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Identity Identity, Identity Identity I scream into new life, I breath I see, touch, smell, taste, and feel I think, and thus conscious, he Man, asks what.

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Presentation on theme: "Identity Identity, Identity Identity I scream into new life, I breath I see, touch, smell, taste, and feel I think, and thus conscious, he Man, asks what."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identity Identity, Identity Identity I scream into new life, I breath I see, touch, smell, taste, and feel I think, and thus conscious, he Man, asks what and who am I Then probes the darkness of why

2 Alienation Man detached from nature Man detached from his old Gods Detached from himself and community by a technology that maximizes his wealth, reduces the drudgery of work, but threatens to destroy his world Detached from his creativity: the products of his work From his leisure and privacy From the complex social institutions that serve but almost always manipulate him(in the name of efficiency and profit) Detached from the community(a downside of Urbanization and globalization). Rendered powerless by his loss of control over the forces and events that determine his life. A victim of asymmetric information.

3 Reasons for Alienation Standardization, specialization, division of labour mechanization of the means of production: labour replacement technologies The replacement of the human being by modern technology as a creative productive factor; and as a critical decision maker. Depersonalization of exchange by new communications and information systems technologies. Domination of the spiritual self by the objective self in all aspects of human endeavour and life: suppression of moral and ethical self to the necessities of the market system and the complexities of the metropole. Fundamental changes caused by technological progress in human personality and the character of modern/urban man. Population growth and urbanization, ineffective design of cities and transportation systems prevents interpersonal communication Diversification of populations, emergence of ghettos, inequitable distribution of asset capacity, human assets, and income.Lack of social cohesion.

4 Complexities of the Canadian Metro-pole Two economies: a night economy and a day economy Money economies supported by complex financial institutions and practices with national and international net-works. Market economies carrying out billions of transactions, motivated by profit maximization. Rapid technological change. Very high degree of division of labour, specialization, and standardization. Diverse demand for product and services Population densities high compared with surrounding regions. Residential patterns: high degree of urbanization: donut effect evident Traffic problems: congestion and pollution effects Metropole is place of of residence to almost all new immigrants Dense concentration of arts, cultural and entertainment facilities and activities in Metropoles.

5 Jurisdictional Complexities Federal Provincial City and Boroughs In Montreal there are 27 Arrondissements that have their own administrative responsibilities separate from the City Administration itself. Some administrative and service delivery responsibilities are shared. Subject to the constitution, the Courts interpretation of it, and various agreements, all three governments may engage and assist citizens through a variety of programs. All three levels of Governments are involved in community economic development in Quebec under different types of approaches and agreements.

6 Cultural Diversity Complexities Bill 101 rules French is the only official language of Quebec The Canadian Constitution rules that French and English are the official Languages of Canada. This difference is a source and reflection of major tensions threatening the existence of the Country. It is at the heart of the conflict between English and French Quebecers with respect to rights in education, commerce. About 20% of all Quebecers are not French, and mostly speak English. Over 90% live in Montreal and surrounding territories. Each of the 27 Arrondissements are layered by a large number of different cultural communities. Visible minorities are a very significant proportion of the new immigrant populations living in Quebec. The diversification of Montreals population and the shifting patterns of the location of various cultural communities over the 27 Arrondissements have a number of important social, political, and economic implications

7 La Population Immigree et les Minorites Visibles de Montreal

8 Cultural Community Organizations Cultural community organizations have several purposes: defensive, corrective,redefinition, preservation of self, transformation of environment, provision of goods and services particular to the community. Integration and capacity development Community organizations compete within their communities and between communities for recognition and status, resources and services provided by the various levels of government and mainstream charitable agencies. Leaders in these communities guard their territories zealously. They raise barriers to entry against institutions external to their communities. This is more likely to occur the more sophisticated and established the institutional arrangements in the community are.

9 Who is Responsible for Community Development How is a community motivated to effect change and maintain momentum? Who should be involved What needs to be done? How do we avoid conflict between stakeholders hinder the pace of community development?

10 Opportunity for Engagement There are many opportunities for the CEDEC to engage in community development with local community organizations Provision of financial resources or assistance in gaining such resources Assistance in improving governance and management skills Capacity Development. Create partnerships in which the local community leadership and management is empowered, there is transferability of continuous learning capabilities to the community; and there is a transformation in thinking and attitudes.

11 Industrial Complexities of Montreal Montreal is an important manufacturing economy, more specifically in the clothing, leather, and aerospace industries. The economy has re-invented itself. Growth of new knowledge economy in Montreal causes high specialization in the labour market in Montreal. Has significant impact on employment in immigrant cultural communities In 2001, Non-immigrants made up 80.4% of Montreal labour force. All immigrants made up 18.5% and recent immigrants 4.2% Almost all growth in Montreals labour force in the last decade between censuses reflect a demand for skilled workers. Almost 80% of it came from university-level occupations, one-third of which were in the information technologies. Other important employment opportunities are in the biotechnologies in with special concentrations in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Motion picture and sound recording, Broadcasting and telecommunication are also important employers. There is a widening gap in labour market conditions between recent immigrants and non-immigrants. In 2001, there was a 21.8% gap in participation rates favouring non-immigrant men. It was even worse for recent immigrant women, a 33.9 percentage gap. This gap continues to persist despite the fact, as Statcan reports, that Canadian immigration policy has favoured the entrance of better educated immigrants.

12 The New Economy of Montreal Biotechnology Sector: 70% of the Quebec biotechnology sector is concentrated in the Greater Montreal area. Quebec is the first in Canada and 10 th in North America in terms of revenues generated by its biotechnological industry(Living in Montreal, Gov. of Quebec, 2003). Information Technologies: fields are telecommunications, multimedia, computer services and software, e-business and , micro- electronics and components, and computer equipment. 75% of the of the information technologies industry is concentrated in the Montreal area. It involves 5000 enterprises, including 100 multinationals. Generates $31 billion in revenues and creates 100, 000 jobs. Biopharmaceutical industry: Greater Montreal accounts for roughly 6000 R&D jobs and 41.6% of the R&D performed in the Canadian biopharmaceutical industry. Aerospace: Montreal is the aerospace capital of Canada. All the parts needed to manufacture an airplane are produced in the Greater Montreal area. The industry encompasses 260 enterprises

13 Implications of Immigrant Populations Integration problems: racism and systemic barriers to immigrants in the labour and human capital markets. Language issues. Education. Undervaluing of professional skills. Colour line barriers. Racial profiling New Productive skills and capital resources Offsets the negative economic effects of the aging of the population. Differences in genetic histories pose new challenges to the health care system. The multiplicity of cultures make Canadian culture more dynamic, exciting, and attractive. New skills, businesses based on Economically exploitable cultural characteristics and access to new markets.

14 Definition of Community A community may be defined as a group of residents in a specific geographic location acting on a common interest, That is to say a community of place, or A group sharing common interest that is not necessarily associated with a particular geographic region. That is to say a community of interest

15 Community Development Definitions

16 United Nations Definition Community Development: a holistic process through which the initiatives of Government are united with the people to improve social cohesion in their communities(i.e., social, cultural and economic conditions).

17 The Process of Community Development The process of community development can be as important as as its product. Some people argue or implicitly suggest that the goal of community development is increasing public participation no matter whether the outcomes are successful or not. I reject this as being inconsistent with the psychology of motivation; and as tending to generate activities that lead to the misallocation of scarce human resources: a meaningless series of meetings that have no clear outcomes. I will advocate a model of the process borrowed from Gary Green and Anna Haines (Asset Building Community Development).

18 A Community development Process Model Implementation And Evaluation Community organizing Visioning Planning Create Benchmarks and Indicators Do Projects A Vision Statement New Policies New Organizations New Organizations ? Create an action plan to the simplest to a comprehensive plan at the most ambitious

19 Visioning Process Coordinating committee meets to plan first workshop Community visioning workshop meets. Committee researches, brainstorms, and develops initial vision statement to facilitate discussion Establishment of a set of taskforces or regional and sector committees to organize community workshops for discussion and feedback. Key topic areas are set out for discussion, modification, deletion, addition, by broad cross section of community representatives Community visioning workshops convened and feedback collected and documented. Each taskforce organizes the feed back and prepares reports and summaries. Research teams collect data, analyze the data to prepare strategies and feasible action plans. Policies and strategic plan derived from the vision and policy propositions must conform to resource capacities.

20 Visioning Process (Continued) Further community Workshops are convened for revision and further feed back on the latest version of plan Action plan prepared by each task force on the basis of vision statement and community revisions. This is then organized into a final report. Final workshops may be called for review and buy in and approval by key stakeholders: Government agencies, business, and community partners. The final plan includes who is responsible for what, assigns budgets, indicates partners, etc Monitoring and Evaluation mechanisms should be part of final plan

21 Participation How is a community motivated to effect change? How does a community maintain momentum? Who in the community should get involved?

22 Types of Public Participation Public action Public involvement Electoral participation Obligatory participation

23 The Sherry Arnstein Ladder of Public Participation The ladder Citizen control Delegated power Partnership Placation Consultation Informing Therapy Manipulation Degrees of Tokenism Degrees of Citizen Power Non-participatory

24 Maintaining Public Participation Momentum Public participation is difficult to maintain It increases the complexity of decision making for the CBO Reaction time is slowed, a disadvantage when the organization needs to act quickly to take advantage of funding deadlines. The demand for funding and reporting require a professional staff.

25 Techniques for motivating Public Participation

26 Organizing For organizing to begin, it is sufficient for one person to find one thing that he/she wants to change. Organizing is a way of mobilizing people to work together to solve problems. Organizing involves the principles of project management: it involves the effective use of time, resources, people, processes,to achieve socially desired outcomes. Organizing has various forms but the form of specific interest to us is neighbourhood or community organizing The end purpose is problem solving

27 Models of Community Practice Social Action Social Planning Community Development

28 Social Action Model A group/community that finds itself low on the index of social cohesion in the society takes to correct the situation Makes demands on the larger community or government for better treatment, improved services, or basic changes in major institutions Seek redistribution of power, resources,and decision making authority Depends on radical interventions to redress inequalities Leaders are activists

29 Social Planning Uses a technical and strategic approach to solving community problems. Makes the assumption that the complexity of the urban environments where the majority of the cultural communities live require social scientists to identify the problems and professional planners and technicians to solve the problems. Building community capacity or fostering change is not central to this model

30 Community Development Presumes that community change can be pursued through a model of public participation. People are mobilized to be involved as partners with government in all the stages of policy making, to identify, plan and find solutions for social and economic problems and issues facing the community. Example: Montreal Summit The model assumes vigilence on the part of the citizen and community based organizations. The model does not reject outside expert advice, but sees it as an input to be used or rejected by the community rather than as a final solution. Model embodies the principles of democracy, a spirit of voluntarism, planning, quality management, and continuous learning by citizens and community based organizations.

31 Various Definitions of Community Development Local economic development Political empowerment Integrated service provision Housing programs Comprehensive planning Job-training programs

32 Community Development: objectives Solving local problems Addressing inequalities of wealth and power Promoting democratic values and practice Improving the potential of individual residents Building a sense of community

33 Community Development: Asset Building Approach Community capacity building is a planned effort to build assets that increase the capacity of residents to improve their quality of life. Asset building approach is a shift away from the needs assessment approach Assets are defined as the gifts, skills, and capacities of individuals, associations and institutions within the community The asset approach is a place-based approach Asset mapping an important stage in the process

34 Definition of Community Assets Physical Human Social Financial Environmental

35 Capacity Development Capacity development is not just human resource development or individual capacity development. Capacity building is a larger concept. It refers not merely to the acquisition of skills, but also to the capability to use them. This in turn is not only about employment structures, but also about social capital and the different reasons why people start engaging in civic action. Reference:Capacity For Development: New Solutions To Old Problems by S. Fukuda-Parr et al, see

36 Definition of Social Capital Social relations and networks serve as a form of capital These social resources require investment in time and energy, with the anticipation that individuals can tap into these resources when necessary Social relations are considered capital because they can be productive and improve the well being of residents

37 Two Forms of Social Capital Bonding capital: bringing people together who already know each other to strengthen the relationship that already exist.This could lead to fragmentation in the community. Bridging Capital: brings people together or groups that did not previously know each other. The goal is to create new social ties.

38 Services of Social Capital Emotional Support: advice, support, good neighbourliness, and friendship. Instrumental support: material aid and services, information and new social contacts. Like, babysitting, getting rides from others, lending money. Many of these services are carried out by churches, community associations,

39 Three Levels of capacity Development Individual: Enables the individual to embark on a continuous process of learning-building on existing knowledge and skills and extending these in new directions. Institutional: This too involves building on existing capacities. Do not duplicate initiates unnecessarily. Improving the quality of neighbourhood organizations. Societal: This involves capacity in the society as a whole.or transformation for development: creating the kind of opportunity in the public or private sector, that enables people to use and expand their capacities to the fullest. This will also depend on the social capital stock;sense of identity, belonging, togetherness, ownership, and the nature of the interactions between Citizens and local governments. All these layers of capacity are mutually interdependent. If one or the other is pursued on its own, development becomes skewed and inefficient. Reference: S. Fukuda- Parr et al

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