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CCDD Rules and Regulations Training Seminar

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1 CCDD Rules and Regulations Training Seminar
PID/FID Equipment - Use and Calibration

2 PID/FID Equipment Use and Calibration
Pat Maloney J & M Instruments Field Use at CCDD Facilities Matt Vondra Bluff City Materials

3 PID/FID Equipment AGENDA Presentation on PID and FID Technology
Demonstration of TVA (FID-PID) Demonstration of RAE PIDs Questions And Answers

4 PID/FID Equipment Use and Calibration
Section Load Checking The owner or operator must institute and conduct a load checking program designed to detect attempts to dispose of waste at the facility. At a minimum, the load checking program must consist of the following components: a) Routine Inspections 1) An inspector designated by the facility must inspect every load before its acceptance at the facility utilizing an elevated structure, a designated ground level inspection area, or another acceptable method as specified in the Agency permit. In addition to a visual inspection, the inspector must use an instrument with a photo ionization detector utilizing a lamp of 10.6eV or greater or an instrument with a flame ionization detector, or other monitoring devices approved by the Agency, to inspect each load. All instruments shall be interpreted based on the manufacturer’s margin of error. Any reading in excess of background levels using any of these instruments must result in the rejection of the inspected load. In addition, any reading in excess of background levels on any monitoring device used by the Agency during an Agency inspection must result in the rejection of the inspected load.

5 PID/FID Equipment Introduction to FID and PID gas monitor equipment and practical considerations for field use Pat Maloney J & M Instrument Co. (219) x104

6 PID/FID Equipment MSA Permanent & Portable Gas Monitors for Toxics & Combustible Gases Refrigerant Monitors, Confined Space Meters & Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) SERVOMEX Gas Analyzers for Process Control, Combustion, & Environmental Features Paramagnetic 02 – Insitu Combustion CO &/or O2 & Photometric IR/UV THERMO (including the former Foxboro TVA) Industrial Mass Spec for Fast On Line Analysis of Process, Safety and Environmental Applications On Line Sulfur for Gas & Refining

7 PID/FID Equipment . YOKOGAWA
Process Analyzers for Combustion O2, Gas Chromatography, NDIR and Gas Density RAE Portable Gas Monitors for Toxic and Explosive Gasses - Specialists in PID Technology, Including Benzene & Butadiene Specific Portables

8 Photo Ionization Detection (PID)
PID/FID Equipment Photo Ionization Detection (PID) Basic Theory: Sample is introduced into an ionization chamber and exposed to an ultraviolet lamp of a specific energy. The photons of UV energy excites the sample and ions (less than or equal IP to lamp) are attracted to a collecting electrode. The collection of the ions result in an increase current which is proportional to the concentration of the compound (compared to a known calibration standard). The sample exits the system unaltered.

9 PID/FID Equipment Diagram of PID

10 Flame Ionization Detection (FID)
PID/FID Equipment Flame Ionization Detection (FID) Basic Theory: Sample is introduced into an ionization chamber and burned in a hydrogen flame. This process separates free ions (from hydrogen and carbon bonded – “hydrocarbons”) which in turn are attracted to a collecting electrode. The collection of the ions result in an increase current which is proportional to the concentration of the compound (compared to a known calibration standard). The by-products of the process are H2O and CO2.

11 PID/FID Equipment . Diagram of FID

12 PID/FID Equipment Advantages FID Wide dynamic and linear range
(0-50,000 ppm or 5% which is 100% LEL as Methane) Highly sensitive to hydrocarbon vapors Can See Methane Very stable and repeatable (with generally tighter correction factors vs PID) Unaffected by ambient levels of water vapor

13 PID/FID Equipment Disadvantages FID Requires H2 Fuel Source
Requires 16 % 02 for reading (so has Flameout Issues) Size and Weight Sees Methane (not really toxic – can interfere with seeing gas of interest) More Complex Unit (Calibration & Operation - Cost and Maintenance) Can NOT See Inorganics

14 PID/FID Equipment Advantages PID
Size and Weight (Newer Models) and Simplicity of Use No support gases required (works in inert conditions – no O2) Better low end sensitivity (PPB – newer models) Non-destructive detector (allows sample collection) Can measure many inorganic compounds (NH3 for exam) Sensitive to aromatic, chlorinated & unsaturated hydrocarbons Immune to (does not see) Methane Easier and Less Costly to Maintain (newer models – have less expensive and more accessible lamps and detectors)

15 PID/FID Equipment Disadvantages PID
Typically sufficient range – but lower range than FID (0-2000/10,000 ppm and looses linearity at higher ranges) Limited to reading gasses at/below Ionization Potential of the UV lamp installed (typically 10.6 – though 11.7 and 9.8 exist) Affected by Moisture: 95% RH may reduce reading 25-30% (New models do allow for dryer tubes– 15/30 minute run time) Based on my field experience, beware the claim for moisture immunity/compensation of some PID manufacturers.

16 PID/FID Equipment IP and Lamps IEPA requires 10.6 minimum (best lamp)
9.8 reduced survey capability 11.7 expanded range Quickly degrades – less stable short life

17 PID/FID Equipment CENTURY® TVA1000B

18 PID/FID Equipment Internal Packaging

19 PID/FID Equipment Diagram of Dual System

20 CCDD Rules and Regulations
PID/FID Field Use and Calibration Concerns Under CCDD Rules and Regulations

21 PID/FID Field Use Filed Use of FID and PID gas monitor equipment at CCDD Facilities Concerns Under CCDD Rules and Regulations Matt Vondra Bluff City Materials

22 PID/FID Field Use PID/FID PID - Photoionization Detector
FID - Flame Ionization Detector Both are sensitive air monitoring devices Air stream pumped through detector so gases can be analyzed Unit ionizes hydrocarbon compounds carried in the sample air stream Ionized compounds are converted by unit into an approximate concentration when compared to a known standard Does not distinguish one type of compound from another

23 PID/FID Field Use PID/FID Operation Calibration
Calibrate to zero using hydrocarbon free air Calibrate using 100ppm isobutylene gas Screen CCDD materials by sampling vapors emanating off the material Hydrocarbons found in the material will volatilize and be detected through the sample air stream Detector will give approximate concentration in parts per million (ppm)

24 PID/FID Field Use Place the tip of the PID near the edge of the material collected with the sampling device Record the peak measurement shown on the PID If the PID shows a reading greater than the margin of error, the material could be contaminated and that load should be rejected Results must be documented

25 PID/FID Field Use

26 PID/FID Field Use

27 PID/FID Field Use

28 PID/FID Field Use

29 Important Considerations
PID/FID Field Use Important Considerations Thoroughly review and understand manual Unit response time is usually within a few seconds Manufacturer provides a statement of the sensitivity/accuracy of the device Routine maintenance is needed and should be documented Charging Inlet filter change out Lamp change out

30 Important Considerations
PID/FID Field Use Important Considerations Environmental Factors which may affect reading accuracy Temperature and humidity extremes Rain and sunlight Moisture and solids introduced into detector through air sampling pump Can purchase an outside filter to minimize the environmental factors that could affect accuracy of readings

31 PID/FID Field Use PID/FID Alternatives
IEPA allows for the approval of alternate devices Field GC/MS – gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer - screens for the presence of metals estimated $35,000 per XRF analyzer

32 Calibrating PID/FID for Background Levels
PID/FID Field Use Calibrating PID/FID for Background Levels PID/FID devices should be calibrated daily using the manufacturer’s suggested gas May calibrate several times throughout the day to account for any fluctuations in readings due to weather conditions Calibration should occur at the CCDD inspection site The device has a margin of error of +/- 0.1 ppm

33 PID/FID Field Use Calibration Steps Each morning the inspector should:
Calibrate the device Establish background levels Apply the margin of error to determine the “rejection” threshold and record this number Utilize this number when determining which loads are accepted/rejected * See Sample Calibration Log

34 PID/FID Calibration Log
PID/FID Field Use PID/FID Calibration Log

35 Issues Worth Additional Discussion
PID/FID Equipment Issues Worth Additional Discussion Sample preparation How to deal with Back Ground measurements PID Calibration Demonstration

36 Sample Conditioning Considerations
PID/FID Equipment Sample Conditioning Considerations Sample Conditioning – Concepts for improved results – not required procedures (to my knowledge) You want a warm representative sample(s) to test – to get better results Cold Weather – seal off sample and raise temperature if possible (less of an issue in warm weather – but could be standardized as a procedure. Get a sample from the center – not just a pass at the top As easy as a Zip lock bag by floor board heater 5 min – or similar SAFE temperature increase – leave sufficient head space to test.

37 How to deal with background
PID/FID Equipment How to deal with background I have long proposed to industrial users (LDAR) to always use a real baseline ZERO – and to include the background as part of their readings. They may have more room for inclusion than will work for CCDD applications. However, I remain a big fan of starting from a baseline ZERO and if needed – log the background and report that against the reading.

38 Zeroing out the background
PID/FID Equipment Zeroing out the background If you ever need to explain your numbers – people will understand a logged offset that was recorded against the reading. (The instrument reported ZERO on the Zero gas – we noted 3 to 4 ppm background and the unit reported 12 ppm sample headspace (9 ppm actual difference after accounting for lowest average background). Now imagine explaining that same 9 ppm after site personnel ZEROs to the back ground (unrecorded). Baseline ZERO is simpler to maintain and explain

39 PID/FID Equipment PID Cal Demo Use of Demand Flow Reg (bags used FIDs)
USE ZERO GAS (not background) Span to Isobutylene 100 ppm Marker Cap field check – not marker

40 PID/FID Equipment MiniRAE 2000: PID Sensor
Inspect sensor for damage and replace to rectify the following conditions: Bent electrode “fingers” Teflon mask warped so that sensing electrode shows Electrodes not in the same plane If problems persist, replace PID sensor Bent Electrode Straight Electrodes with mask removed for clarity Teflon Mask Warped

41 PID/FID Equipment Maintenance Clean PID Lamp & Sensor
When display creeps upwards after good zero When PID responds to moisture When movement of PID results in response on display Maintenance Dirty Sensor Bias Electrode Sensing Electrode Dirt build-up absorbs water and breaks down airspace resistance leading to sensor “leakage” or moisture response No dirt build-up to foster a decrease in airspace resistance Clean Sensor Bias Electrode Sensing Electrode

42 PID/FID Equipment Maintenance Humidity Check
Cup hand over inlet or breathe into inlet for seconds Do not block flow If M2K reads >2 ppm or ppbRAE reads >500 ppb, then the sensor needs cleaning

43 PID/FID Equipment Maintenance How to Clean PID Sensor
Always clean sample probe and replace or clean filters FIRST! If PID holds a stable zero after this step then further cleaning may not be necessary Use anhydrous methanol (Lamp cleaning solution), never use water Clean lamp face with lens tissue – do not touch with your bare hands

44 Maintaining PID Sensor
PID/FID Equipment Maintaining PID Sensor Cleaning the PID Sensor Clean sensor by immersion in cleaning solution Do not loosen or remove screws on PID sensor Remove the o-ring from the PID sensor If Ultrasonic Cleaner is not available Immerse in cleaning solution and agitate by hand Drying the PID Sensor Let air dry overnight Warm air (not hot) will speed drying

45 Humidity Filtering II Tubes
PID/FID Equipment Humidity Filtering II Tubes Temporary relief for a dirty sensor Dries sample gas for about ½ hour Measure VOCs; multiple sample use OK Useful for gasoline and chlorinated solvents CAUTION: May cause low response for some compounds or at low temperature or concentration Humidity Filtering II Tube (10-pack, p/n ) Tube Tip Breaker Tube Adapter (p/n ) Flex-I-Probe (p/n )

46 General Calibration Procedure
PID/FID Equipment General Calibration Procedure Prior to daily use, it is good practice to perform a Fresh Air/Zero Calibration After Calibration, test for moisture response If readings increase more than 5ppm, clean lamp & sensor If readings do not increase higher than 5ppm, continue with pump stall test If unit passes, test pump to verify it will stall, if pump does not stall, service the pump Check Stall Threshold Check tubing Clean/rebuild pump or replace

47 PID/FID Equipment MiniRAE 2000 Top Assembly Filter history
Lamp Housing 1 1/8” O’Ring PID Sensor Porous Metal Filter 3/8” O’Ring Sensor Adapter Lamp Housing Cap Housing Filter history Green dust filter was originally used, but proved not to work effectively “C” filter was used next but proved to absorb too many VOCs Now only porous metal filter is used

48 PID/FID Equipment Inside the MiniRAE 2000

49 Questions? .

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