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TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission www.highered.tafensw.edu.au ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied.

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Presentation on theme: "TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission www.highered.tafensw.edu.au ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied."— Presentation transcript:

1 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied Engineering (Renewable Energy Technologies) Lecture 16 – Copper and its alloys

2 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Copper and its alloys EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Reference TextSection Higgins RA & Bolton, Materials for Engineers and Technicians, 5th ed, Butterworth Heinemann Ch 16 Additional ReadingsSection

3 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Copper and its alloys EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Note: This lecture closely follows text (Higgins Ch16)

4 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Copper (Higgins 16.1) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.1 Some history… And for a bit more up-to-date action… Bronze-age weaponry e_weapons_Romania.jpg

5 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Uses of copper EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

6 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Worldwide Copper Production EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Worldwide Copper Production may be nearing its peak. Copper is closely linked to demands of industrial expansion– needed for both infrastructure and electrical products.

7 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Copper Price EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes It is also magnified by tightening supply as China and India increase demand. So copper price rises on optimism. Note the GFC drop. The price of copper is sensitive to production demands (set by manufacturing outlook: i.e. companies placing orders based on their projected production)

8 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission The extraction copper (Higgins 16.2) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.2 The extraction of copper Extraction of copper The 2010 Copiapó mining accident in Chiles San José copper–gold mine. The 33 miners were trapped 700m underground, surviving for a record 69 days before their rescue through drilled holes.San José Wikipedia

9 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Properties of copper (Higgins 16.3) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.3 Conductivity (electrical and thermal) Corrosion resistance Ductility

10 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Coppers and alloys (Higgins 16.4) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.4 Oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper: Electrolytically refined: Electrical uses 'Tough-pitch' copper: Heat refined. Lower conductivity. Deoxidised copper: Tough pitch copper deoxidised with phosphorus which improves weldability, but worse electrically. The Xstrata copper electrorefining tankhouse at Copper Refineries in Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

11 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Coppers and alloys (Higgins 16.4) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS : Alloys of copper 1. Brasses: copper-zinc alloys 2. Bronzes: copper-tin alloys Phosphor bronzes: copper-tin-phosphorus alloys Gunmetals: copper-tin-zinc alloys 3. Aluminium bronzes: copper-aluminium alloys 4. Cupro-nickels: copper-nickel alloys Nickel silvers: copper-zinc-nickel alloys 5. Beryllium bronzes: copper-beryllium alloys

12 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission The brasses (Higgins 16.5) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.5: CAREFULLY! Brass: Up to 45% Zn, also some Sn, Pb, Al, Mn, Fe Figure 16.1 The section of the copper-zinc equilibrium diagram which covers brasses of engineering importance. (Higgins) Brass

13 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission The brasses (Higgins 16.5) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Complete copper-zinc equilibrium diagram: Phases: up to 37% Zn: Ductile: e.g. 70/30 Cold working above to 37% Zn Hot working Tin: corrosion Lead: machinablilty

14 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission The brasses (Higgins 16.5) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.5: CAREFULLY! 70/30 Brass: Thats copper/zinc ratio (i) brass as cast with cored crystals of a solid solution (ii) brass, cold worked and then annealed at 600°C. The coring of the original cast structure has been removed by this treatment and recrystallisation has produced small crystals (twinned) of the solid solution (Higgins Fig 16.2)

15 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission The brasses (Higgins 16.5) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.5: CAREFULLY! Brass: Up to 45% Zn, also some Sn, Pb, Al, Mn, Fe (iii) brass as cast. This shows a typical Widmanstdtten structure and, on cooling, small crystals (light) have precipitated from the phase (dark). (Higgins Fig 16.2)

16 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins

17 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Higgins

18 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission The brasses (Higgins 16.5) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 'Shape memory' alloys 'Shape memory' alloys have two distinct crystal structures that revert at a critical transformation temperature. Below the CTT structure is like martensite, and reverts back when heated above CTT. The shape change can be used to operate temperature-sensitive devices: automatic greenhouse ventilators, thermostatic radiator valves, de-icing switches, electric kettle switches and valves in solar heating systems. Note: The most widely used shape memory alloy is the equi-atomic Nickel Titanium alloy known commercially as Nitinol.

19 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Tin bronzes (Higgins 16.6) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.6 Tin bronzes, contain up to 18% Sn (Tin) with smaller amounts of P, Zn, Pb 1. Wrought tin bronzes up to 7% tin. Sheet, wire, drawn rod. 2 Cast tin bronzes with 10 to 18 % tin, used mainly for bearings.

20 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Bronzes (Higgins 16.6) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

21 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Bronzes (Higgins 16.6) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

22 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Aluminium bronzes (Higgins 16.7) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.7 Two groups: cold- working alloys, and the hot-working alloys. 1. Wrought tin bronzes up to 7% tin. Sheet, wire, drawn rod. 2 Cast tin bronzes with 10 to 18 % tin, used mainly for bearings. 33 tonne propellor made from nickel aluminum bronze. qe-carrier.blogspot.com

23 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Aluminium bronzes (Higgins 16.7) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

24 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Copper-nickel alloys (Higgins 16.8) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS 16.8 Cu and Ni complete solubility. Corrosion resistant Nickel-silvers

25 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

26 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission Other copper alloys (Higgins 16.9) EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes READ HIGGINS Beryllium bronze Non-sparking tools Copper-chromium Conductive & strong Copper-cadmium Drawn electrical wire Copper-tellurium Machined electrical Arsenical copper Thermal

27 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Online Resources. Cast Iron Extraction of copper

28 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission GLOSSARY Brass Bronze Electrolysis Phosphor bronzes Gunmetals Aluminium bronzes Cupro-nickels Nickel silvers Beryllium bronzes EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

29 TAFE NSW -Technical and Further Education Commission QUESTIONS Moodle XML: Some questions in Steel 1.Define all the glossary terms. 2.Describe the name, uses and properties of 70/30 brass. 3.What constituents determine the names brass and bronze? 4.Describe how electrical grade copper is made. 5.Explain why applications that used copper alloys (e.g. cartridge brass) are being replaced with aluminium and mild steel. 6.Using current prices from LME (London Metals Exchange), determine the cost of ingredients for 1 tonne of High-tin bronze – Higgins Table Describe the following copper-based alloys and their uses. Monel, gunmetal, gilding metal, cartridge brass, free-cutting brass 8.What ingredient is added to brasses and bronzes to improve machability. Describe how this works in reference to microstructure. 9.Silver is the most conductive metal. By comparison, copper is 97%, gold 71% and aluminium 58%. Using current prices of each metal, rank conductivity per dollar. 10.Research the advantages and disadvantages of using aluminium vs copper for use as electrical conductors. Why is strength and conductivity difficult? EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes


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