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Cummins Industrial Electronics Training 2002 1 Agenda –Basic Training: J1939 Vocabulary –Basic Training: Monitoring –Basic Training: Control –Basic Training:

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Presentation on theme: "Cummins Industrial Electronics Training 2002 1 Agenda –Basic Training: J1939 Vocabulary –Basic Training: Monitoring –Basic Training: Control –Basic Training:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Agenda –Basic Training: J1939 Vocabulary –Basic Training: Monitoring –Basic Training: Control –Basic Training: Tools / Information –Advanced: J1939 message breakdown –Advanced: J1939 diagnostic messages –Advanced: J1939 multiplexing J1939 Training

2 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary: –Datalink: Term used to describe how devices communicate with each other also referred to as a network. –Bit: One binary value. A 1 or 0 –Byte: 8 bits put together. Ex: –Bit Field: Number of bits which are grouped together –CAN Data Frame: Series of ordered bit fields J1939 Training

3 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (cont.) –Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): Error control mechanism used to detect when a message was corrupted during transimission. –Data Field: 0-64 bit field in the CAN data frame which contains the actual data such as oil pressure or coolant temperature as defined in J1939/71 standard. J1939 Training

4 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (cont.) –Destination Address: Address of who is suppose to receive the message. (not included in all J1939 messages) »Global Address is 255 or FF hex –Device: Any physical component which listens to or sends information out on the J1939 datalink. –Electronic Control Unit: same as a device J1939 Training

5 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (cont.) –End of Frame: 7 bit field which marks the end of a CAN frame –Extended Frame: A CAN frame which contains a 29 bit identifier as defined in the CAN2.0B standard. »Note: J1939 allows both 11bit and 29 bit Identifers to coexist on the same network. –Frame: A series of data bits making up a complete message. The frame contains several bit fields J1939 Training

6 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Header# of bytes 8 bytes of actual dataCRC Start of Frame Bit ACK Field End of Frame Bit Priority # PDU Format Source Address 4 bits representing numbers 0-15 typically 8 Actual data you are trying to send Used for Error Checking J1939 Frame

7 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (cont.) –Message: One or more CAN data frames which transfer a complete piece of information to other devices on the datalink. –Multipacket Message: Messages which require multiple CAN data frames. These are handled by the transport protocol. –Protocol: A protocol is the language of how to communicate between devices. J1939 Training

8 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (cont.) –Parameter Group Number (PGN): a 24 bit identifier used to identify a message which contains a particular group of parameters. –Parameter Group: A collection of parameters that are conveyed in a J1939 message. –PDU1 Format: Format used when specifying a destination address J1939 Training

9 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (cont.) –PDU2 Format: Format used when broadcasting information. –Priority: The highest priority is zero. Lowest priority is seven. –Source Address: Address of who is sending the message on the datalink. –Start of Frame: Bit used to indicate the start of a CAN frame. J1939 Training

10 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Vocabulary (Cont.) –Suspect Parameter Number (SPN): The particular element which is having a problem. This is used in the fault codes to tell us which part is having a problem. (Sensor, ECM, etc..) –Failure Mode Identifer (FMI): Used to say how a particular SPN has failed. J1939 Training

11 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Training

12 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Physical Transmission Media Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application Layer Number OSI Network Model

13 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Physical Layer Translates bits to waveforms required by electrical interface Data Link Layer Adds header and trailer to message for determining if errors occurred in message transmission, start and end of frame, etc... Network Layer Adds or looks at who sent the message and where the message going Transport Layer Breaks and reassembles large messages into smaller messages for sending over the network Session Layer Handles access rights … may not want everyone to see all data OSI Network Model

14 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Presentation Layer Data encryption, data compression, etc... Application Layer Whatever is left over from other layers…. OSI Network Model

15 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Most protocols do not specify each layer of the OSI model. J1939 does not specify each layer of the model. Currently the following layers are given specific documents in the J1939 standard Layer 1 -- J1939/11 Layer 2 -- J1939/21 Layer 3 -- J1939/31 Layer 7 -- J1939/71 & /73 OSI Network Model

16 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training What can I monitor? What must I monitor to remove the indicator lights? Where do I find out how to interpret the messages? Example of reading oil pressure J1939 Training

17 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training All Module Information Broadcast Data Request Only Data J1939 Training

18 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training What can I monitor? –Sensor parameters such as coolant temperature, oil pressure, etc… –Engine Fault Codes J1939 Training

19 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training What must I monitor to remove the indicator lights? –All fault code SPNs (suspect parameter number and FMIs (failure mode indicator) must be displayed. J1939 Training

20 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Where do I find out how to interpret the messages? –Parameter data messages are found in the J1939/71 standard. Find the PGN first then look up the individual parameter definitions. –Fault Code (Diagnostic) messages are found in the J1939/73 standard. You will also need to use the wiring diagram, or AEB for the specific engine to understand what Cummins fault code goes with a SPN / FMI pair. J1939 Training

21 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Control What can the customer control? –Engine speed can be controlled via the J1939 datalink. –Fan Clutch

22 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training High Speed datalinks –Reflections & Terminations –Topology –Troubleshooting J1939 Training

23 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Reflections & Terminations –Terminations are required to minimize reflections on the datalink (demo) –J1939/11 requires two 120ohm terminations for the datalink. –EA options for QSX/QSM only use one 120ohm termination due to the short length between the ECM and the service datalink connection. ICAD Database has more detailed information J1939 Training

24 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Circuit block diagram –Most of our modules use the Intel Serial Communcations Controller ( CM500, CENSE, CM550, CM570, etc...) –Example circuits shown in J1939/11 specification ESD Protection Circuit CAN Transceiver Serial Communications Controller Micro ( ) J1939 Training Outside ECM Inside ECM

25 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Ώ Length of Backbone: m Length of Stub: 0 - 1m Maximum number of nodes: 30 Terminations : 120Ω Minimum Spacing: 0.1 m Note: Do not equally space the node connections on the backbone 120Ώ J1939 Topology Stub Backbone

26 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Dynamic Addressing –Each ECM on the network takes on an address at startup. The specific address may be different from startup to startup. Cummins does not support dynamic addressing; therefore, make sure each device on the datalink has a unique address. J1939 Addressing

27 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Troubleshooting –First check the termination resistors. Measure resistance between CAN_H and CAN_L. Resistance should be approximately 60 ohms. If you have a small backbone like in the EA options, this may be closer to 120 ohms. –Check for frame errors Using CANalyzer or other tool, monitor the J1939 datalink to see if any frame errors are recorded. J1939 Troubleshooting

28 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Troubleshooting (cont.) –Monitor broadcast parameters using CANalyzer –For multiplexed parameters, verify that the OEM / DOEM is sending the correct source address in the message. –Unplug other devices from the datalink so only the PC and ECM are on the network. J1939 Troubleshooting

29 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Tools –Protocol analyzer Must have a protocol analyzer to develop a datalink interface. Must have the J1939 standard unless customer already has good familiarity with CAN 2.0B protocol. J1939 Tools

30 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training –CANalyzer »In North America contact: Vector CANtech Inc. (248) Matt Palmer »Outside America contact: Lother Felbinger »Approximate Cost: Software: $2,700 Hardware: $1,185 J1939 Tools

31 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training –Jpro »Cummins owned distributors: Software available through engineering tools (see intranet site: etools.ctg.cummins.com) Hardware available through Industrial Communication Technologies. »North America: call (978) »Outside North America: »Appoximate costs: $910 »Non Cummins owned distributors: Software is NOT available through engineering tools. Recommend CANalyzer »Jpro support from manufacturer ends 12/01. J1939 Tools

32 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Quick Check II available 4th Qtr 2001 –J1939 specification Can be ordered online at for $ USD for non-SAE members and $ USD for SAE members. J1939 Tools

33 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Message Breakdown

34 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Header# of bytes 8 bytes of actual dataCRC Start of Frame Bit ACK Field End of Frame Bit Priority # PDU Format Source Address 4 bits representing numbers 0-15 typically 8 Actual data you are trying to send Used for Error Checking J1939 Frame

35 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training CAN Extended Frame Format J1939 Frame Format J1939 Frame bit position CAN 29 bit ID position 1 SOFSOF SOFSOF PDU Format 6 bits (MSB) SRRSRR IDEIDE PFPF Priority R DPDP PDU Specific Destination Address, Group Ext, or Proprietary Source Address Identifier 11 bits Identifier Extension 18 bits SRRSRR IDEIDE RTRRTR RTRRTR J bit Identifier

36 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training F E D F bits Priority Number Reserved Data Page PDU Format (PF) PDU Specific (PS) Contains Destination Address if PF <239 Source Address Header Breakdown (29 bits) J bit Identifier

37 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Looking at data messages on the CANalyzer FEDF02x Rx d 8 7D E0 2E 7D FF FF FF FF 8 bytes of data represented in hexadecimal # of Data Bytes 29 bit header CAN Serial Input # time Rx or TX J1939 Data Message Interpretation

38 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Example from J1939/71 Specification Section in specification which tells you how to interpret the actual data field J1939 Data Message Interpretation

39 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training C F bits Priority Number Reserved Data Page PDU Format (PF) PDU Specific (PS) Contains Destination Address if PF <239 Source Address J1939 Data Message Interpretation CF00300x Rx d 8 7D E0 2E 7D FF FF FF FF On CANalyzer:

40 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Conversion Formula: Accelerator Pedal Position % = Raw Counts * Resolution + offset Example: CF00300x Rx d 8 7D E0 2E 7D FF FF FF FF From CANalyzer: Data Byte 2 which represents the accelerator pedal position Calculate Raw Counts First: Raw Counts = E0 hex = binary = 224 decimal Accelerator Pedal Position % = 224 * = 89.6% Note: You can use the Scientific calculator under Accessories in Win9X or Win NT to convert from hex to decimal. J1939 Data Message Interpretation

41 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Data Message Interpretation Example from J1939/71 Specification

42 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Conversion Formula: Engine Coolant Temperature = Raw Counts * Resolution + offset Example: CFEEE00x Rx d 8 7D E0 2E 7D FF FF FF FF From CANalyzer: Data Byte 1 Calculate Raw Counts First: Raw Counts = 7D hex = binary = 125 decimal Engine Coolant Temperature = 125 * = 85 deg C Note: You can use the Scientific calculator under Accessories in Win9X or Win NT to convert from hex to decimal J1939 Data Message Interpretation

43 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 has several different messages which contain diagnostic (fault) code information. –DM1 - Active Fault Codes –DM2 - Inactive Fault Codes –DM3 - Clear Inactive Fault Codes Typically customers will use the DM1 message to detect when a fault code has gone active. J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

44 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training The DM1 message can be interpreted in one of two ways depending on which Cummins product you are working on. –HHP: QSK19 - QSKV60 use version 1 –All others: QSB - QSX use version 4 –Check byte 6 bit 8 to determine which SPN Conversion Method is to be used byte 6 bit 8 = 0 = version 4 byte 6 bit 8 = 1 = version 1 J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

45 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training DM1 message –8 bytes of data are arranged as follows: Byte 1:bits 8-7Malfunction Indicator Lamp Status bits 6-5Red Stop Lamp Status bits 4-3Amber Warning Lamp Status bits 2-1Protect Lamp Status Each lamp takes two bits to indicate lamp state 00 - lamp is OFF 01 - lamp is ON J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

46 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Wait to Start Lamp is NOT found in the DM1 message! –PGN ( 00FEE4 h ) Shutdown message byte 4 bits 2,1 –Broadcast once per second –other three lamps are part of the DM1 message

47 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training DM1 byte 2 –All 8 bits are reserved for future SAE use. –OEMs should ignore all 8 bits in this byte. DM1 byte 3 (for QSX, QSM, QSB,QSC, QSL9 only) –Contains the 8 lowest order bits for the SPN (Suspect Parameter Number). –Must combine this with byte 4 and part of byte 5 to get the 19 bit SPN number. J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

48 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training DM1 byte 3 (for QSK, QSKV, QST only) –Contains the 8 highest order bits for the SPN (Suspect Parameter Number). –Must combine this with byte 4 and part of byte 5 to get the 19 bit SPN number. J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

49 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training DM1 byte 4 (for QSX, QSM, QSB,QSC, QSL9 only) –Middle 8 bits of the SPN DM1 byte 5 (for QSX, QSM, QSB,QSC, QSL9 only) –Contains the 3 most significant bits of the SPN, plus the FMI (Failure Mode Identifier) Together the SPN and FMI map to the Cummins Fault Code. J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

50 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training DM1 byte 4 (for QSK, QSKV, QST only) –Middle 8 bits of the SPN DM1 byte 5 (for QSK, QSKV, QST only) –Contains the 3 least significant bits of the SPN, plus the FMI (Failure Mode Identifier) Together the SPN and FMI map to the Cummins Fault Code. J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

51 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training CFECA00x Rx d 8 05 FF 00 4F FF FF Reserved S P N C O N V. SPNFMIOccurrence Count Lamp Status J1939 Fault Code Interpretation Example: (QSKV or HHP) From CANalyzer: SPN = = 633 FMI = = 3 Occurrence Count = = 2 Lamp Status = = Amber Lamp On Protect Lamp On SPN Conversion Method = 1

52 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training CFECA00x Rx d 8 05 FF FF FF Reserved S P N C O N V. SPNFMIOccurrence Count Lamp Status J1939 Fault Code Interpretation Example: (QSM, QSX,QSC,QSB) From CANalyzer: SPN = = 633 FMI = = 3 Occurrence Count = = 2 Lamp Status = = Amber Lamp On Protect Lamp On SPN Conversion Method = 0

53 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training SPN FMI Cummins Fault Code Example: Fault CodeSPNFMI Note: Cummins has some SPN / FMI combinations which point to two different fault codes. Usually the fault codes are related such as low oil pressure (FC143) and very low oil pressure (FC415). J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

54 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training FMI codes FMI CodeDescription 0Data Valid but above Normal Operating Range 1Data Valid but below Normal Operating Range 2Data Erratic, Intermittent or Incorrect 3Voltage above Normal or Shorted to High Source 4Voltage below Normal or Shorted to Low Source 5Current below Normal or Open Circuit 6Current above Normal or Grounded Circuit 7Mechanical System Not Responding or out of adjustment 8Abnormal frequency or pulse width or period 9Abnormal Update Rate 10Abnormal Rate of Change 11Root Cause Not Know 12Bad Intelligent Device or Component 13Out of Calibration 14 Special Instructions 15Data Valid But Above Normal Operating Range (Least Severe Level) 16Data Valid But Above Normal Operating Range (Moderate Sever Level) 17Data Valid But Below Normal Operating Range (Least Severe Level) 18Data Valid But Below Normal Operating Range (Moderate Severe Level) J1939 Fault Code Interpretation

55 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Transport Messages –Used when data exceeds the 8 byte limit –Usually needed during fault code message transmission. –Multipacket message –Currently only the BAM (Broadcast Announce Message) part of the J1939 transport layer used by our products. J1939 Transport Message

56 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Transport Protocol –TP.BAM Used when more than one fault codes are active Must be implemented to read fault codes First step is to send a TP.CM (Connection Message) with the connection mode being BAM. Next a series of TP.DT (Data Transfer) messages will be sent. These messages contain the actual data. See detailed example hand out J1939 Transport Message

57 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Multiplexing Multiplexing is used to send information from an external device to the engine control module via the J1939 datalink. The engine control module must know the address of the device which is sending the information. Typically only the throttle has been multiplexed on industrial applications.

58 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training Increased Multiplexing Capability Purpose: Control additional features over the J1939 New multiplexing capability: –Diagnostic Switch –Idle Increment / Decrement –Alternate Low Idle Switch –Multiunit Sync On/Off Switch –Alternate Torque Select –Alternate Droop Select –Auxiliary Governor Switch

59 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training New Multiplex Capability (cont.) –ISC Switches 1, 2, and 3 –Variable ISC –Remote Accelerator (Throttle) –Remote Accelerator Switch –Hydraulic Temperature –A/C High Pressure Fan Switch New Broadcast parameters –Fan Drive State –Estimated Percent Fan Speed

60 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training New Multiplex Capability Timing –QSB/QSC/QSL9: Production June 2003 –QSK19/45/60: Unknown

61 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Multiplexing Example CF00303x Tx d 8 7D E0 2E 7D FF FF FF FF On CANalyzer: Example from J1939/71 Specification Section in specification which tells you how to interpret the actual data field

62 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Multiplexing Example Note the source address is set to 03. This means device 03 is sending a message on the J1939 datalink. The ECM must be calibrated to recognize the throttle from this address or the throttle will not work CF00303x Tx d 8 7D E0 2E 7D FF FF FF FF On CANalyzer:

63 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Multiplexing Some reasons why the J1939 throttle will not work: Datalink is not functioning. Calibration set to incorrect throttle source address. Customers device sending throttle request under the wrong address Customers device not sending throttle request at all Throttle request is not fast enough and ECM is timing out.

64 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 Multiplexing Some speed control has been done via the TSC1 message. (QSK products mostly.) Not recommended unless no other option available The TSC1 message has three control modes Speed Control -- Device tells the engine what speed to operate at (typically use this mode) Torque Control -- Device tells the engine to control torque to a specific value Speed / Torque Limit Control -- Specify a speed / torque pair which act as the limits.

65 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J1939 TSC1 Speed Control Example C000003x Tx d 8 01 A0 41 FF FF FF FF FF Byte 1: 01 - indicates speed control mode by setting bits 2,1 to a value of 01 Byte 2, 3: 41 A0 - specifies and engine speed of 2100 rpm Calculating the desired engine speed: 2100 rpm * 1 count /.125rpm = counts = 41 A0 hex Note: The TSC1 message is broadcast every 10 ms when TSC1 is commanding the engine speed. Address of device sending TSC1 speed control request

66 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training More Multiplexing Examples –ISC Switches 1, 2, and 3 Turn on ISC1 18FDCA20x Tx d 8 F1 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Turn off ISC1 18FDCA20x Tx d 8 F0 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF –Variable ISC Turn on Variable ISC setpoint 3 18FDCA20x Tx d 8 F6 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Turn off Variable ISC setpoint 3 18FDCA20x Tx d 8 F0 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF –Remote Accelerator (Throttle) Send remote throttle 18F00320x Tx d 8 FF FF FF 0F FF FF FF FF 18F00120x Tx d 8 FF FF FF 01 FF FF FF FF Must send both remote throttle switch and position messages

67 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training More Multiplexing Examples –Remote Accelerator Switch Turn on remote throttle switch 18F00120x Tx d 8 FF FF FF 01 FF FF FF FF Turn off remote throttle switch 18F00120x Tx d 8 FF FF FF 00 FF FF FF FF –Hydraulic Temperature Hydraulic Temperature gets into the ECM via OEM temperature 2 18FE6820x Tx d 8 F0 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF –A/C High Pressure Fan Switch Turn on AC pressure switch 18FEE420x Tx d 8 FF FF F1 FF FF FF FF FF Turn off AC pressure switch 18FEE420x Tx d 8 FF FF F0 FF FF FF FF FF

68 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training More Multiplexing Examples –Diagnostic Switch Turn on diagnostic switch 18FEF120x Tx d 8 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF DF Turn off diagnostic switch 18FEE420x Tx d 8 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF CF –Idle Increment / Decrement Turn on increment switch 18FEE420x Tx d 8 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF F7 Turn off increment switch 18FEE420x Tx d 8 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF F3 –Alternate Low Idle Switch Turn on low idle switch 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 DF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Turn off low idle switch 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 CF FF FF FF FF FF FF FF

69 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training More Multiplexing Examples –Multiunit Sync On/Off Switch Turn on multiunit sync switch 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 F7 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Turn off multiunit sync switch 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 F3 FF FF FF FF FF FF FF –Alternate Torque Select Select alternate torque curve 1 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FF 01 FF FF FF FF FF FF Select alternate torque curve 2 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FF 02 FF FF FF FF FF FF Select 100% torque curve 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FF 00 FF FF FF FF FF FF

70 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training More Multiplexing Examples –Alternate Droop Select Turn on Alternate Droop 1 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FF FF F1 FF FF FF FF FF Turn on Alternate Droop 2 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FF FF F2 FF FF FF FF FF No Alternate Droop 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FF FF F0 FF FF FF FF FF –Auxiliary Governor Switch Turn on Aux Gov switch 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FD FF FF FF FF FF FF FF Turn off Aux Gov switch 18FDCB20x Tx d 8 FC FF FF FF FF FF FF FF

71 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training What about J1939/15? –J1939/15 is a physical interface which requires only a two wire twisted pair. –It is less noise immune than J1939/11 –We do not recommend this standard, but the module can interface with it. J1939 Training - Miscellaneous

72 Cummins Industrial Electronics Training J Requested PGN Several PGNs are described in AEB as on request. On Request PGNs require another device on the J1939 to ask for the specific PGN. –Requesting a PGN is done via PGN –The reply to the request is to send out the requested PGN per the definition in J1939/71 –18EA0000x Tx d 8 E5 FE 00 FF FF FF FF FF –Note: PGN is byte swapped!


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