2 Why did explorations happen when they did? A variety of factors all came together to make the time period ( ) the “age of exploration”Some of these factors were pushes, external forces acting on EuropeSome were pulls, motivations and things that attracted the Europeans
3 What is the easiest way to remember it all? The Three G’s:GoldGloryGod
4 The First G: GoldGold was a hot item that explorers were looking for, but remember that it is really wealth, not just literal gold that explorers were after.Europe needed gold (and silver) to fuel the rising banking systemEuropeans also desired spicesOther natural resources would come to be sold for profit as well (timber, sugar, tobacco, ivory, etc.)This competition will be enhanced by the idea of mercantilism that emerges, the idea that there is only so much wealth in the world, and that to make your kingdom strong you must have more gold and wealth than the other kingdoms
5 The second G: GloryJust like the first G, Gold, Glory was a relatively new idea in EuropeCame out of the Renaissance ideal of Humanism, and the focus on individual achievementWith the rise of the printing press, the idea of gaining fame for one’s actions was more possibleAlso, individual kings wanted glory for their kingdoms, competition spreadsThe Triumph of Fame, a Flemish tapestry from 1502.
6 The third G: GodAs members of a universalizing religion, Europeans had always seen spreading Christianity as a good thingEspecially after the Reformation, competition will spring upColonization will become a race to convert native peoples to a particular brand of ChristianityJesuits (Catholics) are some of the most active
7 How did these explorations begin? The first to encourage new ship explorations was Prince Henry of Portugal, known as “Prince Henry the Navigator”Started an institute for seafaring and exploringCombined ship technology learned from Islam with new European innovationsBy the time of his death in 1460, Portuguese had sailed as far south as the Gold Coast of West Africa
8 What were the new technologies that enabled explorations? The caravel was a new, faster, more maneuverable shipOlder ships had square sails, caravels had triangular sails (easier to change direction)Bilge pump system enabled ship to float higher (less likely to run aground, easier to explore coasts and rivers)Compass, astrolabe, maps and other technologies from Islamic culture all helped make explorations possible
9 What factors were pushing Europeans to explore? Decline of Mongol Empire in 1400s made goods from the east harder to get, more expensiveFall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 was a major block to trade
10 Bartholomeu DiasThe explorer Bartholomeu Dias was the 1st to reach the Cape of Good Hope, the Southern tip of Africa!This helped others to see it was possible to reach India by going around Africa!
11 Vasco Da GamaHe opened a new route for trade between Europe and Asia without using the silk rode.In 1498 Vasco Da Gama went around Africa and reached India.Picture Credit:
12 Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to have three ships.The three ships were: Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.He landed in the Bahama Islands on October 12, 1492.Picture Credit:
13 Columbian Exchange Americas to Europe Europe to Americas Potatoes & TomatoesSugar, Tea, CoffeeMaize, (Corn)Horses, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, ratsTobaccoDiseases (smallpox, measles, whooping cough, bubonic plague, malaria, yellow fever )ChocolateAsian cockroaches, Japanese beetle
14 Ferdinand Magellan (Portuguese) Picture Credit:Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the southern tip of South America.His crew made the first round trip around the world. His ship the Victoria made it around the world.He named the Pacific Ocean because it was so peaceful.
15 John Cabot He was born in Italy. He loved to watch sailors at the docks and hear their stories.At age 16, he began studying sailing and mapping.He moved to England and got the King to support his exploration.He is important because his exploration for England gave England the right to the USA.Picture Credit:
16 Ponce de LeonHe went with Christopher Columbus on his 2nd voyage in He stayed there and became the 1st European to live on the mainland of North America.He was Looking for the “fountain of youth”He found Puerto Rico and became governor there.He also found Floridia and named it "Pascua de Florida" (feast of flowers) after a Spanish Easter holiday because he found Floridia on Easter!Picture Credit:
17 Hernando De Soto He Sailed for Spain His time in the USA was spent exploring Florida down to Mexico looking for gold.He did find the Mississippi River.
18 Francisco Coronado He spent his time looking for the 7 cities of gold! He was considered a failure because he didn’t find gold.
19 Vasco Nunez de BalboaVasco Nunez de Balboa shipwrecked in the Bahamas, on the island, Hispaniola.He tried to make a living farming but ended up owing a lot of money to people.He then hid in a barrel on a ship to escape.He discovered the Pacific Ocean.Picture Credit: