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Presentation on theme: "IDENTIFICATION AGE Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA."— Presentation transcript:


2 AGE Physical development Teeth
Ossification centres- appearance & fusion Age related changes

3 Age in intra uterine life
From birth to 25 years More than 25 years

4 Age in intra uterine life
Developing morphology Ossification centres appear Germination of teeth Haase’s rule-age in lunar months If Crown heel length is <25 cm, age in months = square root of length If Crown heel length is >25 cm, age in months = length / 5

5 From birth to 25 years Physical features Teeth Ossification of bones

6 Temporary teeth TOOTH ERUPTION Lower central incisor 6-8months Upper central incisor 7-9 months Upper lateral incisor 7-9 months Lower lateral incisor months First molar months Canine months Second molar months

7 Permanent teeth TOOTH ERUPTION First molar 6-7 yrs
Central incisor yrs Lateral incisor yrs 1st premolar yrs 2nd premolar yrs Canine yrs 2nd molar yrs 3rd molar yrs

8 Ossification centres Wrist & Hand in children
Elbow, shoulder, pelvis, knee in adults Skull, vertebrae & sternum in old people

9 More than 25 years Physical features Teeth- Gustafson s method
Changes in skeleton- closure of skull sutures

10 Gustafson s method Attrition Paradentosis Secondary dentine
Root resorption Transparency of root Cementum apposition

11 Gustafson s method Age = 11.43 + 4.56 (Total score) +/- 3.63
Total score = A+P+S+R+T+C 0 = no change 1 = slight change 2 = obvious change 3 = maximum change

12 Medico legal importance of AGE
Criminal responsibility Judicial punishment Kidnapping Rape Marriage Attainment of majority Employment Impotence & sterility Criminal abortion Infanticide

13 Criminal responsibility
Sec 82 IPC- child < 7 yrs, no criminal responsibility (in Malaysia 10yrs) Sec 83 IPC- child 7-12 yrs, liable for punishment (in Malaysia 10-12yrs) Indian Railways Act- child < 5 yrs not liable for punishment

14 Judicial punishment Juvenile offender- BELOW 18 yrs Juvenile court
Rehabilitation school

15 Consent Sec 89 IPC- child < 12 yrs cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which may occur from an act done in good faith & for his/ her benefit. Sec 87 IPC- child < 18 yrs cannot give valid consent( implied or expressed) to suffer any harm which may result from an act not intended or not known to cause death or grievous hurt. E.g. wrestling contest

16 Kidnapping Sec IPC- offence of kidnapping- girl less than 18, boy less than 16 yrs Malaysia-girl >16, boy>14yrs) Sec 369 IPC- child less than 10 yrs Sec 366(A), 372, 373 IPC- less than 18 yr girl for Prostitution Sec 366(B)importing less than 21 yr girl for Prostitution

17 Rape Sec 375 IPC – girl below 16 yrs Wife below 15 yrs

18 Marriage Child Marriage Act Girl above 18 & boy above 21

19 Cohabitation Section 493 I.P.C
Every man who by deceit causes any woman who is not legally married to him to believe that she is lawfully married to him and to cohabit or have sexual intercourse with him in that belief, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten year, and shall also be liable for fine

20 Cohabitation The law presumes that no woman would cohabit, unless deceived by the man There is danger among “live-in” relationships for the woman to falsely accuse the man of having deceived her, and thereby send the man behind bars for 10 yrs !!

21 Attainment of majority
18 yrs Adult franchise Driving license When guardian appointed by Court, person attains majority at age 21

22 Employment Child labour - below 15 yrs Adolescent labour- 15- 18 yrs
Adult labour- more than 18 yrs Indian Factory Act- child below 14 cannot be employed in hazardous jobs AMENDMENT: any child below the age of 14yrs cannot work

23 Infanticide Killing of an infant (child below 1 yr) CRIMINAL ABORTION
Viability- after 7 months Gestational age of foetus important in case of criminal abortion in view of enhanced punishment

24 Evidence in Court 118 of IEA - No minimum age Sterility & Impotence
A boy is sterile before puberty , may not be impotent before puberty A girl is sterile before puberty & after menopause

25 1. Which of the following is NOT a criterion used in Gustafson's method of assessing age from teeth
a) Attrition b) Paradentosis c) Secondary dentine d) Primary dentine

26 2. According to Section 89 IPC, a child cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which can occur from an act done in good faith, if he/she is below a) 10 years b) 14 years c) 12 years d) 16 years

27 3. According to Haase’s rule, the intra-uterine age of a foetus (up to a crown-heel length of 25cm) can be determined by a) Calculating the square root of the crown- heel length. b) Dividing the crown-heel length by 5. c) Multiplying the crown-heel length by 5. d) Doubling the crown-heel length.

28 4. Beyond a crown-heel length of 25cms, the age of foetus can be determined by
a) Age = length/ 2 b) Age = (length)2 c) Age = length/ 5 d) Age = length x 5

29 5. The minimum age for criminal responsibility according to the Indian Railways Act is
a) More than 5 years b) More than 7 years c) More than 12 years d) More than 14 years

30 6. A girl is sent to reformatory school on being convicted of a criminal offence, if her age is less than a) 15 years b) 16 years c) 17 years d) 18 years

31 8. The study of incremental lines in the enamel of tooth to assess the age of a person is known as
a) Haase’s rule b) Morissons’s Method c) Boyde’s Method d) McNaughten Rule

32 9. When a boy of 5 years kills an infant he can be awarded
a) Death Sentence b) Life Imprisonment c) Solitary confinement d) None of them.

33 10. To become a competent witness, a person should attain the age of :
a) 12 years b) 10 years c) 8 years d) 6 years e) None of them



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