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IDENTIFICATION AGE Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA.

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Presentation on theme: "IDENTIFICATION AGE Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA."— Presentation transcript:

1 IDENTIFICATION AGE Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA Dr. AJEE KURUVILLA

2 AGE Physical development Physical development Teeth Teeth Ossification centres- appearance & fusion Ossification centres- appearance & fusion Age related changes Age related changes

3 Age in intra uterine life Age in intra uterine life From birth to 25 years From birth to 25 years More than 25 years More than 25 years

4 Age in intra uterine life Developing morphology Developing morphology Ossification centres appear Ossification centres appear Germination of teeth Germination of teeth Haases rule-age in lunar months Haases rule-age in lunar months If Crown heel length is <25 cm, age in months = square root of length If Crown heel length is <25 cm, age in months = square root of length If Crown heel length is >25 cm, age in months = length / 5 If Crown heel length is >25 cm, age in months = length / 5

5 From birth to 25 years Physical features Physical features Teeth Teeth Ossification of bones Ossification of bones

6 Temporary teeth TOOTHERUPTION Lower central incisor 6-8months Lower central incisor 6-8months Upper central incisor7-9 months Upper central incisor7-9 months Upper lateral incisor7-9 months Upper lateral incisor7-9 months Lower lateral incisor 10-12months Lower lateral incisor 10-12months First molar 12-14 months First molar 12-14 months Canine 17-18 months Canine 17-18 months Second molar20-30 months Second molar20-30 months

7 Permanent teeth TOOTHERUPTION First molar6-7 yrs First molar6-7 yrs Central incisor6-8 yrs Central incisor6-8 yrs Lateral incisor8-9 yrs Lateral incisor8-9 yrs 1 st premolar9-11 yrs 1 st premolar9-11 yrs 2 nd premolar10-12 yrs 2 nd premolar10-12 yrs Canine11-12 yrs Canine11-12 yrs 2 nd molar12-14 yrs 2 nd molar12-14 yrs 3 rd molar17-25 yrs 3 rd molar17-25 yrs

8 Ossification centres Wrist & Hand in children Wrist & Hand in children Elbow, shoulder, pelvis, knee in adults Elbow, shoulder, pelvis, knee in adults Skull, vertebrae & sternum in old people Skull, vertebrae & sternum in old people

9 More than 25 years Physical features Physical features Teeth- Gustafson s method Teeth- Gustafson s method Changes in skeleton- closure of skull sutures Changes in skeleton- closure of skull sutures

10 Gustafson s method Attrition Attrition Paradentosis Paradentosis Secondary dentine Secondary dentine Root resorption Root resorption Transparency of root Transparency of root Cementum apposition Cementum apposition

11 Gustafson s method Age = 11.43 + 4.56 (Total score) +/- 3.63 Age = 11.43 + 4.56 (Total score) +/- 3.63 Total score = A+P+S+R+T+C 0 = no change 1 = slight change 2 = obvious change 3 = maximum change

12 Medico legal importance of AGE Criminal responsibility Criminal responsibility Judicial punishment Judicial punishment Kidnapping Kidnapping Rape Rape Marriage Marriage Attainment of majority Attainment of majority Employment Employment Impotence & sterility Impotence & sterility Criminal abortion Criminal abortion Infanticide Infanticide

13 Criminal responsibility Sec 82 IPC- child < 7 yrs, no criminal responsibility Sec 82 IPC- child < 7 yrs, no criminal responsibility (in Malaysia 10yrs) (in Malaysia 10yrs) Sec 83 IPC- child 7-12 yrs, liable for punishment Sec 83 IPC- child 7-12 yrs, liable for punishment (in Malaysia 10-12yrs) (in Malaysia 10-12yrs) Indian Railways Act- child < 5 yrs not liable for punishment Indian Railways Act- child < 5 yrs not liable for punishment

14 Judicial punishment Juvenile offender- BELOW 18 yrs Juvenile court Rehabilitation school

15 Consent Sec 89 IPC- child < 12 yrs cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which may occur from an act done in good faith & for his/ her benefit. Sec 89 IPC- child < 12 yrs cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which may occur from an act done in good faith & for his/ her benefit. Sec 87 IPC- child < 18 yrs cannot give valid consent( implied or expressed) to suffer any harm which may result from an act not intended or not known to cause death or grievous hurt. E.g. wrestling contest Sec 87 IPC- child < 18 yrs cannot give valid consent( implied or expressed) to suffer any harm which may result from an act not intended or not known to cause death or grievous hurt. E.g. wrestling contest

16 Kidnapping Sec 361-366 IPC- offence of kidnapping- girl less than 18, boy less than 16 yrs Sec 361-366 IPC- offence of kidnapping- girl less than 18, boy less than 16 yrs Malaysia-girl >16, boy>14yrs) Malaysia-girl >16, boy>14yrs) Sec 369 IPC- child less than 10 yrs Sec 369 IPC- child less than 10 yrs Sec 366(A), 372, 373 IPC- less than 18 yr girl for Prostitution Sec 366(A), 372, 373 IPC- less than 18 yr girl for Prostitution Sec 366(B)importing less than 21 yr girl for Prostitution Sec 366(B)importing less than 21 yr girl for Prostitution

17 Rape Sec 375 IPC – girl below 16 yrs Sec 375 IPC – girl below 16 yrs Wife below 15 yrs Wife below 15 yrs

18 Marriage Child Marriage Act Child Marriage Act Girl above 18 & boy above 21

19 Cohabitation Section 493 I.P.C Section 493 I.P.C Every man who by deceit causes any woman who is not legally married to him to believe that she is lawfully married to him and to cohabit or have sexual intercourse with him in that belief, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten year, and shall also be liable for fine

20 Cohabitation The law presumes that no woman would cohabit, unless deceived by the man The law presumes that no woman would cohabit, unless deceived by the man There is danger among live-in relationships for the woman to falsely accuse the man of having deceived her, and thereby send the man behind bars for 10 yrs !! There is danger among live-in relationships for the woman to falsely accuse the man of having deceived her, and thereby send the man behind bars for 10 yrs !!

21 Attainment of majority 18 yrs Adult franchise Adult franchise Driving license Driving license When guardian appointed by Court, person attains majority at age 21

22 Employment Child labour - below 15 yrs Child labour - below 15 yrs Adolescent labour- 15- 18 yrs Adolescent labour- 15- 18 yrs Adult labour- more than 18 yrs Adult labour- more than 18 yrs Indian Factory Act- child below 14 cannot be employed in hazardous jobs AMENDMENT: any child below the age of 14yrs cannot work

23 Infanticide Killing of an infant (child below 1 yr) Killing of an infant (child below 1 yr) CRIMINAL ABORTION Viability- after 7 months Viability- after 7 months Gestational age of foetus important in case of criminal abortion in view of enhanced punishment Gestational age of foetus important in case of criminal abortion in view of enhanced punishment

24 Evidence in Court 118 of IEA - No minimum age 118 of IEA - No minimum age Sterility & Impotence A boy is sterile before puberty, may not be impotent before puberty A girl is sterile before puberty & after menopause

25 1. Which of the following is NOT a criterion used in Gustafson's method of assessing age from teeth a) Attrition b) Paradentosis c) Secondary dentine d) Primary dentine

26 2.According to Section 89 IPC, a child cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which can occur from an act done in good faith, if he/she is below a) 10 years b) 14 years c) 12 years d) 16 years

27 3. According to Haases rule, the intra-uterine age of a foetus (up to a crown-heel length of 25cm) can be determined by a) Calculating the square root of the crown-heel length. b) Dividing the crown-heel length by 5. c) Multiplying the crown-heel length by 5. c) Multiplying the crown-heel length by 5. d) Doubling the crown-heel length.

28 4. Beyond a crown-heel length of 25cms, the age of foetus can be determined by a) Age = length/ 2 b) Age = (length) 2 c) Age = length/ 5 d) Age = length x 5

29 5.The minimum age for criminal responsibility according to the Indian Railways Act is a) More than 5 years b) More than 7 years c) More than 12 years d) More than 14 years

30 6. A girl is sent to reformatory school on being convicted of a criminal offence, if her age is less than a) 15 years b) 16 years c) 17 years d) 18 years

31 8. The study of incremental lines in the enamel of tooth to assess the age of a person is known as a) Haases rule b) Morissonss Method c) Boydes Method d) McNaughten Rule

32 9. When a boy of 5 years kills an infant he can be awarded a) Death Sentence b) Life Imprisonment c) Solitary confinement d) None of them.

33 10. To become a competent witness, a person should attain the age of : a) 12 years b) 10 years c) 8 years d) 6 years e) None of them

34 THANK YOU


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