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Searching for disks around high-mass (proto)stars with ALMA R. Cesaroni, H. Zinnecker, M.T. Beltrán, S. Etoka, D. Galli, C. Hummel, N. Kumar, L. Moscadelli,

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Presentation on theme: "Searching for disks around high-mass (proto)stars with ALMA R. Cesaroni, H. Zinnecker, M.T. Beltrán, S. Etoka, D. Galli, C. Hummel, N. Kumar, L. Moscadelli,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Searching for disks around high-mass (proto)stars with ALMA R. Cesaroni, H. Zinnecker, M.T. Beltrán, S. Etoka, D. Galli, C. Hummel, N. Kumar, L. Moscadelli, T. Preibisch, T. Ratzka, Á. Sánchez-Monge, T. Stanke, F. Van der Tak, S. Vig, C.M. Walmsley, K.-S. Wang Cycle 0 proposal after meeting at ESO in 2011

2 Immediate Goal (Cycle 0) Increase the number of bona-fide circumstellar (Keplerian?) disks around B-type (proto)stars Demonstrate that B-type stars form through disk accretion Assess disk structure and rotation curve M star Long-term Goal (Cycle 2…) Search for circumstellar rotating disks around O-type (proto)stars

3 Targets G N and G : Closeby: 2.2 kpc and 3.4 kpc Luminosities (~10 4 L O ) B-type Free-free emission (VLA) thermal jets/H II regions Bipolar nebulosities, green fuzzies, broad SiO wings bipolar outflows/jets disks??? Prominent CH 3 CN emission (single dish) hot molecular cores

4 Observations Band 7: 350 GHz Most extended Cycle 0 array configuration Resolutions: 0.4 arcsec and 0.4 km/s Primary beam: 18 arcsec Maximum structure: 2 arcsec Correlator setup: CH 3 CN(19-18), CH 3 OH(7-6), SiO(8-7), C 34 S(7-6), C 17 O(3-2), H 13 CO + (3-2), and many others

5 Results Rich spectra with many hot-core tracers (CH 3 CN) Filaments across hour-glass nebulosities Molecular cores with velocity gradients roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebulosities PV patterns typical of (sub)Keplerian rotation Problems: –extended tracers (C 34 S, C 17 O, H 13 CO + ) resolved out by ALMA –SiO line partly blended and difficult to interpret

6 CH 3 CN CH 3 OH v t =1 CH 3 OH

7 CH 3 CN CH 3 OH CH 3 OH v t =1

8 Results Rich spectra with many hot-core tracers (CH 3 CN) Filaments across hour-glass nebulosities Molecular cores with velocity gradients roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebulosities PV patterns typical of (sub)Keplerian rotation Problems: –extended tracers (C 34 S, C 17 O, H 13 CO + ) resolved out by ALMA –SiO line partly blended and difficult to interpret

9 IRAC 4.5 µm Hi-RES image Filament or edge-on sheet? Mass of filament ~80 M O 5 cores along filament 0.05 pc

10 IRAC 4.5 µm Hi-RES image 4 cores along filament Prominent core (~4 M O ) at center of bipolar nebula 0.05 pc

11 Results Rich spectra with many hot-core tracers (CH 3 CN) Filaments across hour-glass nebulosities Molecular cores with velocity gradients roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebulosities PV patterns typical of (sub)Keplerian rotation Problems: –extended tracers (C 34 S, C 17 O, H 13 CO + ) resolved out by ALMA –SiO line partly blended and difficult to interpret

12 CH 3 CN line and 3.6 cm continuum (Gibb et al. 2003) overlayed on CH 3 CN velocity map Velocity gradients roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebula 1000 au

13 Intensity and velocity maps in different molecules Velocity gradient roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebula

14 Results Rich spectra with many hot-core tracers (CH 3 CN) Filaments across hour-glass nebulosities Molecular cores with velocity gradients roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebulosities PV patterns typical of (sub)Keplerian rotation Problems: –extended tracers (C 34 S, C 17 O, H 13 CO + ) resolved out by ALMA –SiO line partly blended and difficult to interpret

15 G N core B Position-velocity plots along velocity gradient White pattern: Keplerian rotation about 18 M O

16 G main core Position-velocity plots along velocity gradient White pattern: Keplerian rotation about about 6 M O

17 Results Rich spectra with many hot-core tracers (CH 3 CN) Filaments across hour-glass nebulosities Molecular cores with velocity gradients roughly perpendicular to bipolar nebulosities PV patterns typical of (sub)Keplerian rotation Problems: –extended tracers (C 34 S, C 17 O, H 13 CO + ) resolved out by ALMA –SiO line partly blended and difficult to interpret

18 G N: Core B Sánchez-Monge et al. (subm. to A&A)

19 Core A compact Core B resolved M gas (A) = 4.4 M O M gas (B) = 2.8 M O T gas ~ 100 K A B 1000 au Image: CH 3 CN K=2 Contours.: continuum

20 CH 3 CNCH 3 CN, CH 3 OH, HC 3 N Keplerian disk 500 au Dots: peaks from 2D Gaussian fit to CH 3 CN K=2 line emission in each channel (i.e. velocity) Curves: 50% contour levels of CH 3 CN K=2 emission in each channel

21 Best fit to velocity pattern with Keplerian disk: M star = 18 M O angle disk-l.o.s. = 19° disk P.A. = 157° star position very close to continuum peak systemic velocity: V LSR (star) = 30.0 km/s Peaks distribution R disk = 2500 au 350 GHz continuum M disk = 3 M O < M star consistent with Keplerian rotation

22 Line emission skewed to NE flared disk? M star = 18 M O L star L bol = L O binary system needed precessing outflow? SW NE

23 Luminosity of binary system with M p +M s =18 M O L bol (G35.20)

24 Conclusions Hot, dense cores detected at geometrical center of bipolar nebulae Velocity gradients in cores, roughly perpendicular to axes of bipolar nebulae PV plots suggestive of (sub)Keplerian rotation Possible circumbinary Keplerian disk detected in G N

25 Future ALMA projects? G35.20 & G35.03: Unresolved cores with <0.4 resol. SiO jets at 3mm (less blending) 1-2 resol. direction of jets close to cores filaments in C 17 O, CS, etc. with >2 beam velocity field of gas filaments or rotating edge-on sheets? Disks around O-type stars: E.g. 13 CH 3 CN in HMCs with <0.1 resolution


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