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Metallic and Ionic Nanoparticles Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity.

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Presentation on theme: "Metallic and Ionic Nanoparticles Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Metallic and Ionic Nanoparticles Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity

3 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Why is the cleansing ability estimate such a wide range? How many grams of iron powder would it take to present a surface area equal to that of 1 gram of nanoparticles? ______ _____ liters of water can be cleaned by one gram of iron nanoparticles. How would iron nanoparticles affect the rate of TCE cleanup? Iron Nanoparticles

4 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Iron Nanoparticles in Your Backyard

5 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Date of Test 12/01/021/06/032/03/03 Distance from Injection Well 1 TCE Concentration ppb pHTCE Concentration ppb pHTCE Concentration ppb pH 8 ft (2.4 m) 41, ft (3.6 m) 5, ft (7.1 m) 7, Distance from Injection Well 2 0 ft (0 m) 88, ft (1.8 m) 76, Iron Nanoparticles in Your Backyard

6 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Philosophical Chairs

7 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL What physical properties are affected by the size of the nanoparticles? Physical Properties

8 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Nanoparticles

9 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL What do these graphs tell us? Metallic Nanoparticles

10 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Gold Nanoparticles

11 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL nm diameter gold nanoparticles The image represents nanoparticles in suspension. All of them are the same size. Those that appear smaller are further away. The image represents nanoparticles in suspension. All of them are the same size. Those that appear smaller are further away. Gold Nanoparticles

12 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Adapted from F. G. Shi, J. Mater. Res., 1994, 9(5), ,reproduced in Nanoscale Materials in Chemistry, edited by Kenneth J. Klabunde, 2001, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, NY Ionic Nanoparticles

13 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Increased rates of some chemical reactions Decreased melting points Increased surface area to volume ratios of nanoparticles Metallic and Ionic Nanoparticles

14 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Bulk Gold Nano Gold 2-3 mm diameter gold beads in toluene 4-5 nm diameter gold nanoparticles in toluene Courtesy of Kansas State University Gold Particles

15 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL All colors of light are reflected from a smooth silver surface Some blue light is absorbed by a smooth gold surface Metallic Macroparticles

16 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL As the size of the nanoparticles decrease and shapes change to include more edge and corner sites, the ENERGY and MOTION of valence electrons change. Metallic Nanoparticles

17 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL light interacts with surface electrons electrons move in unison, forming waves electron waves behave as if they were a single, charged particle, interacting with only specific wavelengths of light At the nano level Metallic Nanoparticles

18 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL As particle size decreases, electromagnetic radiation interacts with free electrons to absorb, reflect, or transmit different colors of light. Color transmitted through stained glass windows Gold Silver Color of lustrous macro samples Larger Smaller Metallic Nanoparticles

19 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL sea of electrons s, p, d, and f atomic orbitals random motion electrons can be elevated to higher energy levels Electrons in Atomic Orbitals Electrons in Metals

20 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL As particle size decreases, conductivity decreases Metallic Nanoparticles

21 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL How and why do the chemical and physical properties of nanosamples differ from those of macrosamples of the same substance? Extendable Nanoparticles

22 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Name three physical properties that are affected by surface energy? 2.How were the physical properties affected by surface energy? 3.What do you think is the difference between extendable and discrete nanoparticles? Making Connections

23 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color, Conductivity © McREL Lesson 1.2 What Makes Nanoscience so Different? What makes Nanoscience so different? Compare Newtonian and Quantum Chemistry Regimes as they relate to nanoscale science Lesson 1.3 What Makes Nanoscience so Important? Interdisciplinary science The development of new technologies and instrumentation applications whose risk and benefits have yet to be determined Lesson 3.1 Carbon Chemistry Lesson 1.1 What is Nanoscience? What is Nanoscience? Examine and Compare size: macro, micro, sub- micro (nano) SI prefixes Lesson 2.2 Extendable Solids: Reactivity, Catalysis, Adsorption The difference between the energy at the surface atoms and energy of the interior atoms results in increased surface energy at the nanoscale Higher surface energy allowing for increased reactivity, adsorption and catalysis at the nanoscale Lesson 2.3 Extendable Structures: Melting Point, Color Conductivity In Extendable Structures: Melting point decreases because surface energy increases Color changes because electron orbital changes with decreased particle size Electrical conductivity decreases because electron orbital changes with decreased particle size Lesson 3.2 Fullerenes and Nanotubes Lesson 2.1 Extendable Solids As the size of the sample decreases the ratio of surface particles to interior particles increases in ionic and metallic solids Poster Assessment Students will further investigate the essential question that they have considered throughout the module: How and why do the chemical and physical properties of nanosamples differ from those of macrosamples? Module Flow Chart


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