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Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Chapter 17 Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System

2 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiac Output Cardiac output (Q) = HR × SV Methods of Measuring Q –Direct Fick –Indicator dilution –CO 2 rebreathing

3 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Direct Fick Method Q = O 2 mL · min 1 a- O 2 difference

4 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

5 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Indicator Dilution Method Q = Quantity of dye injected Average dye concentration blood × Duration of curve for duration of curve

6 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition CO 2 Rebreathing Method Q = CO 2 × 100 -aCO 2 difference

7 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiac Output at Rest Values vary depending upon emotional state. Average male ~5 L · min -1 Average female ~4 L · min -1

8 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Untrained Characteristics of Q HR ~ 70 BPM SV ~ 71.4 mL Average women ~25% lower due to smaller size

9 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Endurance Athletes Characteristics of Q –HR ~ 50 BPM –SV ~ 100 mL Mechanisms –Increased vagal tone w/decreased sympathetic drive –Increased blood volume –Increased myocardial contractility and compliance of left ventricle

10 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiac Output During Exercise Q increases rapidly during transition from rest to exercise. Q at max exercise increases up to 4 times. QHRSV Untrained22 L195113 mL Trained35 L195179 mL

11 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Stroke Volume: Diastolic Filling vs. Systole Emptying Mechanisms for increased SV with training –Increased blood volume – increase diastolic filling –Increased preload – Starlings Law of the Heart –Increased Contractility – greater systolic emptying

12 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiovascular Drift Results from –Dehydration –Reduction in SV HR drifts upward to maintain same Q

13 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiac Output Distribution Blood flows to tissues in proportion to their metabolic activity.

14 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

15 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

16 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiac Output and Oxygen Transport Rest Q = 5 L · min -1 O 2 transport = 1,000 mL – 200 mL/L blood

17 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Exercise Max Q averages ~ 16 L · min -1 O 2 transport = 200 mL/L blood Result –3200 mL O 2 Training enables Q to increase up to 40 L · min -1, increasing O 2 transport up to 8,000 mL.

18 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Close Association Between Max Q and O 2max An almost proportionate increase in max Q accompanies increases in O 2max with training.

19 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

20 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiac Output Differences: Men, Women, and Children Women have a 10% lower hemoglobin level than men. Result is a 5 – 10% increase in Q at any submax level of O 2 consumption Children have higher HR –Result is smaller Q, expanded a- O 2

21 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition O 2 Extraction: The a- O 2 Difference O 2 consumption increases during exercise. –Increases Q –Increases extraction of O 2 by tissues O 2 = Q x a- O 2 difference

22 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition a- O 2 Difference during Rest 20 mL O 2 · dL -1 arterial blood 15 mL O 2 · dL -1 venous blood 5 mL a- O 2 diff

23 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition a- O 2 Difference during Exercise 20 mL O 2 · dL -1 arterial blood 5 – 15 mL O 2 · dL -1 venous blood Up to a threefold increase in O 2 extraction

24 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Severe Heart Disease Exhibit low ability to improve Q or SV Skeletal muscle adaptations allow for increased O 2 extraction.

25 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Factors Affecting the a- O 2 Differences Redistribution of flow to active tissues during exercise Increased capillary density due to training increases surface area and O 2 extraction Increased number and size of mitochondria Increased oxidative enzymes Vascular and metabolic improvements

26 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Cardiovascular Adjustments to Upper-Body Exercise Max O 2 consumption –Upper-body exercise results in max O 2 consumption ~20 – 30% lower than lower-body exercise. Higher O 2 consumption for a given submax workload –Lower mechanical efficiency –Muscular effort to stabilize torso

27 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

28 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Physiologic Response Submaximal arm exercise produces > HR > Pulmonary ventilations > RPE > BP response than comparable leg exercise

29 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Physiologic Response Exercise prescription for arm exercise should not be based on values obtained from lower-body exercises.


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