Presentation on theme: "Impacts and solutions for environmental issues caused by tourism Jozsef Szilagyi."— Presentation transcript:
Impacts and solutions for environmental issues caused by tourism Jozsef Szilagyi
What are the impacts? Trail erosion Air, noise and water pollution Littering Decreased diversity in flora and fauna Aesthetic degradation Deforestation
Solutions so far Costa Rica Long-term deforestation: Encouraging land owners by the government (cash payments through international donations and nationwide taxes) Land owners job: tree plantation, safeguarding biodiversity, scenic beauty and water management Beach management: The Blue Flag Ecological Program Organizing of coastal communities for administration and surveillance of the sanitary quality of Costa Ricas beaches Qualified beaches are awarded depending on: Quality of beach waters Bacteriological condition of water meant for human consumption Solid and liquid waste management Environmental education and involvement of the community Beaches are monitored on monthly basis Because of the countrys low annual downfall, there might not be enough fresh water Financing new water systems In January 2008, Manuel Antonio inaugurated a new aqueduct, this satisfies needs of the 3300 Manuel Antonio residents and up to 6500 hotel guests, as well as much of the surrounding Aguirre County
Kenya Interventions and initiatives: Tourism provides vital funding for national parks and other conservation areas Tourism in the Parc Des Volcans of Rwanda generates USD 1 million annually, which is used to support the management of all protected areas in the country. Kenyas Amboseli National Park each lion or elephant herdi s worth USD 27,000 or USD 610,000 per year, respectively, in tourism revenue. This motivates wildlife protection and conservation In countries like Madagascar, 50% of park entrance fee is allocated to sustainable development projects for the local people Tourism contributes to environmental conservation through improved environmental management and planning through control of tourism activities and use of environment-friendly technology Policy interventions Policy involving local communities in the management of wildlife and ensuring that they received some of the wildlife benefits. Use of regulation and other policy instruments to ameliorate such negative impacts of tourism as social and cultural pollution and damage to the environment Increase in park entry fees to ensure adequate resources for environmental conservation Promotion of ecotourism as a tool for achieving rational utilization of environmental and cultural resources Introduction of environmental impact assessment studies and green certification as prerequisites for the approval of proposed tourism projects Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999), which empowers individual Kenyans to sue those who degrade or pollute the environment
Industry Initiatives Ecotourism Society of Kenya (ESOK, operating since 1996): brings together commercial, conservation and local community stakeholders to promote sustainable tourism development: Publishing ecotourism regulations and codes of conduct Increasing environmental awareness Providing professional, advisory and consultancy services in all aspects of ecotourism development. Other industry initiatives: The Kenya Tourism Board is marketing uncrowded tourist attractions (Tsavo, Samburu and Meru national parks) as a way of relieving the overcrowded ones Hotels and lodges located in tourism areas (Amboseli) have been involved in environmental rehabilitation through tree planting since 1991. For example, Serena Hotel has planted half a million trees, recognized with environmental award. Tourists and other donors are invited to contribute. This hotel has also started a Green Turtles Conservation Project at the coast. This project pays local fishermen to locate turtle nests. Eggs collected from these nests are protected and cared for (by a marine biologist employed by the hotel) until they hatch, after which the turtles are released into the ocean.
Mara Management Committee and the Ministerial Licensing Commission 5 year moratorium over new developments conserve water through using appropriate taps and other implements, recycling water, maintaining equipment to prevent leakage, minimizing water use and educating staff on conservation Energy conservation using energy-saving bulbs, solar energy or fuel briquettes (made from waste materials), putting up notices about switching off electricity when it is not required, sensitizing staff on energy conservation, regularly maintaining energy-using equipment Composting of organic waste to produce manure for use in flower gardens, giving vegetable waste to farmers, and using wetlands as part of sewerage systems Some tour operators abide by the park regulations and create awareness among tourist about the environment, how to avoid causing adverse impact, and park rules. Some hotels conduct educational programmes for the communities living around them on how to coexist with wildlife. They also train the relevant staff (such as driver guides) on environmental management.
Challenges of initiatives The main challenge confronting industry initiatives is the high cost of change coupled with the lack of funds.
Sweden Responsible waste management: waste sorting (frequently pursued in offices and kitchens, not in guest rooms) Textiles and draperies should be changed every 5 years, while furniture and most other equipment should be changed every 10 years. Many of them are in good condition, they can be donated, longing the life span of it, this minimizes their environmental costs.