Tracers Merging/interactions trigger gas infall to nuclear regions Nuclei of Galaxies should possess denser gas as GMCs have to survive to tidal forces (must be denser) Critical density: the radiating molecule (eg, CO) suffers collisions at the rate: n(H2) sigma v = A ( Einstein coefficient A ~ nu^3 mu^2 ) * High-J (>~3) levels of CO (nu ~ J) higher critical density to be excited (>10 5 cm -3 ) * & High dipole moment molecules HCN, HNC, HCO+, CS (mu ~ 30x > CO), etc.. * X factor ? CO-to-H2, HCN-to-DenseH2 conversions

14 Dense gas is the essential fuel for high mass star/SSC formation in Galaxies HCN Surveys in 53 Galaxies: Gao & Solomon 2004a ApJS Far-IR, HCN, CO Correlations : Gao & Solomon 2004b ApJ

15 SFR Dense Molecular Gas

16 Baan, Henkel, Loenen Baan et al. (2008) Kohno 2007, et al. (2003) Imanishi (2006) Aalto et al. 2007, 2002, 1995 Solomon et al Nguyen et al Henkel et al Henkel, Baan, Mauersberger 1991 HCN,CS,HNC etc. in SF gals. Best case studies: Arp 220 & NGC 6240 (Greve )

17 Gao, Carilli, Solomon & Vanden Bout 2007 ApJ, 660, L93

18 Wu, Evans, Gao et al ApJL Fit to GMCs Fit to Galaxies Fit to both GMCs & Gals.. Wu+2010

19 SSCs in nearby galaxies could fill in the gap in FIR-HCN corr. Gap ?

20 Total useful on-source integration time >~110 hours. HCN spectra with S/N>3 (a channel width dV ~7 km/s). Typical rms ~1-2 mK at dV~20 km/s.

21 Correlations between 8um-HCN & 24um- HCN. The solid lines: fixed slope of 1.

22 Correlation between 70um-HCN Correlation between 160um-HCN

23 Chen & Gao in prep. M31GMCs (Rosolowsky, Pineda & Gao 2011 MN)

24 ∑M dense vs. ∑ SFR Dense H2 show the best correlation with SFR (linear Liu & Gao 2011). Liu & Gao 2011 arXiv:

25 Poster by Liu+

26 Bi-modal SF laws in high-z gals (Daddi+2010; Genzel+2010) also exist in local gals

27 Poster by Liu+

28 Juneau+2009; Narayanan+2008; Krumholz & Thompson 2007; Mao+2010; Henkel+ Poster SFR – CO & SFR -- HCN indexes

29 FIR – CS(2-1): linear! (IRAM 30m)

30 FIR – CS(3-2): linear! (IRAM 30m) FIR – CS(5-4): linear! (SMT 10m, still limited data; Wang, Zhang & Shi 2011 MN)

31 Poster by Z. Zhang fresh results from the APEX telescope

32 Concluding Remarks SF: quiescent (few Dense Cores=DCs), normal, active/burst modes (starbursts: active formation of DCs) DCs in Dense Molecular Gas Complexes  High Mass Stars/Clusters (SF in different environments: SMGs/hi-z QSOs; ULIRGs/Starbursts; Spirals; LSBs; DCs) SF thresholds: change of the dominant cold gas phase in galaxies from HI ->H2 & from H2->denseH2 (FIR-HCN, CS Linear Correlations) SFR ~ M(DenseH2): the total mass of dense molecular gas in galaxies & all star-forming systems (spanning 10 orders of mag.)? SFR-DenseGas: Counting DCs(=SF units) in Galaxies? Gao & Solomon: Dense H 2  DCs/StarsClusters


Download ppt "The Global Star Formation Law in Dense Molecular Gas Yu Gao Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences Sept. 7, (IAUS 284)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google