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Identity Identity, Identity Identity I scream into new life, I breath

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1 Identity Identity, Identity Identity I scream into new life, I breath
I see, touch, smell, taste, and feel I think, and thus conscious, he Man, asks what and who am I Then probes the darkness of why Ernest G Schachtel writing on alienated concepts of identity (Man Alone, Dell Publishing , 1962) says “man is not a logical proposition, and the paper identity does not answer the question, who this person, identified by some scrap of paper, is as a person.” With reference to Hegel and Marks he says, in modern capitalist society men are alienated from nature, alienated from each other, alienated from the work of their hands and mind, and alienated from themselves. Schachtel argues that self alienation the doubts about and search for identity, always goes together with alienation from others and the world around us. ( Man Alone, P74). I would think that one of the major purposes of community economic development is to return man’s self to him, to live within the bounds of an economic objectivity without loosing control of himself:maximizing social cohesion across all groups while sustaining the environment in which we live by employing socially acceptable sustainable economic development approaches to growth and the provision of needs.

2 Alienation Man detached from nature Man detached from his old Gods
Detached from himself and community by a technology that maximizes his wealth, reduces the drudgery of work, but threatens to destroy his world Detached from his creativity: the products of his work From his leisure and privacy From the complex social institutions that serve but almost always manipulate him(in the name of efficiency and profit) Detached from the community(a downside of Urbanization and globalization). Rendered powerless by his loss of control over the forces and events that determine his life. A victim of asymmetric information. Man Alone, p10: Man has become mechanized, routinized, made comfortable as an object, but in the profound sense displaced and thrown off balance as subjective creator and power.

3 Reasons for Alienation
Standardization, specialization, division of labour mechanization of the means of production: labour replacement technologies The replacement of the human being by modern technology as a creative productive factor; and as a critical decision maker. Depersonalization of exchange by new communications and information systems technologies. Domination of the spiritual self by the objective self in all aspects of human endeavour and life: suppression of moral and ethical self to the necessities of the market system and the complexities of the metropole. Fundamental changes caused by technological progress in human personality and the character of modern/urban man. Population growth and urbanization, ineffective design of cities and transportation systems prevents interpersonal communication Diversification of populations, emergence of ghettos, inequitable distribution of asset capacity, human assets, and income.Lack of social cohesion. The complexities of the metropole have a substantial impact on the psychical personality of the individual and life within the metropole itself. It exacts from man as a discriminating creature a different amount and types of consciousness than does rural environments. In the metropole man lives and is sustained by man made institutions and environments: manufacturing, financial services, trade and commerce, the sale of labour services for a share of its produce, etc. Whereas in rural areas man tends to live and be in harmony with the natural environment: forestry, fishing, hunting, agriculture. The speed and intensity of change in the metropole require dramatic adaptations on behalf of the urban dweller about who he/she is and his/her power to control the forces affecting his/her life. Yet the metropole is attractive for many reasons: it offers us opportunity to get work at remunerative rates that exceed those returned to economic activities in rural societies. It is intellectually stimulating. It offers a greater variety of entertainment. The night life is rich with cultural and entertainment activities offering greater opportunity for the introduction of non-mainstream cultural entertainment, goods and services, and employment of non-traditional skills. On the question of intellectual challenge. A friend of mine living in an off island suburb urged me to move from the inner-city to his neck of the woods. He thought that this gentrified suburb was more befitting a McGill man. I thought about his proposition for a short while then said: I will do that when life relegates me to a rocking chair sans sight, smell, taste. In NDG, I am stimulated to act when the City snow removal services are unacceptably poor, I am stimulated to act when the pollution in the air invades my bed room at night; I am stimulated to act when the the branches of the City trees on the street are coming through my window; I am stimulated to act when drive to work is made uncomfortable because of the pot holes in the streets. And in any case, where ever I live the police will still harass young Blacks and families driving home from the Sunday church services. On a daily basis the City poses more intellectual challenges than life in a rural setting.

4 Complexities of the Canadian Metro-pole
Two economies: a night economy and a day economy Money economies supported by complex financial institutions and practices with national and international net-works. Market economies carrying out billions of transactions, motivated by profit maximization. Rapid technological change. Very high degree of division of labour, specialization, and standardization. Diverse demand for product and services Population densities high compared with surrounding regions. Residential patterns: high degree of urbanization: donut effect evident Traffic problems: congestion and pollution effects Metropole is place of of residence to almost all new immigrants Dense concentration of arts, cultural and entertainment facilities and activities in Metropoles. Technological revolution/progress experienced over the last three decades in Canadian metropoles has transformed: The working conditions in the factories and the offices: from folk arts to commercial arts; from the crafts to machine assisted work, to robotism, to information systems and communication technology. The movement of peoples: movements from the rural areas and foreign countries to the Cities ; then from the inner city to the suburbs; increase in the distance between home and work 3.The neighbourhoods in which we live:made them less safe and less welcoming and caring. 4. The social and economic order that govern our lives by making it object oriented as opposed to spirit oriented: we listen to the head rather than the heart. 5. How we do business and communicate. Efficiency and the maximization of personal wealth as a status indicator have made our society more atomistic. Selfish individualism , materialism and moral decay have made us less trusting of others and thus alienated.

5 Jurisdictional Complexities
Federal Provincial City and Boroughs In Montreal there are 27 Arrondissements that have their own administrative responsibilities separate from the City Administration itself. Some administrative and service delivery responsibilities are shared. Subject to the constitution, the Court’s interpretation of it, and various agreements, all three governments may engage and assist citizens through a variety of programs. All three levels of Governments are involved in community economic development in Quebec under different types of approaches and agreements. The Federal Government has certain areas of jurisdiction, not always clearly demarcated from those of the Provinces. Education is clearly a provincial right and is mostly financed by the Provincial Governments. Health delivery is the responsibility of the Provincial governments but Financed by the Federal Government within the legal framework of the Canadian Health Act. The jurisdictions of the municipalities are determined by the Province. In the area of economic development both Federal and Provincial governments have jurisdiction subject to other rights and agreements. Both through their agencies may enter into agreements to address matters related to the development of citizens. In general, determining who does what or is responsible for what could be a mind boggling exercise. Given Quebec’s predisposition to nationhood or distinctiveness, that is frequently taken to higher levels of difficulty. Thus the Provincial government offers a wide range of programs directed at promoting community economic development alongside similar efforts by agencies of the Federal Government or the City. It is not unusual for all three levels government to be funding different aspect of the same community project. Or for that matter, for there to be an agreement between the Federal and the Provincial government to fund a program or series of programs of community or capacity development in a particular region.

6 Cultural Diversity Complexities
Bill 101 rules French is the only official language of Quebec The Canadian Constitution rules that French and English are the official Languages of Canada. This difference is a source and reflection of major tensions threatening the existence of the Country. It is at the heart of the conflict between English and French Quebecers with respect to rights in education, commerce. About 20% of all Quebecers are not French, and mostly speak English. Over 90% live in Montreal and surrounding territories. Each of the 27 Arrondissements are layered by a large number of different cultural communities. Visible minorities are a very significant proportion of the new immigrant populations living in Quebec. The diversification of Montreal’s population and the shifting patterns of the location of various cultural communities over the 27 Arrondissements have a number of important social, political, and economic implications SEE SLIDES ON: La Population Immigree et la Minorite visible de la Ville de Montreal 1996.

7 La Population Immigree et les Minorites Visibles de Montreal
Living in Montreal The Greater Montreal area has a population of nearly 3.3 million It is the only French-speaking metropolis in North America and the most populous urban area in Canada Area: 4, 000 square km (1, 356 square miles) around a core of 108 municipalities. The new Mega City consist of 27 Arrondissements. Montreal has 1.03 million , followed by Laval with 345,5000 inhabitants , and Longueil with 130,500 inhabitants.inhabitants The Island of Montreal has a population of 1.8million , equivalent to 53% of the population of Greater Montreal Area. The old City of Montreal accounts for 30% percent of the population of the old Greater Montreal area. Cities in the Northern Suburbs: 33 Cities in the Northern outskirts. 15% of the greater Montreal area’s population 7. Cities in the Southern suburbs. 46 municipalities and one Amerindian reserve in the Monteregie region south of the St Lawerence River and along the western edge of Lac Saint-Louis and Lac des Deux Montagnes. They account for 22% of the Greater Montreal area’s population.

8 Cultural Community Organizations
Cultural community organizations have several purposes: defensive, corrective,redefinition, preservation of self, transformation of environment, provision of goods and services particular to the community. Integration and capacity development Community organizations compete within their communities and between communities for recognition and status, resources and services provided by the various levels of government and mainstream charitable agencies. Leaders in these communities guard their territories zealously. They raise barriers to entry against institutions external to their communities. This is more likely to occur the more sophisticated and established the institutional arrangements in the community are. Given the arguments presented above, in Montreal there is the possibility for conflict between the CEDEC structures of the Federal Government and the CDEC structures put in place by the Provincial Government(Quebec), the City of Montreal, and Canadian Economic Development. For example the CDEC NDG-CDN have been serving the Communities of NDG and CDN for 10 years. This community based operation is involved a joint initiative with the Government of Quebec in the area of local and regional development. The Quebec Government has established a social economy fund to stimulate local and regional economic development, both private sector entrepreneurship as well as the social economy or community development. Will the CEDECs duplicate the community development initiatives of the CDECs or introduce conflicts over who is responsible for Community economic development in the boroughs that have existing CDECs. This needs to be worked out carefully.

9 Who is Responsible for Community Development
How is a community motivated to effect change and maintain momentum? Who should be involved What needs to be done? How do we avoid conflict between stakeholders hinder the pace of community development? Who is involved: Neighbourhood and community groups Public interest groups Community based agencies Individual citizens Public agencies: legislative committes, administrative agencies, regulatory agencies. Electorial officials: political parties, political candidates. Civil service agencies, tax officials, law enforcement oficers, court officers etc.

10 Opportunity for Engagement
There are many opportunities for the CEDEC to engage in community development with local community organizations Provision of financial resources or assistance in gaining such resources Assistance in improving governance and management skills Capacity Development. Create partnerships in which the local community leadership and management is empowered, there is transferability of continuous learning capabilities to the community; and there is a transformation in thinking and attitudes. Capacity development should not simply be an improvement in economic and social conditions but a change in the way people think about their communities and their responsibilities to those communities and society in general. It should be a societal transformation. We must therefore build the right capacities. Learning should be acquired in the process. This must be acquired at three levels of the community, the individual, the institution, and society. Pure individualism and self interests must be tempered by commitments to return something to the community. Moreover, political agendas that advance the singular objectives of the CEDEC or the Government partners must be minimized dramatically. That is to say the process of development must be driven from within the community and not from the desk of civil servants or simply motivated by the proximity of an election. The community managers must be encouraged to be industrious about the search for best practice and the adaptation of knowledge obtained in such a search to the specific needs of their community. On the provincial level there are several players in the arena of community economic development and capacity development. The Federal Government, the Provincial Government, the City and its Boroughs, and non-profit agencies and Community organizations. Examples of partnerships: Cree Regional Authority and Concordia; The Black Community Economic Program and the EIDMC; the Mayors Youth Foundation and Various Community Groups; The Provincial Government CDEC assisting and financing Various Community Projects. It is important that when the CEDEC engages in capacity development, that one understands at the CT and regional levels exactly what issues are involved; and that well defined approaches and strategies are set out in a document for the REDOs to follow. The CEDEC must bring potential players to the table around well researched proposals that have broad support in the particular communities (English speaking communities in Quebec).

11 Industrial Complexities of Montreal
Montreal is an important manufacturing economy, more specifically in the clothing, leather, and aerospace industries. The economy has re-invented itself. Growth of new knowledge economy in Montreal causes high specialization in the labour market in Montreal. Has significant impact on employment in immigrant cultural communities In 2001, Non-immigrants made up 80.4% of Montreal labour force. All immigrants made up 18.5% and recent immigrants 4.2% Almost all growth in Montreal’s labour force in the last decade between censuses reflect a demand for skilled workers. Almost 80% of it came from university-level occupations, one-third of which were in the information technologies. Other important employment opportunities are in the biotechnologies in with special concentrations in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Motion picture and sound recording, Broadcasting and telecommunication are also important employers. There is a widening gap in labour market conditions between recent immigrants and non-immigrants. In 2001, there was a 21.8% gap in participation rates favouring non-immigrant men. It was even worse for recent immigrant women, a 33.9 percentage gap. This gap continues to persist despite the fact, as Statcan reports, that Canadian immigration policy has favoured the entrance of better educated immigrants. The Changing Profile of Canada’s labour Force: In 2001 , 24% of immigrants aged 25 to 64 who arrived between 1996 and 2000 were in highly skilled occupations compared to only 13% of those who had arrived in 1986 and This change was mostly among the recent immigrants in the age group 25 to 44. This happened despite the fact that labour market conditions facing recent immigrants in were still weaker than they were in the latter part of the previous decade. Statscan report says that new immigrants clearly played a role in the growth of highly skilled occupations over the decade, particularly computer-related occupations and accountants: 12%for new immigrants vs 3% for Canadian-born. Recent immigrants were also over-represented in engineering and the natural sciences occupations. Not withstanding this progress, a large proportion of recent immigrants were still in low-skilled jobs in 2001, although their proportion was on the decline. Recent immigrant women continue to be in a worse situation in the labour market than immigrant men.

12 The New Economy of Montreal
Biotechnology Sector: 70% of the Quebec biotechnology sector is concentrated in the Greater Montreal area. Quebec is the first in Canada and 10th in North America in terms of revenues generated by its biotechnological industry(Living in Montreal, Gov. of Quebec, 2003). Information Technologies: fields are telecommunications, multimedia, computer services and software, e-business and , micro-electronics and components, and computer equipment. 75% of the of the information technologies industry is concentrated in the Montreal area. It involves 5000 enterprises , including 100 multinationals. Generates $31 billion in revenues and creates 100, 000 jobs. Biopharmaceutical industry: Greater Montreal accounts for roughly 6000 R&D jobs and 41.6% of the R&D performed in the Canadian biopharmaceutical industry. Aerospace: Montreal is the aerospace capital of Canada. All the parts needed to manufacture an airplane are produced in the Greater Montreal area. The industry encompasses 260 enterprises

13 Implications of Immigrant Populations
Integration problems: racism and systemic barriers to immigrants in the labour and human capital markets. Language issues. Education. Undervaluing of professional skills. Colour line barriers. Racial profiling New Productive skills and capital resources Offsets the negative economic effects of the aging of the population. Differences in genetic histories pose new challenges to the health care system. The multiplicity of cultures make Canadian culture more dynamic, exciting, and attractive. New skills, businesses based on Economically exploitable cultural characteristics and access to new markets.

14 Definition of Community
A community may be defined as a group of residents in a specific geographic location acting on a common interest, That is to say a “community of place”, or A group sharing common interest that is not necessarily associated with a particular geographic region. That is to say a “community of interest” Examples of Communities of place are the arrondissements with respect to, say, housing. Example of Community of Interest: the various cultural communities in Montreal with respect to their particular cultural interests. Or All Quebecers(residents of Quebec) around the issue of taxation.

15 Community Development

16 United Nations Definition
Community Development: a holistic process through which the initiatives of Government are united with the people to improve social cohesion in their communities(i.e., social, cultural and economic conditions). Community development should involve all those who represent various interests. It would seem logical that a holistic approach to community development would require a willingness on the part of government(all levels), the private sector(business) and the voluntary sector to form coalitions with each other. This is further re-enforced by the interconcectivities and circularity of the interactions between people(as consumers, producers and innovators), non-government organizations, governments and their agencies, the private and other organizations in the society. There are many examples of these types of alliances in Newfoundland and Labrador involving citizen-led organizations, the Government of Newfoundland, and the Government of Canada. A recent report(“Community Development: Principles and Practices in Focusing on Your Community”, under the auspices of the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, HRDC, and College of the North Atlantic, presents a critical account of some of these cases. The paper points out to the limits set to the success of citizen-led development agencies when Government budgets dry up for one reason or another; and when the private sector and the economy point to alternatives that lead away from the traditional socio-economic relationships. Fishing as a tradition and culture in closely knit communities are replaced by the modern business sectors in the cities. The failure of the Newfoundland fishing resource created a need for diversification and an urgency to explore other development opportunities. Conflict between the citizen groups and Federal Government interest and concepts of development led to a weakening of the effectiveness of both groups and development of the communities. Theoretically the holistic approach is attractive and serves the purpose of reducing the sense of “loss of self”, but its success is continuously threatened by Differences in the agenda of the partners, shifts in the economy and the external environments, changes in technology, differences in the values that partners bring to the table.

17 The Process of Community Development
The process of community development can be as important as as its product. Some people argue or implicitly suggest that the goal of community development is increasing public participation no matter whether the outcomes are successful or not. I reject this as being inconsistent with the psychology of motivation; and as tending to generate activities that lead to the misallocation of scarce human resources: a meaningless series of meetings that have no clear outcomes. I will advocate a model of the process borrowed from Gary Green and Anna Haines (Asset Building Community Development).

18 A Community development Process Model
New Policies New Organizations New Organizations? Create Benchmarks and Indicators Community organizing Visioning Implementation And Evaluation Start process with (a) Community organizing then move to (b) visioning, the to (C) planning and finally to (d) implementation and evaluation Visioning. Visioning is a part of the planning process. It is the process by which the Community sets out the type of community its wants to have at some futures date, and plans how to achieve it. In a community development process the community through public involvement identify their purpose, core values, and vision of the future. This is then transformed into a set of policy propositions, a set of feasible objectives and backed by an action plan supported by budgets. The Summit Montreal 2003 is a good case of the community development process presented in the diagram above. Planning A Vision Statement Do Projects Create an action plan to the simplest to a comprehensive plan at the most ambitious

19 Visioning Process Coordinating committee meets to plan first workshop
Community visioning workshop meets. Committee researches, brainstorms, and develops initial vision statement to facilitate discussion Establishment of a set of taskforces or regional and sector committees to organize community workshops for discussion and feedback. Key topic areas are set out for discussion, modification, deletion, addition, by broad cross section of community representatives Community visioning workshops convened and feedback collected and documented. Each taskforce organizes the feed back and prepares reports and summaries. Research teams collect data, analyze the data to prepare strategies and feasible action plans. Policies and strategic plan derived from the vision and policy propositions must conform to resource capacities.

20 Visioning Process (Continued)
Further community Workshops are convened for revision and further feed back on the latest version of plan Action plan prepared by each task force on the basis of vision statement and community revisions. This is then organized into a final report. Final workshops may be called for review and buy in and approval by key stakeholders: Government agencies, business, and community partners. The final plan includes who is responsible for what, assigns budgets, indicates partners, etc Monitoring and Evaluation mechanisms should be part of final plan

21 Participation How is a community motivated to effect change?
How does a community maintain momentum? Who in the community should get involved? CHANGE: This not just growth in GNP or GDP, but includes improvement in the quality of life and the movement towards a socially cohesive society. We will argue that this is dependent on the rate at which we add to the stock of physical and social capital in the society/community.

22 Types of Public Participation
Public action Public involvement Electoral participation Obligatory participation See Table 3.1 of Asset Building and community Development. Page 36 Public action fits closest to the community development process model. This type of process is initiated and contrlled by citizens, with the intent of influencing government official and others. On the other hand , Public involvement and obligatory participation are initiated and controlled by government officials. Notwithstanding that, this can have a meaningful impact on the quality of life and may ultimately lead to a community effort. There are codes of best practices governing the behaviour in the the Accord between the Federal Government and the Voluntary sector organizations. This is an example of ways in which the actions of Government agencies can partially be kept within socially acceptable bounds negotiated by the community.

23 The Sherry Arnstein Ladder of Public Participation
The ladder Citizen control Delegated power Partnership Placation Consultation Informing Therapy Manipulation Degrees of Citizen Power Degrees of Tokenism Source : “A Ladder of Citizen Participation “ by S. R. Arnstein, Journal of American Planning Association, 35(4), Reprinted in Asset Building Community Development by Gary Paul Green and Anna Haines. P37. The top three rounds is where the community based organizations want to be in terms of power relations. On the other hand many local governments conduct their participation efforts at the lower rungs of the ladder. Degrees of Citizen Power: Here the planning and decision making can have three degrees of power in relation to the citizens’ group, board, or corporation: shared power between citizens’ group(s) and the public authority, authorized power to prepare and implement a plan, or empowerment to essentially act as as a decentralized local government with full control over particular programs.( Arnstein 1969, pp , reprint Green et al, p37) Degrees of Tokenism : examples are simple communication tools, such as posters, and more sophisticated tools such as surveys, meetings, public hearings, and placement of citizens on powerful boards. Non-participatory: Example include public or neighbourhood advisory committees or boards that have no authority or power in controlling projects or programs but simply represent a way to vent frustration. Non-participatory

24 Maintaining Public Participation Momentum
Public participation is difficult to maintain It increases the complexity of decision making for the CBO Reaction time is slowed, a disadvantage when the organization needs to act quickly to take advantage of funding deadlines. The demand for funding and reporting require a professional staff. CBOs can encounter two pitfalls in relation to public participation: With professionalization, thy can lose sight of their community base and at worse become unrepresentative of the community. Due to the funding requirements, their agenda – goals and programs- can become coopted by external forces.

25 Techniques for motivating Public Participation
Go to hand outs from Green and Haines

26 Organizing For organizing to begin, it is sufficient for one person to find one thing that he/she wants to change. Organizing is a way of mobilizing people to work together to solve problems. Organizing involves the principles of project management: it involves the effective use of time, resources, people, processes,to achieve socially desired outcomes. Organizing has various forms but the form of specific interest to us is neighbourhood or community organizing The end purpose is problem solving Some forms of organizing:constituency organizing( addressing group characteristics such as gender, race, language, sexual orientation); Issue organizing- addresses a particular concern such as schools, taxes or housing; union organizing – addresses people who work in the same place; and neighbourhood organizing- mobilizes people in a specific area. Problem solving approaches to organizing: service (provision of individual specific needs); advocacy(speaking for others); mobilizing( community residents taking action). Community based organizations use two basic strategies to mobilize residents : Social action campaigns : aimed to change decisions, societal beliefs Development model. Community level operations aimed at at achieving community development goals.

27 Models of Community Practice
Social Action Social Planning Community Development

28 Social Action Model A group/community that finds itself low on the index of social cohesion in the society takes to correct the situation Makes demands on the larger community or government for better treatment, improved services, or basic changes in major institutions Seek redistribution of power, resources,and decision making authority Depends on radical interventions to redress inequalities Leaders are activists Examples: groups advocating for rights of English Speaking peoples; immigrant women; gays and lesbians;same sex marriages; pro-life groups; anti-racism and anti-discrimination; access to employment; etc

29 Social Planning Uses a technical and strategic approach to solving community problems. Makes the assumption that the complexity of the urban environments where the majority of the cultural communities live require social scientists to identify the problems and professional planners and technicians to solve the problems. Building community capacity or fostering change is not central to this model This type of approach is associated with systemic bureaucratic structures and cultures with hierarchical decision making systems. All action is guided by the policies and strategies formulated by these bureaucrats. The community may be mobilized, but this is usually designed to get support for decisions already made, rather than for building partnerships for for the design, delivery and and evaluation of programs. These actions are not guided by the principles of an accord or “charte de democratie” defining the codes of behaviour governing the relationships between partners in the agreement. In short public participation may be described as nonparticipatory. Examples of this practice are found in many government departments and agencies, social and urban planning authorities, and in community welfare and health planning organizations. Cases in point are the Rochon health care reform plan; the debate on language laws; access to English language schools. This model is not popular with the communities that have become highly organized and actively lobby all levels of government to democratize the policy making process to allow citizens and community based organizations to make inputs at all stages of the policy process: problem identification, information gathering and analysis, policy formation, defining objectives and strategies, monitoring implementation and evaluating outcomes. The Accord recently signed between the Federal Government and the Voluntary Sector represents the shift away from the traditional protagonist roles of the two sectors to a more collaborative approach to providing for the needs of Canadians. The Montreal Summit 2002 is an example at the municipal level of an attempt to involve Citizens in the creating of a vision of Montreal and involving them in a collaborative process of governance. Both cases aim to reduce the degree of alienation citizens feel in their separation from the decisions that determine the quality of their lives. The attempt is to reduce the gap between the interests and needs of the administrators and the needs and interest of the citizens. (solving the Agency problem).

30 Community Development
Presumes that community change can be pursued through a model of public participation. People are mobilized to be involved as partners with government in all the stages of policy making, to identify, plan and find solutions for social and economic problems and issues facing the community. Example: Montreal Summit 2003. The model assumes vigilence on the part of the citizen and community based organizations. The model does not reject outside expert advice, but sees it as an input to be used or rejected by the community rather than as a final solution. Model embodies the principles of democracy, a spirit of voluntarism, planning, quality management, and continuous learning by citizens and community based organizations. In this type of model Governments must recognize the importance of the role played by community based organizations in supporting and sustaining a democratic society and in the provision of goods, services, and a better quality life to Canadians that the market cannot or would not; or that governments can no longer afford or is incapable of providing. The opportunity for joint action must be understood and entered into freely. I recommend that the process creating the Federal Government Accord be studied.

31 Various Definitions of Community Development
Local economic development Political empowerment Integrated service provision Housing programs Comprehensive planning Job-training programs These many types of definitions in the literature leads to ambiguities. Some of these ambiguities can be reduced by taking an approach which group commonalities. One such approach is the asset approach.

32 Community Development: objectives
Solving local problems Addressing inequalities of wealth and power Promoting democratic values and practice Improving the potential of individual residents Building a sense of community

33 Community Development: Asset Building Approach
Community capacity building is a planned effort to build assets that increase the capacity of residents to improve their quality of life. Asset building approach is a shift away from the needs assessment approach Assets are defined as the gifts, skills, and capacities of individuals, associations and institutions within the community The asset approach is a place-based approach Asset mapping an important stage in the process Placed–based approach to development. Rest on economic development concepts. Change is assessed in terms of asset resource accumulation( attracting businesses , etc); increasing quality of life through establishing new institutions, improving the physical infra-structure, or building on existing resources in the community. Asset Mapping: Asset mapping is a process of learning what resources are available in the community. I.e., the identification of economic development opportunities through the mapping of available skills and work experience. Identification of natural resources assets that may serve as an important source of economic development( natural resources that support tourism). Assessing consumer spending practices to identify the potential for new business in the neighbourhood; community resources inventory to determine the suitability of the community for providing certain services, such as child care , entrepreneurship training, etc.

34 Definition of Community Assets
Physical Human Social Financial Environmental Asset represent the capacity of the community to perform functions, solve problems, and set and achieve objectives. As communities change or transform themselves , they have to develop different capacities. As I suggested earlier the shift from a rural to highly industrialized community requires a change in the personality of people and demands different social and economic strategies. Growth or change is a function of the rate at which the stock of assets increases. However, the process is somewhat more complex than this suggests. “ National capacity is not just an aggregate of individual capacities. It is not sufficient just to increase the capacity of individuals, the community developer must also “ create the opportunity and the incentive for people to use and extend those skills”.( Capacity for Development: New Solutions to Old Problems, by S. Fukduka-Parr et al, pp2002 –284, see ). Capacity development development thus takes place not just in individuals, but also between them, in the institutions they create – through the social capital that hold societies together and set the terms of these relationships(that is, the kind of economic system, customs, traditions,norms,values, beliefs) Hence the reason that I strongly disagree with the view of community development as simply human resource development or individual people capacity building. The kind of capacity development that I am advocating h3ere requires a much more systematic approach throughout the network of CEDECs than I believe is currently the case.

35 Capacity Development Capacity development is not just human resource development or individual capacity development. Capacity building is a larger concept. It refers not merely to the acquisition of skills, but also to the capability to use them. This in turn is not only about employment structures, but also about social capital and the different reasons why people start engaging in civic action. Reference:Capacity For Development: New Solutions To Old Problems by S. Fukuda-Parr et al, see

36 Definition of Social Capital
Social relations and networks serve as a form of capital These social resources require investment in time and energy, with the anticipation that individuals can tap into these resources when necessary Social relations are considered capital because they can be productive and improve the well being of residents Aspects of Social capital: trust, norms, and social networks Indicators of social capital:voter turn out, news paper readership, participation in voluntary organizations, and attendance at meetings in local organizations.

37 Two Forms of Social Capital
Bonding capital: bringing people together who already know each other to strengthen the relationship that already exist.This could lead to fragmentation in the community. Bridging Capital: brings people together or groups that did not previously know each other. The goal is to create new social ties. Bridging capital creates new social ties so as to provide new information and access additional social networks , and fill in the structural holes in the system of net works in the community. Also referred to as linking capital, or the ties between people in communities and their local organizations.

38 Services of Social Capital
Emotional Support: advice, support, good neighbourliness, and friendship. Instrumental support: material aid and services, information and new social contacts. Like, babysitting, getting rides from others, lending money. Many of these services are carried out by churches, community associations,

39 Three Levels of capacity Development
Individual: Enables the individual to embark on a continuous process of learning-building on existing knowledge and skills and extending these in new directions. Institutional: This too involves building on existing capacities. Do not duplicate initiates unnecessarily. Improving the quality of neighbourhood organizations. Societal: This involves capacity in the society as a whole.or transformation for development: creating the kind of opportunity in the public or private sector , that enables people to use and expand their capacities to the fullest. This will also depend on the social capital stock;sense of identity, belonging, togetherness, ownership, and the nature of the interactions between Citizens and local governments. All these layers of capacity are mutually interdependent. If one or the other is pursued on its own, development becomes skewed and inefficient. Reference: S. Fukuda- Parr et al Social capital is central to building other forms of capital,human, financial, physical and environmental, because of the limited efficacy of individual actions in solving these collective problems. Community based organizations can be very effective in creating social capital, through the encouraging and organizing of community events, conducting seminars, conferences, visioning sessions to help residents to identify shared purpose and common concerns, encouraging the arts(community theatre, festivals, carnivals, etc) and cultural programs. In addition to the intra- and intercommunity networks, there are two macro aspects of social capital that must be considered. The level of social ties that connect citizens and public officials. This can be developed by public hearings, listening sessions, public-private development partnerships, and citizen appointed boards. Synergy or the Organizational integrity of the local government. Organizational integrity is the institutional coherence , competence, and capacity of the local government. (Green and Haines, p108) Social capital is highest when the organizational integrity of the local government is high and there is a high level of synergy between citizens and public officials.(Green and Haines).

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