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ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION COMMENTS Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy.

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Presentation on theme: "ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION COMMENTS Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION COMMENTS Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST IN AN ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION Budapest, 22 October 2004

2 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Comments 4 Questions for discussion 4 Third, where should the line be drawn in defining SGEI? Services such as telecommunications have become almost exclusively market-based, whereas postal services in most countries remain under the SGEI umbrella

3 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 In the good old days of the centrally planned economy… 4 …there were productive infrastructure and improductive infrastructure distinguished. 4 Productive ones were transport and telecommunications, energy, and water management; while health, education, housing, administrative and personal services were considered as improductive ones.

4 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION SECTORS Agriculture Manufacturing Heavy industry Productive services Improductive services

5 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION SECTORSProductionConsumption Agriculture Manufacturing Heavy industry Network services Human services

6 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Now we are in the good new days of European integration… 4 …and open the Annex of the White Paper on SGI at Definition of Terms. 4 The term services of general interest cannot be found in the Treaty itself. It is derived in Community practice from the term services of general economic interest which is used in the Treaty. …SGI is broader than SGEI and covers both market and non-market services…

7 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 The term services of general economic interest is used in Article 16 and 86(2) of the Treaty. It is not defined in the Treaty or in secondary legislation. However, in Community practice there is a broad agreement that the term refers to services of an economic nature which the Member States or the Community subject to specific public obligations by virtue of the general interest criterion. The concept of services of general economic interest thus covers in particular certain services provided by the big network industries such as transport, postal services, energy and communications. However the term also extends to any other economic activity subject to public service obligations. (Stressed by me T. F.)

8 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4Services of an economic nature 4 Economic services –transport, postal services, energy, communications 4 Social services –education, health, housing 4 Ecological services ? –waste management, water issues 4 Territorial services ?

9 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION SECTORS Agriculture Manufacturing Heavy industry Economic services Non-economic services

10 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 But in this case we should speak about 4 Economic Services of General Interest (ESGI) 4 rather than Services of General Economic Interest 4 …and also about Social Services of General Interest 4 …and Environmental Services of General Interest 4 …and Territorial Services of General Interest 4 …but still we need the definition of the General Interest and General Economic Interest

11 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Services of General Interest (SGI) 4 The term general means here relating to the whole Community while general interest means the interest of the EU as a whole. (=common interest or Community interest) 4 Consequently the term services of general interest relates to those services, where beside the provider and the consumer there is also a third interested party, namely, the Community as a whole on the output side. 4 This SGI are not identical to sectors (transport or postal services) on the input side, but rather different activities from different sectors that dispose with enough positive external contribution towards the aims of the Community to make worthy influencing the market for them.

12 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Services of General Economic Interest (SGEI) 4 The term services of general economic interest relates to those sub-groups of the services of general interest, where the external benefit that is the interest of the Community on the output side is an economic one. 4 For example such case is if the existence of a given service offers a contribution to the economic competitiveness of the Community. The service itself can be an economic one or a social one it is not important in the context of assuring a general economic interest, because it is the output side that form the interest to be economic. 4 It would be useful to fix which are those economic objectives of the Community that need such kind of support.

13 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Services of General Social Interest (SGSI) 4 Services of General Spatial Interest (SGTI) 4 Services of General Environmental Interest (SG?I) 4 Following the case of the economic interest, it is not a problem any more to define similarly the social, territorial or environmental interest too. If the output of a given service activity offers an external contribution to the respective objectives of the Community, then a kind of assessment can be elaborated for assuming if the amount of the contribution is eligible for a special support or not.

14 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Separating the economic, social, environmental, spatial interests can be useful when we want to solve the problem of metering the external benefits of different activities. 4 In the same time there are service activities, that parallely offer positive effect for two or more types of objectives: f. e. economical and social benefits in the same time. So it is clear, that the disintegration of the objectives can help us to understand the place of the different interests on the output side, but at the end it will certainly be necessary to integrate again the impacts and turn back to the concept of the services of general interest that can unify the economic, the social, the territorial and the environmental interest including the mixed ones. 4 time ? three more minutes ?

15 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION COMMENTS Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST IN AN ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION Budapest, 22 October 2004 THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION !

16 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 European Interest 1 – the extension of the TEN network toward the East 4 White Paper 3.3 …the Commissions policy in the area of trans-European networks is improving access to transport, energy and communications networks in the more remote area and will assist in linking the new Member States with the infrastructure of the Fifteen… 4 What does this linking mean?

17 Source: Az országos közúthálózat évekre szóló-fejlesztési programja 1991, KHVM. Road numbering since 1975 – the first signal of corridors ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION

18 4 Eastern extension of the grid of the TEN

19 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Eastern extension of the grid of the TEN

20 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Eastern extension of the grid of the TEN

21 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Eastern extension of the grid of the TEN

22 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Eastern extension of the grid of the TEN

23 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 Eastern extension of the grid of the TEN

24 Source: The Helsinki-, or pan-European road transport corridors ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION

25 4 European Interest 1 – the extension of the TEN network toward the East 4 The extension of the TEN was rather the extension of the east-west corridors of the TEN than the extension of the grid itself. It reflected the Fifteens interest rather than the general interest of the enlarged European Union.

26 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 European Interest 2 – the adaptation of the CTP priorities 4 White Paper 3.1 …the Commission intends, whenever required, to make proposals for sector-specific regulation only in areas that, like the large network industries, have a clear Europe-wide dimension and present a strong case for defining a European concept of general interest.

27 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 European Interest 2 – the adaptation of the CTP priorities 4 When the transition countries followed the objectives of the CTP and gave similar priority and importance to the construction of the inter-regional corridors, as it was seen in the Common Transport Policy, they overestimated the significance of this supranational level in territorial cohesion relative to the importance of the domestic main and local level networks. The development of the main corridors is necessary, but the proportionally good performance of the internal (national, local) level is similarly important. Without good local networks the expected advantages can not penetrate into the local economy - to achieve cohesion.

28 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION 4 European Interest 3 – the structure/pattern of the inter- regional networks within the country 4 As a further problem, the otherwise over-prioritised inter-regional corridors are constructed in a mistaken over-centralised structure that also slow down the rise of the adaptive capacity of the Hungarian economy.

29 Distinguishing centripetal and centrifugal network patterns Source: Rodrigue, J-P ( ), Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION

30 The road interpretation of the planned pan-European corridors in Hungary - follow the earlier over-centralised pattern ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION

31 An alternative possibility to cross the country with the corridors in a new structure The model also shows the possibility of avoiding the most sensible areas of the country ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION

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34 Forrás: Fleischer Tamás – Magyar Emőke – Tombácz Endre – Zsikla György (2001): A Széchenyi Terv autópálya-fejlesztési programjának stratégiai környezeti hatásvizsgálata. 109 p. A Budapesti Közgazdaságtudományi és Államigazgatási Egyetem Környezettudományi Intézetének tanulmányai, 6. szám. Sorozatszerkesztő Kerekes Sándor és Kiss Károly. Budapest, 2001 december ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION

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36 4 European Interest 1 – the extension of the TEN network toward the East was rather the extension of the east-west corridors of the TEN than the extension of the grid itself. It reflected the Fifteens interest rather than the general interest of the enlarged European Union. 4 European Interest 2 – during the adaptation of the EU (CTP) priorities the transition countries overestimated the significance of the TEN (supranational) level in territorial cohesion. Without good local networks the expected advantages can not penetrate into the local economy, to achieve cohesion – so good local network is a general interest. 4 European Interest 3 – the structure/pattern of the inter- regional networks within Hungary follow an over- centralised structure that is also a barrier in the development of the adaptive capacity of the country.

37 ACCESS TO SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST AND TERRITORIAL AND SOCIAL COHESION COMMENTS Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST IN AN ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION Budapest, 22 October 2004 THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION !


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