Presentation on theme: "PART IV Understanding Group Processes Chapter 7Group and Team Dynamics Chapter 8Group Cohesion Chapter 9Leadership Chapter 10Communication Chapter 7Group."— Presentation transcript:
PART IV Understanding Group Processes Chapter 7Group and Team Dynamics Chapter 8Group Cohesion Chapter 9Leadership Chapter 10Communication Chapter 7Group and Team Dynamics Chapter 8Group Cohesion Chapter 9Leadership Chapter 10Communication
CHAPTER 7 Group and Team Dynamics
Session Outline Group and Team Dynamics How Groups and Teams Differ Theories of Group Development Group Structure Creating an Effective Team Climate Social Support Individual and Team Performance in Sport Transition or Disengagement for Teams
Talent wins games, but teamwork wins championshipsNBA great Michael Jordan Teamwork is the essence of lifeNBA coach Pat Riley Almost any position in the sport and exercise field requires understanding of the processes and dynamics of groups. Why study groups? Group and Team Dynamics To understand behavior in sport and physical activity, we must consider the nature of sport and exercise groups.
What Is a Group? A collection of interacting individuals who share Group a collective identity, a sense of shared purpose or objectives, structured modes of communication, personal or task interdependence (or both), and interpersonal attraction.
A team is any group of individuals who must interact with each other to accomplish common goals. All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. How Groups and Teams Differ Team members have to depend on and support one another to accomplish shared objectives (they have interdependency and common goals).
The linear perspective The cyclical (life cycle) perspective The pendular perspective Theories of Group Development
The Linear Perspective Familiarization, formation of interpersonal relationships, development of team structure Forming Rebellion, resistance to the leader and to control by the group, interpersonal conflict Storming
The Linear Perspective Development of solidarity and cooperation, stabilization of team roles, effort to achieve economy of effort and effectiveness Norming Channeling of energies for team success Performing
Development of groups is similar to the life cyclebirth, growth, and death. Emphasis is on the terminal phase of the groups existence. As the group develops, it psychologically prepares for its own breakup. This model is especially relevant for physical activity (exercise) groups and recreation teams that last 10 to 15 weeks. The Cyclical (Life Cycle) Perspective
The Pendular Perspective Shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of groups. Groups do not progress through linear phases. Stages of group development: 1.Orientation 2.Differentiation and conflict 3.Resolution and cohesion 4.Differentiation and conflict 5.Termination
Group Structure Behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position Group Roles
Group Structure Formal roles are dictated by the nature and structure of the organization. Formal Roles (e.g., Coach, Instructor, Captain) Informal roles evolve from the groups dynamics or interactions among group members. Informal Roles (e.g., Enforcer, Mediator)
Group Structure Both role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team success. Role conflict exists when role occupant does not have sufficient ability, motivation, time, or understanding to achieve goal (e.g., wears too many hats).
A norm is a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief. Leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards (especially standards or norms of productivity). Positive norms are important to establish. Group Structure Group norms
The source of the communication is critical more credible, better liked, similar, attractive, high-status, and powerful individuals are more effective persuaders. Speaking in a rapid (vs. slow, deliberate) manner increases persuasiveness. Modifying norms is more effective when both sides of argument are presented and there are multiple commonalities, novelty, and explicitly stated conclusions. Group Structure Modifying team norms
Social support: Mutual respect and support enhance team climate. Proximity: closer contact promotes team interaction. Distinctiveness: The more distinctive the group feels, the better the climate. Creating an Effective Team Climate (continued)
Fairness: Fairnessor a lack of itcan bring a group closer together. Similarity: Greater similarity = closer climate Creating an Effective Team Climate
Social Support An exchange of resources between at least two people perceived by the provider and the recipient as intended to enhance the well-being of the recipient Social Support
Provides appraisal, information, reassurance, and companionship Reduces uncertainty during times of stress Social Support Functions of social support Aids in mental and physical recovery Improves communication
Social Support 1.Listening support 2.Emotional support Seven Types of Social Support 3.Emotional-challenge support 4.Reality-confirmation support (continued)
Social Support 5.Task-appreciation support 6.Task-challenge support Seven Types of Social Support 7.Personal-assistance support
Individual and Team Performance in Sport While individual ability is important, the individual abilities of team members alone are not good predictors of how a team will perform. Basic Principle
Steiners model Individual and Team Performance in Sport Actual productivity = potential productivity – losses due to faulty group processes. Losses: 1.Motivation 2.Coordination
The greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task, the more the importance of individual ability decreases and the importance of group productivity increases. How Individual Skills Relate to Group Performance Teams of equal ability tend to play best.
The Ringelmann Effect The phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases Ringelmann Effect
Social Loafing Individuals within a group or team putting forth less than 100% effort due to motivation losses Social Loafing
An individuals output cannot be independently evaluated. The task is perceived to be low on meaningfulness. An individuals personal involvement in the task is low. A comparison against group standards is not possible. Conditions That Increase Social Loafing (continued)
Other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers. Teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability. Individual team members perceive their contribution to the outcome as redundant. Conditions That Increase Social Loafing
Emphasize the importance of individual pride and unique contributions. Increase identifiability of individual performances. Determine specific situations in which social loafing occurs. Eliminating Social Loafing (continued)
Conduct individual meetings to discuss social loafing. Walk a mile in a teammates shoes. Break down the team into smaller units. Eliminating Social Loafing
Transition or Disengagement for Teams How are teams affected by teammate departures (e.g., due to injury, graduation, cutting)? KEY QUESTION
Transition or Disengagement for Teams 1.Clarify role differentiation. 2.Increase individual awareness of disengagement. Facilitating smooth transitions for teams 3.Facilitate group interaction. 4.Negotiate closure and new group development.