2Heat in Changes of State 17.3During a race, an athlete can burn a lot of calories that either do work or are released as heat. This section will help you to understand how the evaporation of sweat from your skin helps to rid your body of excess heat.
3Heats of Fusion and Solidification 17.3Heats of Fusion and SolidificationHeats of Fusion and SolidificationHow does the quantity of heat absorbed by a melting solid compare to the quantity of heat released when the liquid solidifies?
4Heats of Fusion and Solidification 17.3Heats of Fusion and SolidificationThe molar heat of fusion (∆Hfus) is the heat absorbed by one mole of a solid substance as it melts to a liquid at a constant temperature.The molar heat of solidification (∆Hsolid) is the heat lost when one mole of a liquid solidifies at a constant temperature.
5Heats of Fusion and Solidification 17.3Heats of Fusion and SolidificationThe quantity of heat absorbed by a melting solid is exactly the same as the quantity of heat released when the liquid solidifies; that is, ∆Hfus = –∆Hsolid.
10for Sample Problem 17.4Problem Solving Solve Problem 21 with the help of an interactive guide tutorial.
11Heats of Vaporization and Condensation 17.3Heats of Vaporization and CondensationHeats of Vaporization and CondensationHow does the quantity of heat absorbed by a vaporizing liquid compare to the quantity of heat released when the vapor condenses?
12Heats of Vaporization and Condensation 17.3Heats of Vaporization and CondensationThe amount of heat necessary to vaporize one mole of a given liquid is called its molar heat of vaporization (∆Hvap).The amount of heat released when 1 mol of vapor condenses at the normal boiling point is called its molar heat of condensation (∆Hcond).
13Heats of Vaporization and Condensation 17.3Heats of Vaporization and CondensationThe quantity of heat absorbed by a vaporizing liquid is exactly the same as the quantity of heat released when the vapor condenses; that is, ∆Hvap = –∆Hcond.
14Heats of Vaporization and Condensation 17.3Heats of Vaporization and Condensation
15Heats of Vaporization and Condensation Animation 21Observe the phase changes as ice is converted to steam when heat is added.
16Heats of Vaporization and Condensation 17.3Heats of Vaporization and CondensationEnthalpy changes accompany changes in state.Enthalpy changes accompany changes in state. Fusion and vaporization are endothermic processes. Solidification and condensation are exothermic processes. Interpreting Diagrams Which arrows represent processes that release heat to the surroundings?
17Heats of Vaporization and Condensation 17.3Heats of Vaporization and CondensationA heating curve graphically describes the enthalpy changes that take place during phase changes. INTERPRETING GRAPHS a. Identify In which region(s) of the graph is temperature constant? b. Describe How does the amount of energy required to melt a given mass of ice compare to the energy required to vaporize the same mass of water? Explain. c. Apply Concepts Which region of the graph represents the coexistence of solid and liquid? Liquid and vapor?
22for Sample Problem 17.5Problem-Solving Solve Problem 24 with the help of an interactive guided tutorial.
2317.3Heat of SolutionHeat of SolutionWhat thermochemical changes can occur when a solution forms?
2417.3Heat of SolutionDuring the formation of a solution, heat is either released or absorbed.The enthalpy change caused by dissolution of one mole of substance is the molar heat of solution (∆Hsoln).
2517.3Heat of SolutionWhen ammonium nitrate crystals and water mix inside the cold pack, heat is absorbed as the crystals dissolve.The cold pack shown has two sealed plastic bags, one inside the other. The outer bag contains ammonium nitrate crystals. The inner bag contains liquid water. When the pack is squeezed, the inner bag breaks, allowing the ammonium nitrate and water to mix. Inferring How would you define the system and the surroundings in this process?
3217.3 Section Quiz.1. The molar heat of condensation of a substance is the same, in magnitude, as its molar heat offormation.fusion.solidification.vaporization.
33may increase or decrease. increases. decreases. 17.3 Section Quiz2. The heat of condensation of ethanol (C2H5OH) is 43.5 kJ/mol. As C2H5OH condenses, the temperature of the surroundingsstays the same.may increase or decrease.increases.decreases.
3417.3 Section Quiz3. Calculate the amount of heat absorbed to liquefy 15.0 g of methanol (CH3OH) at its melting point. The molar heat of fusion for methanol is 3.16 kJ/mol.1.48 kJ47.4 kJ1.52 103 kJ4.75 kJ
3517.3 Section Quiz4. How much heat (in kJ) is released when 50 g of NH4NO3(s), moles, are dissolved in water? ssoln = 25.7 kJ/mol12.85 kJ13.1 kJ25.7 kJ1285 kJ