Presentation on theme: "CCDD Rules and Regulations Training Seminar"— Presentation transcript:
1CCDD Rules and Regulations Training Seminar PID/FID Equipment - Use and Calibration
2PID/FID Equipment Use and Calibration Pat MaloneyJ & M InstrumentsField Use at CCDD FacilitiesMatt VondraBluff City Materials
3PID/FID Equipment AGENDA Presentation on PID and FID Technology Demonstration of TVA (FID-PID)Demonstration of RAE PIDsQuestions And Answers
4PID/FID Equipment Use and Calibration Section Load CheckingThe owner or operator must institute and conduct a load checking program designed to detect attempts to dispose of waste at the facility. At a minimum, the load checking program must consist of the following components:a) Routine Inspections1) An inspector designated by the facility must inspect every load before its acceptance at the facility utilizing an elevated structure, a designated ground level inspection area, or another acceptable method as specified in the Agency permit. In addition to a visual inspection, the inspector must use an instrument with a photo ionization detector utilizing a lamp of 10.6eV or greater or an instrument with a flame ionization detector, or other monitoring devices approved by the Agency, to inspect each load. All instruments shall be interpreted based on the manufacturer’s margin of error. Any reading in excess of background levels using any of these instruments must result in the rejection of the inspected load. In addition, any reading in excess of background levels on any monitoring device used by the Agency during an Agency inspection must result in the rejection of the inspected load.
5PID/FID EquipmentIntroduction to FID and PID gas monitor equipment and practical considerations for field usePat MaloneyJ & M Instrument Co.(219) x104
6PID/FID EquipmentMSAPermanent & Portable Gas Monitors for Toxics & Combustible GasesRefrigerant Monitors, Confined Space Meters & Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)SERVOMEXGas Analyzers for ProcessControl, Combustion, & EnvironmentalFeatures Paramagnetic 02 – Insitu Combustion CO &/or O2 & Photometric IR/UVTHERMO (including the former Foxboro TVA)Industrial Mass Spec for Fast On Line Analysis of Process, Safety and Environmental ApplicationsOn Line Sulfur for Gas & Refining
7PID/FID Equipment . YOKOGAWA Process Analyzers for Combustion O2, Gas Chromatography, NDIR and Gas DensityRAEPortable Gas Monitors for Toxic and Explosive Gasses - Specialists in PID Technology, Including Benzene & Butadiene Specific Portables
8Photo Ionization Detection (PID) PID/FID EquipmentPhoto Ionization Detection (PID)Basic Theory: Sample is introduced into an ionization chamber and exposed to an ultraviolet lamp of a specific energy. The photons of UV energy excites the sample and ions (less than or equal IP to lamp) are attracted to a collecting electrode. The collection of the ions result in an increase current which is proportional to the concentration of the compound (compared to a known calibration standard). The sample exits the system unaltered.
10Flame Ionization Detection (FID) PID/FID EquipmentFlame Ionization Detection (FID)Basic Theory: Sample is introduced into an ionization chamber and burned in a hydrogen flame. This process separates free ions (from hydrogen and carbon bonded – “hydrocarbons”) which in turn are attracted to a collecting electrode. The collection of the ions result in an increase current which is proportional to the concentration of the compound (compared to a known calibration standard). The by-products of the process are H2O and CO2.
12PID/FID Equipment Advantages FID Wide dynamic and linear range (0-50,000 ppm or 5% which is 100% LEL as Methane)Highly sensitive to hydrocarbon vaporsCan See MethaneVery stable and repeatable(with generally tighter correction factors vs PID)Unaffected by ambient levels of water vapor
13PID/FID Equipment Disadvantages FID Requires H2 Fuel Source Requires 16 % 02 for reading (so has Flameout Issues)Size and WeightSees Methane(not really toxic – can interfere with seeing gas of interest)More Complex Unit(Calibration & Operation - Cost and Maintenance)Can NOT See Inorganics
14PID/FID Equipment Advantages PID Size and Weight (Newer Models) and Simplicity of UseNo support gases required (works in inert conditions – no O2)Better low end sensitivity (PPB – newer models)Non-destructive detector (allows sample collection)Can measure many inorganic compounds (NH3 for exam)Sensitive to aromatic, chlorinated & unsaturated hydrocarbonsImmune to (does not see) MethaneEasier and Less Costly to Maintain (newer models – have lessexpensive and more accessible lamps and detectors)
15PID/FID Equipment Disadvantages PID Typically sufficient range – but lower range than FID(0-2000/10,000 ppm and looses linearity at higher ranges)Limited to reading gasses at/below Ionization Potential of theUV lamp installed (typically 10.6 – though 11.7 and 9.8 exist)Affected by Moisture: 95% RH may reduce reading 25-30%(New models do allow for dryer tubes– 15/30 minute run time)Based on my field experience, beware the claim for moistureimmunity/compensation of some PID manufacturers.
16PID/FID Equipment IP and Lamps IEPA requires 10.6 minimum (best lamp) 9.8 reduced survey capability11.7 expanded rangeQuickly degrades – less stableshort life
20CCDD Rules and Regulations PID/FID Field Use and CalibrationConcerns Under CCDD Rules and Regulations
21PID/FID Field UseFiled Use of FID and PID gas monitor equipment at CCDD FacilitiesConcerns Under CCDD Rules and RegulationsMatt VondraBluff City Materials
22PID/FID Field Use PID/FID PID - Photoionization Detector FID - Flame Ionization DetectorBoth are sensitive air monitoring devicesAir stream pumped through detector so gases can be analyzedUnit ionizes hydrocarbon compounds carried in the sample air streamIonized compounds are converted by unit into an approximate concentration when compared to a known standardDoes not distinguish one type of compound from another
23PID/FID Field Use PID/FID Operation Calibration Calibrate to zero using hydrocarbon free airCalibrate using 100ppm isobutylene gasScreen CCDD materials by sampling vapors emanating off the materialHydrocarbons found in the material will volatilize and be detected through the sample air streamDetector will give approximate concentration in parts per million (ppm)
24PID/FID Field UsePlace the tip of the PID near the edge of the material collected with the sampling deviceRecord the peak measurement shown on the PIDIf the PID shows a reading greater than the margin of error, the material could be contaminated and that load should be rejectedResults must be documented
29Important Considerations PID/FID Field UseImportant ConsiderationsThoroughly review and understand manualUnit response time is usually within a few secondsManufacturer provides a statement of the sensitivity/accuracy of the deviceRoutine maintenance is needed and should be documentedChargingInlet filter change outLamp change out
30Important Considerations PID/FID Field UseImportant ConsiderationsEnvironmental Factors which may affect reading accuracyTemperature and humidity extremesRain and sunlightMoisture and solids introduced into detector through air sampling pumpCan purchase an outside filter to minimize the environmental factors that could affect accuracy of readings
31PID/FID Field Use PID/FID Alternatives IEPA allows for the approval of alternate devicesField GC/MS – gas chromatograph/mass spectrometerX-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer - screens for the presence of metalsestimated $35,000 per XRF analyzer
32Calibrating PID/FID for Background Levels PID/FID Field UseCalibrating PID/FID for Background LevelsPID/FID devices should be calibrated daily using the manufacturer’s suggested gasMay calibrate several times throughout the day to account for any fluctuations in readings due to weather conditionsCalibration should occur at the CCDD inspection siteThe device has a margin of error of +/- 0.1 ppm
33PID/FID Field Use Calibration Steps Each morning the inspector should: Calibrate the deviceEstablish background levelsApply the margin of error to determine the “rejection” threshold and record this numberUtilize this number when determining which loads are accepted/rejected* See Sample Calibration Log
34PID/FID Calibration Log PID/FID Field UsePID/FID Calibration Log
35Issues Worth Additional Discussion PID/FID EquipmentIssues Worth Additional DiscussionSample preparationHow to deal with Back Ground measurementsPID Calibration Demonstration
36Sample Conditioning Considerations PID/FID EquipmentSample Conditioning ConsiderationsSample Conditioning – Concepts for improved results – not required procedures (to my knowledge)You want a warm representative sample(s) to test – to get better resultsCold Weather – seal off sample and raise temperature if possible (less of an issue in warm weather – but could be standardized as a procedure.Get a sample from the center – not just a pass at the topAs easy as a Zip lock bag by floor board heater 5 min – or similar SAFE temperature increase – leave sufficient head space to test.
37How to deal with background PID/FID EquipmentHow to deal with backgroundI have long proposed to industrial users (LDAR) to always use a real baseline ZERO – and to include the background as part of their readings. They may have more room for inclusion than will work for CCDD applications. However, I remain a big fan of starting from a baseline ZERO and if needed – log the background and report that against the reading.
38Zeroing out the background PID/FID EquipmentZeroing out the backgroundIf you ever need to explain your numbers – people will understand a logged offset that was recorded against the reading. (The instrument reported ZERO on the Zero gas – we noted 3 to 4 ppm background and the unit reported 12 ppm sample headspace (9 ppm actual difference after accounting for lowest average background).Now imagine explaining that same 9 ppm after site personnel ZEROs to the back ground (unrecorded).Baseline ZERO is simpler to maintain and explain
39PID/FID Equipment PID Cal Demo Use of Demand Flow Reg (bags used FIDs) USE ZERO GAS (not background)Span to Isobutylene 100 ppmMarker Cap field check – not marker
40PID/FID Equipment MiniRAE 2000: PID Sensor Inspect sensor for damage and replace to rectify the following conditions:Bent electrode “fingers”Teflon mask warped so that sensing electrode showsElectrodes not in the same planeIf problems persist, replace PID sensorBent ElectrodeStraight Electrodes with mask removed for clarityTeflon Mask Warped
41PID/FID Equipment Maintenance Clean PID Lamp & Sensor When display creeps upwards after good zeroWhen PID responds to moistureWhen movement of PID results in response on displayMaintenanceDirty SensorBias ElectrodeSensing ElectrodeDirt build-up absorbs water and breaks down airspace resistance leading to sensor “leakage” or moisture responseNo dirt build-up to foster a decrease in airspace resistanceClean SensorBias ElectrodeSensing Electrode
42PID/FID Equipment Maintenance Humidity Check Cup hand over inlet or breathe into inlet for secondsDo not block flowIf M2K reads >2 ppm or ppbRAE reads >500 ppb, then the sensor needs cleaning
43PID/FID Equipment Maintenance How to Clean PID Sensor Always clean sample probe and replace or clean filters FIRST! If PID holds a stable zero after this step then further cleaning may not be necessaryUse anhydrous methanol (Lamp cleaning solution), never use waterClean lamp face with lens tissue – do not touch with your bare hands
44Maintaining PID Sensor PID/FID EquipmentMaintaining PID SensorCleaning the PID SensorClean sensor by immersion in cleaning solutionDo not loosen or remove screws on PID sensorRemove the o-ring from the PID sensorIf Ultrasonic Cleaner is not availableImmerse in cleaning solution and agitate by handDrying the PID SensorLet air dry overnightWarm air (not hot) will speed drying
45Humidity Filtering II Tubes PID/FID EquipmentHumidity Filtering II TubesTemporary relief for a dirty sensorDries sample gas for about ½ hourMeasure VOCs; multiple sample use OKUseful for gasoline and chlorinated solventsCAUTION: May cause low response for some compounds or at low temperature or concentrationHumidity Filtering II Tube(10-pack, p/n )Tube Tip BreakerTube Adapter(p/n )Flex-I-Probe(p/n )
46General Calibration Procedure PID/FID EquipmentGeneral Calibration ProcedurePrior to daily use, it is good practice to perform a Fresh Air/Zero CalibrationAfter Calibration, test for moisture responseIf readings increase more than 5ppm, clean lamp & sensorIf readings do not increase higher than 5ppm, continue with pump stall testIf unit passes, test pump to verify it will stall, if pump does not stall, service the pumpCheck Stall ThresholdCheck tubingClean/rebuild pump or replace
47PID/FID Equipment MiniRAE 2000 Top Assembly Filter history Lamp Housing1 1/8” O’RingPID SensorPorous Metal Filter3/8” O’RingSensor AdapterLamp Housing CapHousingFilter historyGreen dust filter was originally used, but proved not to work effectively“C” filter was used next but proved to absorb too many VOCsNow only porous metal filter is used