Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

TRANSPORT POLICY OF HUNGARY – AND ITS CONTEXT Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "TRANSPORT POLICY OF HUNGARY – AND ITS CONTEXT Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSPORT POLICY OF HUNGARY – AND ITS CONTEXT Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Central European University 13 th February, 2013

2 2 Transport Policy of Hungary – and its European context 4 What is a policy ? 4 What is the transport policy ? 4 The structure of a good policy document 4 Documents and contexts of the EU and Hungarian transport policies of the last two decades (a list) 4 About the history 4 About the main problems 4 About the processes 4 About the documents and not sub-sectors, navigation, Malév, privatisation, bicycle roads, urban transport, constructions etc. 4 Conclusion (I tell it now): too many documents called all strategies, and much less strategic thinking and use of strategies.

3 3 Transport Policy of Hungary – and its European context 4 What is a policy ? 4 A policy is a principle or rule to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. 4 Basic principles by which a government is guided. 4 A policy is an intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. 4 Declared objectives of a government to achieve and preserve in the interest of national community. 4 Co-ordinated governance intent and strategy to direct and control a given government sector or field towards declared objectives and basic principles. 4 What is the transport policy ? 4 Co-ordinated governance intent and strategy to direct and control the transportation field towards declared objectives and basic principles. 4 The structure of a good sector policy => (see later)

4 4 Transport Policy of Hungary – and of the European Union

5 5 Hungarian Transport Policy Transport Policy of Hungary – and of the European Union

6 6 Hungarian Transport Policy Transport Policy of Hungary – and of the European Union

7 7 Hungarian Transport Policy „Time to decide” Transport Policy of Hungary – and of the European Union

8 8 „White Paper” 1992 Hungarian Transport Policy „Time to decide”

9 9 „White Paper” 1992 Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide”

10 10 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide”

11 11 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘

12 12 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘99 TEN revision 2004 (29 April)

13 13 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘99 TEN revision 2004 (29 April) Basic prin- ciples, trans- port geog- raphy, change of gene- ral objec- tives, consi- dera- tions …

14 14 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘99 TEN revision 2004 (29 April) Basic prin- ciples, trans- port geog- raphy, change of gene- ral objec- tives, consi- dera- tions … Com- ments, re- marks, inter-, preta- tions

15 15 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘99 TEN revision 2004 (29 April) Basic prin- ciples, trans- port geog- raphy, change of gene- ral objec- tives, consi- dera- tions … Com- ments, re- marks, inter-, preta- tions Historical background, past and evolution of transport and transport policies etc.

16 16 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘99 TEN revision 2004 (29 April) Basic prin- ciples, trans- port geog- raphy, change of gene- ral objec- tives, consi- dera- tions … Pro- cess of Euro- pani- sation: deep- ening and wide- ning; HU from transi- tion to acc- ess Com- ments, re- marks, inter-, preta- tions Historical background, past and evolution of transport and transport policies etc.

17 17 „White Paper” 1992 Trans-European Networks Hungarian Transport Policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996 „Time to decide” 2001 Pan-European Corridors’97, TINA ‘99 TEN revision 2004 (29 April) Basic prin- ciples, trans- port geog- raphy, change of gene- ral objec- tives, consi- dera- tions … Pro- cess of Euro- pani- sation: deep- ening and wide- ning; HU from transi- tion to acc- ess Devel- opment of other poli- cies: land use, enviro- nment protec- tion, infor- matics, urban devel- opment Com- ments, re- marks, inter-, preta- tions Historical background, past and evolution of transport and transport policies etc.

18 18

19 19 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

20 20 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

21 21 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

22 22 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

23 23 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

24 24 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Sub-sectors 2008 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

25 25 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Revision of TEN-T guidelines 2009…10…11… Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Sub-sectors 2008 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

26 26 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Revision of TEN-T guidelines 2009…10…11… „Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area: Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System” EU White Paper 2011 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Sub-sectors 2008 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

27 27 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Revision of TEN-T guidelines 2009…10…11… New Széchenyi Plan 2011 with Chapter Transport „Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area: Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System” EU White Paper 2011 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Sub-sectors 2008 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

28 28 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Revision of TEN-T guidelines 2009…10…11… New Széchenyi Plan 2011 with Chapter Transport „Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area: Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System” EU White Paper 2011 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Sub-sectors 2008 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Széll Kálmán Plan 2011 with Chapter Transport Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

29 29 New Hungary Development Plan 2006 National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 NHDP Transport Operational Program (KözOP) 2007 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Green Paper 2007 Revision of TEN-T guidelines 2009…10…11… New Széchenyi Plan 2011 with Chapter Transport „Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area: Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System” EU White Paper 2011 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), Sub-sectors 2008 Integrated Transport Development Strategy (EKFS), White Paper 2007 Széll Kálmán Plan 2011 with Chapter Transport National Transport Strategy (preparation ) Revision of WP’2001 in 2006

30 30

31 31 From the past of our ‘transport policy’ István Széchenyi – The role of Budapest, the role of the transport

32 32 Source: Frisnyák Sándor (1992) Magyarország történeti földrajza Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest

33 33 Source: Frisnyák Sándor (1992) Magyarország történeti földrajza Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest

34 34 Source: Frisnyák Sándor (1992) Magyarország történeti földrajza Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest

35 35 Source: Frisnyák Sándor (1992) Magyarország történeti földrajza Tankönyvkiadó, Budapest

36 36

37 37 4 Before 1992 –There was no integrated transport policy in the union, single sectorial targets main motivation was the regulation of the competition 4 EU CTP 1992 „Single network to the single market” –Integrated transport policy – but focus on one single layer (international level) –Inter-modality, interoperability, free access, corridors, TEN-T, single market 4 EU Transport Policy 2001: „Time to Decide” –Main target: decoupling the link between the economic and the transport growth - focus on limiting road transport through charging, - with efficiency measures in other modes, - and with targeted investments… …into the TEN networks… Common Transport Policy (CTP) of the EU 1992 and 2001

38 38 Source: Az országos közúthálózat évekre szóló-fejlesztési programja 1991, KHVM. The birth of corridor thinking, renumbering the roads in 1975 TEN and its extension to the east

39 39 TEN and its extension to the east 4 What does the eastern extension of the TEN means ?

40 40 4 Extension of the grid toward the east TEN and its extension to the east

41 41 4 Prolongation of the east-west corridors TEN and its extension to the east

42 42 TEN and its extension to the east 4 Prolongation of the east-west corridors

43 43 TEN and its extension to the east 4 Prolongation of the east-west corridors

44 44 Source: Helsinki, or Pan-European transport corridors TEN and its extension to the east

45 45 Dilemmas of the Central European Transport Policy in time of the EU Enlargement 4 European Interest 1 – Corridors ( TEN-T ) in western Europe were based on the internal demand of the EU area, namely on the necessity of the interconnection of well developed national networks (“Single network to the single market”) 4 European Interest 2 – the extension of the TEN-T network toward the East was rather the extension of the east-west corridors of the TEN-T than the extension of the grid itself. It reflected the Fifteen’s interest rather than the overall interest of the enlarged European Union. 4 European Interest 3 – during the adaptation of the EU ( CTP ) priorities the transition countries overestimated the significance of the TEN-T (supranational) level in territorial cohesion. Without proper local networks the expected advantages can not penetrate into the local economy to promote cohesion – good local network is a general interest. 4 Special Interest 4 – the structure/pattern of the inter-regional networks within Hungary follows an over-centralised structure that cause special barrier in the development of the adaptive capacity of the country.

46 46 Road map of Hungary

47 47 Road network of Hungary 1950s Source: Magyarország útikönyv 1955

48 48 Traffic volume on the roads of Hungary Source: KTI

49 49 Hungarian road network: secondary roads The secondary road network of Hungary reserved the imprint of the cart tracks connecting villages

50 50 Patkó Károly: Útjavítók (1928)

51 51 Hungarian road network: main roads The main road network created a new structure and interconnected towns to each other

52 52 Hungarian road network: main roads with motorways 1990 The new inter-regional road system didn’t create a new structure, but has been built on the main roads

53 53 Hungary planned to lead the transit traffic through its most heavily loaded areas that would need rather protection TEN and its extension to the east

54 54 Source: KHEM homepage Gyorsforgalmi úthálózat

55 55 Hungarian Transport Policy Five strategic objectives of the Hungarian transport policy adopted in (1) supporting successful integration into the European Union; 4 (2) promoting the co-operation with the neighbouring countries; 4 (3) promoting a more balanced territorial development of the country; 4 (4) protection of the human life of the built and the natural environment; 4 (5) effective and market-oriented transport regulation. 4 While the objectives formed a well-balanced system of criteria, in the reality the first objective ( integration into the European Union ) has got an absolute priority, in an understanding that above all it is the main corridors that serve that target.

56 56 Hungarian Transport Policy Five strategic objectives of the Hungarian transport policy adopted in (1) supporting successful integration into the European Union; 4 (2) promoting the co-operation with the neighbouring countries; 4 (3) promoting a more balanced territorial development of the country; 4 (4) protection of the human life and of the built and the natural environment; 4 (5) effective and market-oriented transport regulation (?). 4 Foreign, internal, territorial, social, environmental, economic 4 While the objectives formed a well-balanced system of criteria, in the reality the first objective ( integration into the European Union ) has got an absolute priority, in an understanding that above all it is the main corridors that serve that target.

57 57 4 Transport policy 1996 Splitting the strategic objectives Main strategic objectives Target fields 1. Supporting successful integration into the European Union 2. Promoting the co- operation with the neigh- bouring countries 3. Promoting a more balanced territorial develop- ment of the country 4. Protection of the human life and of the environ- ment 5. Effective and market- oriented …??? Infrastructure and vehicles Service, operation, traffic Regulation, financing and implementation + human policy Hungarian Transport Policy 1996

58 58 Transport Policy of Hungary – and its European context 4 The structure of a good sector policy: 4 General principles of the society (equity, justice etc.) external factors 4 More detailed, now relevant still society based objectives of the government politics (spatial balance, better environment, etc) still external factors (‘main strategic objectives’) 4 Transport sector specific objectives in order to reach the general political objectives (less emission, public transport priority etc.) 4 Priorities, programs to promote and reach the sector-specific objectives 4 Sets of task to serve and achieve priorities and programs 4 …list of projects (not policy level)

59 59 Main strategic objectives 1. Supporting successful integration into the European Union 2. Promoting the co- operation with the neigh- bouring countries 3. Promoting a more balanced territorial develop- ment of the country 4. Protection of the human life and of the environ- ment 5. Effective and market- oriented …??? Transport specific main objectives TEN-T ???Rebuild border crossing possibilities … Better secondary national transport networks ??? Traffic safety, SEA prescrip- tions… … An important step was missing… 4 Transport policy 1996 Splitting the strategic objectives Hungarian Transport Policy

60 60 Hungarian Transport Policy 2003– „Five” strategic objectives 4 „Its main strategic goals have remained mainly unchanged since the original transportation policy adopted in i.e.:” 4 improvement of the quality of the life, conservation of health, reduction of the territorial differences, increasing the traffic safety, protection of the built and natural environment; 4 supporting successful integration into the European Union; 4 improvement of the conditions of the contacts with the neighbouring countries and their enlargement; 4 aiding the implementation of the land use development objectives; 4 creation of the conditions of the efficient operation and maintenance with the aid of the regulated competition. 4 Altogether 32 objectives, goals, targets, aims etc. appeared in the document

61 61 4 Alternative suggestion to a homogeneous form of the strategic objectives (5): * Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Hungarian Transport Policy 2003–2015

62 62 4 Alternative suggestion to a homogeneous form of the policy goals (10): * 4 creating a sustainable, environment respecting transport system; 4 increasing transport safety; 4 prefering public transport relative to individual traffic 4 prefering water and rail transport and also combined transport 4 effective use of existing transport elements; 4 construction of missing infrastructure with the development of a less centralised network structure. 4 high level transport services; 4 use of up-to-date knowledge and info-technology; 4 to follow fares, supports, regulations used in the European Union 4 financing system that is calculable 4 an international level effective and competitive transport operation 4 * Based on the 32 objectives, goals, targets, aims etc. appeared in the document Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Hungarian Transport Policy 2003–2015

63 63 Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Hungarian Transport Policy 2003–2015

64 64 Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Hungarian Transport Policy 2003–2015

65 65 4 Few lessons: 4 The objectives and goals of the transport policy are not clearly declared, their grouping is not coherent, their appearance in the document doesn’t follow any logic of hierarchy 4 Important sub-sector programs (as the one on motorways) were adopted by the government few months before the transport policy, so the most important decisions were already fixed. 4 The strategic environmental assessment proved to be a useful tool, it was a pity that the transport policy was adopted itself before the finishing of the assessment. 4 The harmony between the objectives of the policy and those of the sustainability documents compared was at a medium level 4 The revision of the transport policy should be commenced without any delay. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Hungarian Transport Policy 2003–2015

66 66 Access: C3%96ZOP_070712_hu.pdf New Hungary Development Plan (2007) National Strategic Reference Framework of Hungary 2007–2013 Subtitle: Employment and Growth

67 67 New Hungary Development Plan (2007) Transport Operational Program „Priority axes” within the Chapter transport 4 (1) Improving the international accessibility (rail, road) of the country and its region-centres (external connections) 4 (2) Improvement of the regional accessibility (within and between regions: internal provision) 4 (3) Development the intermodality and transport infrastructure of economic centres, connection of transport modes (fright traffic hubs) 4 (4) development of public transport in cities and their agglomeration (personal traffic hubs) 4 It could have been the base of a good and reasonable program 4 Instead (1) TEN corridors, (2) other motorways and pavement enforcement on the main roads, ( the word ‘rail’ doesn’t occurs in this part ) 4 Nothing but the „space of flows”

68 68 Integrated Transport Development Strategy 2007 Access: (July 2007): kfs_0907.pdf

69 69 Integrated Transport Development Strategy There was a necessity to prove for the EU that there is a strategy behind the projects appearing in the Transport Operational Program 4 The strategy was built around the already accepted projects 4 Positive feature: really integrated transport survey. –Passenger transport –Freight transport –Infrastructure of the transport –Horizontal issues (here there is a chapter environment too) 4 Green Paper (2007), White Paper (2008), Sub-sector Paper

70 70 4 The New Széchenyi Plan is a development strategy based on the competence of the ministries of National Economy and National Development. Other fields covered by other ministries are partly or totally missing from the strategic document. (Transport belongs to the Ministry of National Development, so it is included, but there was relatively small harmonisation with the earlier transport documents). New strategies of 2011: Széchenyi Plan

71 71 4 The focal priority of the Széll Kálmán Plan is the dept decreasing, and it deals mainly with the sectors / sub-sectors where there are possibilities (by previous judgements) for the state to take back development sources or to get other revenues to help the dept problem. The two touched parts of the transport sector are the public transport and the road pricing. The idea is institutional reorganisation and centralisation in the public transport, and introducing electronic toll system for road pricing. The second seems to be in harmony with the sustainability aspects, while the public transport definitely needs some institutional reform, but any expectation on resource extraction from the public transport is based on misunderstanding of the wider context of transport feedbacks and may give support to the growth of the car traffic. 4 After one and a half year the above ideas partly has been changed or abandoned. New strategies of 2011: Széll Kálmán Plan

72 72 4 The National Transport Strategy has at the moment no documentation, just a consortium that gained a tender after two years of (tender-) preparation. 4 There is a detailed timetable, when the strategy must be ready. National Transport Strategy

73 73 Summary 4 A transport policy collects the governmental objectives and strategies promoting the operation and development of activities belonging to the transport sector. 4 The basic documents of the transport policy of the past decade are the White Papers (CTP) of the European Union in 1992, 2001 (Time to Decide) and 2011; – while in Hungary the national Transport Policy of 1996 and 2004 – (the latter is practically overwritten by newer and newer strategic documents). 4 The documents of the EU earlier focused mainly on the overlay level of the networks between the single countries. Copying the same priority of the construction of the corridors in domestic transport policies can be considered as a mistake. 4 Besides given an exaggerated priority of inter-regional axes, the Hungarian planners lead the through traffic across the conurbation of Budapest in a single-centred structure, and built also the network of the logistic centres on that structure.

74 TRANSPORT POLICY OF HUNGARY – AND ITS CONTEXT Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Central European University 13 th February, 2013 THANKS FOR THE ATTENTION


Download ppt "TRANSPORT POLICY OF HUNGARY – AND ITS CONTEXT Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics Centre for Economic and Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google