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PowerPoint ® Presentation Engine Operation Chapter 3 Engine Components Four-Stroke Cycle Engines Two-Stroke Cycle Engines Valving Systems Diesel Engines.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Presentation Engine Operation Chapter 3 Engine Components Four-Stroke Cycle Engines Two-Stroke Cycle Engines Valving Systems Diesel Engines."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PowerPoint ® Presentation Engine Operation Chapter 3 Engine Components Four-Stroke Cycle Engines Two-Stroke Cycle Engines Valving Systems Diesel Engines Turbo Chargers Engine Output

3 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The engine block is the main structure of the engine which helps maintain alignment of internal and external engine components.

4 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Engine displacement is determined by the bore and stroke of the engine.

5 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The crankcase breather functions as a check valve to maintain crankcase pressure and to route gases to the carburetor.

6 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Cast aluminum alloy cylinder blocks with cast iron cylinder sleeves combine the light weight of aluminum with the durability of cast iron.

7 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The head gasket is placed between the cylinder block and cylinder head to seal the combustion chamber and to provide even heat distribution.

8 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The crankshaft is the main rotating component of the engine and is commonly made of ductile iron.

9 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The piston acts as the movable end of the combustion chamber and is designed to utilize the forces and heat created during engine operation.

10 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Piston rings commonly used on small engines include the compression ring, wiper ring, and oil ring.

11 Chapter 3 Engine Operation A connecting rod is designed to withstand sudden impact stresses from combustion and piston movement.

12 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Bearings and bearing surfaces are subjected to radial, axial (thrust), or a combination of radial and axial loads.

13 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Small engines commonly have two main bearings to provide a low-friction bearing surface on each end of the crankshaft.

14 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Rod bearings provide a low-friction pivot point between the connecting rod and the crankshaft and the connecting rod and piston.

15 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The flywheel supplies inertia to dampen acceleration forces caused by combustion intervals in an engine.

16 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The intake event occurs when the air- fuel mixture is introduced into the combustion chamber as the piston moves from TDC to BDC.

17 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The compression event is an engine operation event in which the trapped air-fuel mixture is compressed to form the charge.

18 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The compression ratio of an engine is a comparison of the volume of the combustion chamber with the piston at BDC and TDC.

19 Chapter 3 Engine Operation During the ignition event, atmospheric oxygen and fuel vapor in the charge are consumed by the progressing flame front.

20 Chapter 3 Engine Operation During the power event, hot expanding gases force the piston head away from the cylinder head.

21 Chapter 3 Engine Operation During the exhaust event, piston movement evacuates exhaust gases to the atmosphere.

22 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Valve overlap is the period between the exhaust event and the intake event when the piston nears TDC.

23 Chapter 3 Engine Operation A two-stroke cycle engine completes five events in one operating cycle.

24 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Two-stroke valves are widely used in the outdoor power equipment industry for hand-held equipment applications such as chain saws, trimmers, and leaf blowers.

25 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Valves seal the combustion chamber to control the flow of air-fuel mixture into the cylinder and exhaust gases out of the cylinder.

26 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Valve location determines whether an engine is an L-head or OHV engine.

27 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Timing marks on the cam gear and crankgear indicate the proper gear teeth mesh required to prevent damage to engine components.

28 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Valving systems on two-stroke cycle engines require fewer parts and are less complicated than four-stroke cycle engine valving systems.

29 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Diesel engines use an injection pump to deliver pressurized fuel to the cylinder at precise intervals.

30 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The injector is hydraulically activated by the pressurized fuel delivered from the injection pump.

31 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Heat in the glow plug is created by resistance to current passed through a heating coil.

32 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Load is increased or decreased by adding or removing water from the impeller housing of a water dynamometer.

33 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The electric dynamometer measures brake horsepower by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.

34 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The eddy current dynamometer measures engine torque using load from the magnetic field produced by current in eddy current coils.

35 Chapter 3 Engine Operation The prony brake dynamometer measures engine torque using an adjustable brake that exerts pressure on a spring scale.

36 Chapter 3 Engine Operation Engine horsepower decreases 3 1/2% for each 1000 above sea level.


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