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Introduction to Dental Anatomy

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1 Introduction to Dental Anatomy
Dental Anatomy Course Introduction to Dental Anatomy Msd Fábio Tunes

2 Dental Anatomy


4 Arrangement of Teeth Primary Dentition refers to the twenty deciduous teeth, also called “baby teeth”. Secondary Dentition refers to the thirty-two permanent teeth. The dentition is divided into two arches: upper and lower, also known as maxillary and mandibular arches. Each arch is arranged into a right and a left half. Thus there are four quadrants. The line that divides left and right quadrants is the median line or midline of the face.

5 Arrangement of Teeth

6 Arrangement of Teeth The permanent teeth that replace the deciduous teeth are called succedaneous teeth. Permanent molars are nonsuccedaneous teeth. The permanent premolars replace the deciduous molars. A mixed dentition is composed of some permanent and some deciduous teeth.

7 Naming and Coding Teeth
Dentition-arch-quadrant-tooth ex: permanent-max-left-central incisor Universal System 1-32 permanent teeth A-T deciduous teeth

8 Palmer Notation System
Each of the four quadrants is given his own prefix symbol. The number or letter assigned to the tooth depends on its position relative to the midline. The first number indicates the quadrant and whether the tooth is permanent or deciduous.

9 Palmer Notation System
Second premolar First premolar First molar Second molar Third molar Central incisor Lateral incisor Maxillary Right Maxillary Left Midline Canine 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Maxillary- Mandibular dividing line 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mandibular Right Mandibular Left Permanent Teeth

10 Palmer Notation System
Second molar First molar Central incisor Lateral incisor Canine Maxillary Right Maxillary Left E D C B A A B C D E E D C B A A B C D E Mandibular Right Mandibular Left Primary Teeth

11 FDI System (Fédération Dentaire Internationale)
Each tooth – permanent or deciduous is given a two-digit number The second digit indicates the position of the tooth relative to the midline The first number indicates the quadrant and whether the tooth is permanent or deciduous

12 FDI System of Permanent Teeth

13 FDI System of Deciduous Teeth

14 Universal System of Permanent Teeth

15 Universal System of Deciduous Teeth

16 Development and Form 6th week of fetal life deciduous teeth begin to develop from tooth germs 4th month of fetal life permanent teeth begin to develop 4-5th month of fetal life primary teeth begin to calcify. This process continues until ~3-4th year after birth, when the roots of deciduous teeth are fully formed Birth permanent teeth begin to calcify and continue until ~25th year (third molar roots)

17 Developmental Lobes Each tooth begins to develop from 4 or more growth centers or developmental lobes Anterior teeth and maxillary premolars develop from 4 lobes – 3 labials and lingual. As the lobes grow, they coalesce. The lines formed by the fusion are called developmental grooves Mamelons are the incisal ridges of the three labial developmental lobes of anterior teeth The lingual lobe makes up the cingulum of the tooth

18 Developmental Lobes

19 Lobes and Cusps Maxillary premolars – 3 facial lobes/1 lingual lobe 3 facial high buccal cusp lingual large lingual cusp Mandibular 1st premolar same as above except smaller lingual cusp Mandibular 2nd premolar a) 2 cusp variety same as mand. 1st premolar b) 3 cusp variety buccal lobes-2 lingual lobes leading to two lingual cusps (ML and DL)

20 Four lobes of Maxillary Second Premolar

21 Lobes and Cusps Max. 1st molar: Max 2nd molar: Max 3rd molar:
two major facial lobes (MB,DB) one major lingual lobe (ML) one minor lingual lobe (DL) one rudimentary lobe (Carabelli) Max 2nd molar: 4 lobes; usually does not have cusp of carabelli Max 3rd molar: 3-4 lobes

22 Lobes and Cusps of Maxillary Molars

23 Lobes and Cusps Mand. 1st molar: 5 lobes
4 major cusps (MB, DB, ML, DL) 1 minor cusp (D) Mand 2ed molar: 4 lobes, cusps. Mand. 3rd molar: 4 lobes, cusps. The most unpredictable teeth in size and shape. They are also the most likely to be missing.

24 Lobes and Cusps of Mandibular Molars

25 Eruption General rules:
Mandibular teeth usually precede maxillary (about 1 month). Teeth in both jaws erupt in pairs ( one on the right and one on the left). Teeth usually erupt earlier in girls than in boys. all deciduous teeth usually erupted by 2 3/4 years old.

26 Eruption of Deciduous Teeth
Central incisors months Lateral incisors months 1st molars months canines months 2nd molars months

27 Eruption of Permanent teeth
1st molar – 1st permanent tooth to erupt. They emerge distal to the deciduous 2nd molars (~6 years old). Mesial drift occurs Spaces between deciduous teeth are closed. If deciduous tooth is lost prematurely, the permanent molar moves into the available space a may keep a premolar or canine from erupting.

28 Eruption of Permanent Teeth
Exfoliation: process by which the roots of a baby tooth are resorbed and dissolved until the tooth falls out. As a permanent tooth erupts, the pressure activates osteoclasts which in turn destroy the roots of deciduous teeth. Permanent teeth erupt lingually to the deciduous teeth.

29 Most Common Pattern of Eruption
Mand 1st molars – Max 1st molars Mand central incisors – Max central incisors Mand lateral – Max lateral Mand canines – Mand 1st PM- Max 1st PM Max 2nd PM – Mand 2nd PM - Max Canine Mand 2nd molars – Max 2nd molars Mand 3rd molars – Max 3rd molars

30 Pattern of Eruption Note:
1. Max canines usually do not erupt until premolars have erupted. 2. Mand canines and 1st Premolars often erupt simultaneously. 3. Max 2nd premolars often erupt before the mandibular counterparts.

31 Pattern of Eruption 3rd molars:
Do not appear until 17 years of age or later Most likely to be impacted (Mandibular > Maxillary) Most common teeth to be congenitally missing

32 Pattern of Eruption As teeth erupt and meet their antagonist on the opposing arch, they form the occlusal plane. The line of the occlusal surfaces is known as occlusal plane. The curved alignment of the occlusal plane is known as curve of Spee.


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