Presentation on theme: "Understanding Group Processes"— Presentation transcript:
1Understanding Group Processes PART IVUnderstanding Group ProcessesChapter 7—Group and Team DynamicsChapter 8—Group CohesionChapter 9—LeadershipChapter 10—Communication
2Group and Team Dynamics CHAPTER 7Group and Team Dynamics
3Session Outline Group and Team Dynamics How Groups and Teams Differ Theories of Group DevelopmentGroup StructureCreating an Effective Team ClimateSocial SupportIndividual and Team Performance in SportTransition or Disengagement for Teams
4Group and Team Dynamics Why study groups?“Talent wins games, but teamwork wins championships”—NBA great Michael Jordan“Teamwork is the essence of life”—NBA coach Pat RileyAlmost any position in the sport and exercise field requires understanding of the processes and dynamics of groups.To understand behavior in sport and physical activity, we must consider the nature of sport and exercise groups.
5What Is a Group?GroupA collection of interacting individuals who share a collective identity, a sense of shared purpose or objectives, structured modes of communication, personal or task interdependence (or both), and interpersonal attraction.
6How Groups and Teams Differ A team is any group of individuals who must interact with each other to accomplish common goals.All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams.Team members have to depend on and support one another to accomplish shared objectives (they have interdependency and common goals).
7Theories of Group Development The linear perspectiveThe cyclical (life cycle) perspectiveThe pendular perspective
8The Linear Perspective FormingFamiliarization, formation of interpersonal relationships, development of team structureStormingRebellion, resistance to the leader and to control by the group, interpersonal conflict
9The Linear Perspective NormingDevelopment of solidarity and cooperation, stabilization of team roles, effort to achieve economy of effort and effectivenessPerformingChanneling of energies for team success
10The Cyclical (Life Cycle) Perspective Development of groups is similar to the life cycle—birth, growth, and death.Emphasis is on the terminal phase of the group’s existence.As the group develops, it psychologically prepares for its own breakup.This model is especially relevant for physical activity (exercise) groups and recreation teams that last 10 to 15 weeks.
11The Pendular Perspective Shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of groups.Groups do not progress through linear phases.Stages of group development:1. Orientation2. Differentiation and conflict3. Resolution and cohesion4. Differentiation and conflict5. Termination
12Group Structure Group Roles Behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position
13Group Structure Formal Roles (e.g., Coach, Instructor, Captain) Formal roles are dictated by the nature and structure of the organization.Informal Roles (e.g., Enforcer, Mediator)Informal roles evolve from the group’s dynamics or interactions among group members.
14Group StructureBoth role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success.Role conflict exists when role occupant does not have sufficient ability, motivation, time, or understanding to achieve goal (e.g., “wears too many hats”).
15Group Structure Group norms A norm is a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief.Leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards (especially standards or norms of productivity).Positive norms are important to establish.
16Group Structure Modifying team norms The source of the communication is critical—more credible, better liked, similar, attractive, high-status, and powerful individuals are more effective persuaders.Speaking in a rapid (vs. slow, deliberate) manner increases persuasiveness.Modifying norms is more effective when both sides of argument are presented and there are multiple commonalities, novelty, and explicitly stated conclusions.
17Creating an Effective Team Climate Social support: Mutual respect and support enhance team climate.Proximity: closer contact promotes team interaction.Distinctiveness: The more distinctive the group feels, the better the climate.(continued)
18Creating an Effective Team Climate Fairness: Fairness—or a lack of it—can bring a group closer together.Similarity: Greater similarity = closer climate
19Social Support Social Support An exchange of resources between at least two people perceived by the provider and the recipient as intended to enhance the well-being of the recipient
20Social Support Functions of social support Provides appraisal, information, reassurance, and companionshipReduces uncertainty during times of stressAids in mental and physical recoveryImproves communication
21Social Support Seven Types of Social Support 1. Listening support 2. Emotional support3. Emotional-challenge support4. Reality-confirmation support(continued)
22Social Support Seven Types of Social Support 5. Task-appreciation support6. Task-challenge support7. Personal-assistance support
23Individual and Team Performance in Sport Basic PrincipleWhile individual ability is important, the individual abilities of team members alone are not good predictors of how a team will perform.
24Individual and Team Performance in Sport Steiner’s modelActual productivity = potential productivity – losses due to faulty group processes.Losses:1. Motivation2. Coordination
25How Individual Skills Relate to Group Performance The greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task, the more the importance of individual ability decreases and the importance of group productivity increases.Teams of equal ability tend to play best.
26The Ringelmann Effect Ringelmann Effect The phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases
27Social Loafing Social Loafing Individuals within a group or team putting forth less than 100% effort due to motivation losses
28Conditions That Increase Social Loafing An individual’s output cannot be independently evaluated.The task is perceived to be low on meaningfulness.An individual’s personal involvement in the task is low.A comparison against group standards is not possible.(continued)
29Conditions That Increase Social Loafing Other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers.Teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability.Individual team members perceive their contribution to the outcome as redundant.
30Eliminating Social Loafing Emphasize the importance of individual pride and unique contributions.Increase identifiability of individual performances.Determine specific situations in which social loafing occurs.(continued)
31Eliminating Social Loafing Conduct individual meetings to discuss social loafing.Walk a mile in a teammate’s shoes.Break down the team into smaller units.
32Transition or Disengagement for Teams KEY QUESTION—How are teams affected by teammate departures (e.g., due to injury, graduation, cutting)?
33Transition or Disengagement for Teams Facilitating smooth transitions for teams1. Clarify role differentiation.2. Increase individual awareness of disengagement.3. Facilitate group interaction.4. Negotiate closure and new group development.