2 AGE Physical development Teeth Ossification centres- appearance & fusionAge related changes
3 Age in intra uterine life From birth to 25 yearsMore than 25 years
4 Age in intra uterine life Developing morphologyOssification centres appearGermination of teethHaase’s rule-age in lunar monthsIf Crown heel length is <25 cm, age in months = square root of lengthIf Crown heel length is >25 cm, age in months = length / 5
5 From birth to 25 yearsPhysical featuresTeethOssification of bones
15 ConsentSec 89 IPC- child < 12 yrs cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which may occur from an act done in good faith & for his/ her benefit.Sec 87 IPC- child < 18 yrs cannot give valid consent( implied or expressed) to suffer any harm which may result from an act not intended or not known to cause death or grievous hurt. E.g. wrestling contest
16 KidnappingSec IPC- offence of kidnapping- girl less than 18, boy less than 16 yrsMalaysia-girl >16, boy>14yrs)Sec 369 IPC- child less than 10 yrsSec 366(A), 372, 373 IPC- less than 18 yr girl for ProstitutionSec 366(B)importing less than 21 yr girl for Prostitution
18 MarriageChild Marriage ActGirl above 18 & boy above 21
19 Cohabitation Section 493 I.P.C Every man who by deceit causes any woman who is not legally married to him to believe that she is lawfully married to him and to cohabit or have sexual intercourse with him in that belief, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten year, and shall also be liable for fine
20 CohabitationThe law presumes that no woman would cohabit, unless deceived by the manThere is danger among “live-in” relationships for the woman to falsely accuse the man of having deceived her, and thereby send the man behind bars for 10 yrs !!
21 Attainment of majority 18 yrsAdult franchiseDriving licenseWhen guardian appointed by Court, person attains majority at age 21
22 Employment Child labour - below 15 yrs Adolescent labour- 15- 18 yrs Adult labour- more than 18 yrsIndian Factory Act- child below 14 cannot be employed in hazardous jobsAMENDMENT: any child below the age of 14yrs cannot work
23 Infanticide Killing of an infant (child below 1 yr) CRIMINAL ABORTION Viability- after 7 monthsGestational age of foetus important in case of criminal abortion in view of enhanced punishment
24 Evidence in Court 118 of IEA - No minimum age Sterility & Impotence A boy is sterile before puberty , may not be impotent before pubertyA girl is sterile before puberty & after menopause
25 1. Which of the following is NOT a criterion used in Gustafson's method of assessing age from teeth a) Attritionb) Paradentosisc) Secondary dentined) Primary dentine
26 2. According to Section 89 IPC, a child cannot give valid consent to suffer any harm which can occur from an act done in good faith, if he/she is belowa) 10 yearsb) 14 yearsc) 12 yearsd) 16 years
27 3. According to Haase’s rule, the intra-uterine age of a foetus (up to a crown-heel length of 25cm) can be determined bya) Calculating the square root of the crown- heel length.b) Dividing the crown-heel length by 5.c) Multiplying the crown-heel length by 5.d) Doubling the crown-heel length.
28 4. Beyond a crown-heel length of 25cms, the age of foetus can be determined by a) Age = length/ 2b) Age = (length)2c) Age = length/ 5d) Age = length x 5
29 5. The minimum age for criminal responsibility according to the Indian Railways Act is a) More than 5 yearsb) More than 7 yearsc) More than 12 yearsd) More than 14 years
30 6. A girl is sent to reformatory school on being convicted of a criminal offence, if her age is less thana) 15 yearsb) 16 yearsc) 17 yearsd) 18 years
31 8. The study of incremental lines in the enamel of tooth to assess the age of a person is known as a) Haase’s ruleb) Morissons’s Methodc) Boyde’s Methodd) McNaughten Rule
32 9. When a boy of 5 years kills an infant he can be awarded a) Death Sentenceb) Life Imprisonmentc) Solitary confinementd) None of them.
33 10. To become a competent witness, a person should attain the age of : a) 12 yearsb) 10 yearsc) 8 yearsd) 6 yearse) None of them