2Properties can be classified as: 2.1Describing MatterProperties can be classified as:a. Physical: malleability, conductivity, density, color, odor, volume, mass, etc…b. Chemical: flammability, reactivity.
3Physical Properties can be classified as: Describing MatterPhysical Properties can be classified as:a. Extensive: a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample b. Intensive: a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample.
6Intensive Properties Examples Hardness Color Density 2.1Describing MatterIntensive Properties ExamplesHardnessColorDensityBoiling/Melting PointOdorThis bowling ball and candlepin are used in a game played mainly in New England
7Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesIdentifying SubstancesDo all samples of a substance have the same intensive properties?
8Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesMatter that has a uniform and definite composition is called a substance.The copper kettles are about 150 years old.
9Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesThis sculpture of a falcon is made of gold. Gold is an example of a substance.This gold falcon standard from Egypt is about 3000 years old. Analyzing Data Which of the properties listed in Table 2.1 could not be used to distinguish copper from gold?
10Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesEvery sample of a given substance has identical intensive properties because every sample has the same composition.Examples: elements and compoundsThis gold falcon standard from Egypt is about 3000 years old. Analyzing Data Which of the properties listed in Table 2.1 could not be used to distinguish copper from gold?
11Identifying Substances 2.1Identifying SubstancesA physical property is a quality or condition of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance’s composition.Hardness, color, conductivity, and malleability are examples of physical properties.
12Three commonly discussed states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. 2.1States of MatterThree commonly discussed states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas.(others: Plasma, Bose Einstein Condensate)
13A solid is a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume. 2.1States of MatterSolidsA solid is a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume.The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a solid, the particles are packed closely together in a rigid arrangement.
142.1States of MatterLiquidA liquid is a form of matter that has an indefinite shape, flows, yet has a fixed volume.The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a liquid, the particles are close together, but they are free to flow past one another.
15(indefinite shape and volume) 2.1States of MatterGasesA gas is a form of matter that takes both the shape and volume of its container.(indefinite shape and volume)The arrangement of particles is different in solids, liquids, and gases. In a gas, the particles are relatively far apart and can move freely. Relating Cause and Effect Use the arrangements of their particles to explain the general shape and volume of solids and gases.
162.1States of MatterVapor describes the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature, as in water vapor.
17Physical Changes 2.1 How can physical changes be classified?
182.1Physical ChangesDuring a physical change, some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change.As gallium melts in a person’s hand, the shape of the sample changes, but the composition of the material does not change.The silvery substance in the photograph is gallium, which has a melting point of 30°C. Inferring What can you infer about the temperature of the hand holding the gallium?
19Physical changes can be classified as reversible or irreversible. 2.1Physical ChangesPhysical changes can be classified as reversible or irreversible.All physical changes that involve a change from one state to another are reversible (evaporation, condensation, etc...)Cutting hair, filing nails, and cracking an egg are examples of irreversible physical changes.
212.1 Section Quiz.1. Which of the following would be described as an extensive property of matter?temperaturecolormasshardness
222.1 Section Quiz.2. Which properties can be observed without changing the composition of a substance?all properties of a substanceintensive propertieschemical propertiesphysical properties
233. Match the states of matter with the following descriptions: 2.1 Section Quiz.3. Match the states of matter with the following descriptions:(1) takes the volume and shape of its container(2) has a definite shape and volume(3) has a definite volume but an indefinite shape(1) liquid, (2) solid and (3) gas(1) gas, (2) solid, and (3) liquid(1) gas, (2) liquid, and (3) solid