Social Service Agencies Public social agencies are ran by the gov –Regulated by laws impacting policy –Ex. VA, prisons, CPS Private social agencies (not employed by gov) –Nonprofit social agency –Proprietary (or for profit) social agencies –Purchase-of-service contract
Social work in Communities Locality- based on geographic proximity Non geographic communities-based on some commonality other than location –Ex. NASW
Social Work in Rural Communities Lack of public transportation Lack of healthcare providers Lack of jobs Services may be unavailable due to cost of delivering services due to spread of rural communities –Ex. Meals on wheels may be too expensive
Urban Social Work Poverty, discrimination, overcrowded housing, crime/violence, homelessness, etc. occur in greater frequency in cities Discrimination increases due to a greater diversity in population Migration of those unprepared Economic/availability of resources Psychological stress
Group Work An orientation and method of social work intervention in which small numbers of people who share similar interests or common problems convene regularly and engage in activities designed to achieve certain objectives.
Group Work The individual remains the focus of concern, and the group the vehicle of growth and change. Goal: development of effective skills in communication, coping skills, and effective problem- solving techniques.
Types of Treatment Groups Educational Groups –May look like a classroom, but emphasizes group task assignments and opportunities for interaction and idea exchanges. –Leader is a professional with training and expertise in the topic area.
Treatment Groups Growth Groups Socialization Groups –Seek to stimulate behavior change, increase social skills and self-confidence, and encourage motivation.
Treatment Groups Support/Self-Help Groups –Emphasize mutual aid and interdependence, personal involvement, face-to-face interaction, and an active role in responding to the needs of other group members. –Self-led – dont use professionals as leaders. Therapeutic Groups –Require skilled professional leadership. –Group members typically have intensive personal or emotional problems.
Treatment vs Task Groups Treatment Group –Purpose is to alter group members behaviors and attitudes –Help to solve personal problems, cope with stress, improve quality of life for individual participant. Task Group Purpose is to achieve a desired goal or to implement a change in the groups external environment Formed to meet the needs of individuals, families, communities
Effective Group Development PURPOSEFULNESS –Establish specific goals and objectives. –Supplies a framework for monitoring and evaluating the group's progress. LEADERSHIP –Helps the group maintain its focus –Encourages maximum participation. –May be active or passive.
Effective Group Development SELECTION OF GROUP MEMBERS –Consider: age, values, common problems, intelligence, tolerance of structure, sex, ego strengths. PREPARATION OF GROUP MEMBERS
Effective Group Development LOGISTICS –Setting –Short- or long-term –Meet 1 or 2 times a week GROUP SIZE –7-9 people for therapeutic group –12-30 people for educational group GROUP RULES
Effective Group Development OPEN OR CLOSED GROUPS PROGRAMMING –Can be formal or informal. Important to keep records and complete evaluations.
Social Work Practice with COMMUNITIES Macro Practice
Community is... a group of individuals who live in close proximity to one another, who share a common environment, and who identify themselves with that community.
Community Practice The process of stimulating and assisting the local community to evaluate, plan, and coordinate its efforts to provide for the community's health, welfare, and recreation needs.
Types of Communities Group of people who live within a certain area. Religious community. Ethnic group. Any group of people that has a feeling of we. A person can be a part of several groups simultaneously.
History of Social Work with Communities Charity Organization Society
Assumptions of Community Practice 1.Systems and their policies need changes and improvement. 2.A "holistic approach" can deal successfully with problems with which a "fragmented approach" cannot cope. 3.People should participate in making and controlling the major changes taking place in their communities. 4.Oppressed populations need advocacy on their behalf.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Attempts to create social con- ditions of economic and social progress, preferably with the parti- cipation of the whole community. Considers and respects the diversity of the population and uses those differences as strengths. Focuses on the goal of citizen participation, rather than the reform of major social structures. Together we can figure out what to do and then do it.
SOCIAL PLANNING Emphasizes modifi- cation of institutional practices. Conducted at the non-profit agency or government agency level. A practical, rational approach to problem-solving that assumes well- intentioned people will be responsive to sound arguments. Lets get the facts and take the next rational steps.
SOCIAL ACTION Central focus: action for justice focused on changing policy that disadvantage low-income groups. Willing to use confrontational approaches. Lets organize to over- power our oppressor.
ADVOCACY Action that empowers individuals or communities. In social work: the act of directly representing, defending, intervening, supporting, or recommending a course of action on behalf of clients, with the goal of securing or retaining social justice.
Components of Advocacy 1.Determine that the environment is obstructing a clients self- determination or causing a social injustice. 2.Determine the degree to which the client can be empowered to confront the problems in the environment that distress them. 3.Determine the role the client can play in effecting social change or maintaining advancements.
Careers in Social Work BSW MSW LCSW Ph.D in Social Work