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Assessing Child Growth in Primary Care Ramesh Mehay, Bradford.

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1 Assessing Child Growth in Primary Care Ramesh Mehay, Bradford

2 Introduction There should be no hesitation in referring short children. Children with hormonal deficiencies need treatment as early as possible Each year that passes without appropriate replacement therapy represents some loss in final adult height.

3 Why are boys taller than girls after Puberty? Growth Spurt : boys enter this spurt 2 years later than girls During 2 year period, boys grow at 5cm/y (10cm total) ; girls grow at 8cm/y (16cm total) Age 14 : girls stop growing; boys now growing 8cm/ year (16 cm) Because boys stop growing 2y later, (5cm/year) they are at least 10cm taller

4 Facts n Figures: who is bigger than who? Average heights (UK): F : 5 4 M 5 9 < 11B=G G>M >14 B>G (by around 5) Complete fusion Girls Boys 18-21

5 A 12 year old girl is referred to you after a school medical because of concerns about short stature. How would you assess her

6 Measuring Procedure Remove the childs shoes Ask him to stand with heals against wall or plate As an assistant to hold the feet on the ground, so that the childs heels do not rise when you ask him to stretch upwards Make sure the child is standing straight. Press the thighs and pelvis gently backwards against the surface of the wall or measuring device Ensure that the upper margin of the auditory meatus is in a line with the angle of the orbit Stretch the child gently upwards with traction under the angle of the jaw and ask him to take a deep breath Measure with your eye in line with the scale to avoid parallax errors Plot on chart

7 Plotting stuff on a chart Use charts to assess growth Supine length up to age 2; standing height thereafter Take 2 measurements in a 12 month period Accuracy is the key Correct for prematurity Plot mid parental height – but remember not that accurate, 0.7 correlation

8 The Assessment – Worry or Not? HISTORY Find out the reasons for parental concern; take a review of systems enquiry – gut, heart, chest, GUS, CNS A good screening question: is the child growing out of his trousers or shoes EXAMINATION If you suspect short stature: look for additional signs and symptoms (=dysmorphic syndromes): examine for asymmetry, limb or spine shortening, general appearance (triangular facies and clinodactyly of Silver-Russell syndrome), evidence of systematic illness, heart murmurs (congential heart disease), Nail changes ( spooning = turners, renal failure; finger clubbing = ?IBD ), early pubertal changes, webbed neck and wide carrying angle (Turners)

9 MEASUREMENTS Record & plot the birthweight and gestation Note parental heights; plot mid parental height (expect most children to reach a height at full growth within 8cm of mid parental height centile) (MAKE SURE PARENTS DONT HAVE A GROWTH DISORDER) Get past growth records Ascertain past or present illnesses Take two measurements to assess growth velocity (but think about early referral too) Crossing the centile lines for height is worrying and usually demands investigations PROVIDING the measurements are take over 12 months apart

10 Comparing Height & Weight If W>H: primary growth problem likely (familial, genetic, bone dysplasia, syndromal or hormonal) If W=H: primary growth problem possible If W

11 Tests FBP, U&E, creatinine, Ca, Phosphorus, Alk Phos, TFTs. Skeletal Survey (anthropometry) (latter = child development centres); other lab tests as per clinical findings Turners = refer for chromosomal analysis (karyotyping) GH deficiency – refer for provocation test X-rays for bone age

12 More Facts n Figures At age 4 height = birth length x 2 At age 13 height = birth length x 3 Puberty = causes a brief acceleration of the height velocity (usually 5cm but can be up to 10cm per year)

13 Important Causes of Short Stature Short stature = height below the 3rd centile Genetic & familial IUGR Malnutrition & Psychosocial Deprivation Endocrine (hypothyroidism, GH deficiency) Chronic Diseases Chondrodystrophies

14 Whats This?

15 Whats this?

16 Tall Stature Usually a rare complaint. Often when parents are worried about their daughters becoming too tall. Refer as soon as the problem is presentated: early treatment is essential if the aim is to reduce the adult height by any significant amount CAUSES Genetic & Familial Marfans Klinefleters Thyrotoxicosis Growth Hormone Excess Precociouc Puberty

17 Excellent resources on click online resource > clinical stuff > paeds Lets look at some charts

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