2Historical Influences History shows us that care has been provided for the sick even before the time of Christ. Based on mythical figures, the caduceus and the staff of Aesculapius are the modern symbols of medicine.
4Historical Influences Hippocrates, the “Father of Medicine,” emphasized the importance of caring for the whole person (holistic healthcare), and thus helped lay the groundwork for modern nursing and medicine.His holistic approach translates into the nurse’s attentiveness to clients' needs—their emotions, lifestyles, physical changes, spiritual needs, and individual challenges.The Practical Nurses’ pledge is based on the Hippocratic oath.
5Historical Influences During the Crusades (1096–1291), male military personnel conducted most nursing care. The symbol for this order was the Maltese Cross, which was the forerunner of nursing school pins worn today.Until the 1800s, nursing was considered the most menial of all tasks. This period is called the dark ages of nursing.In 1836, Pastor Theodor Fliedner established the Kaiserswerth School for Nursing. Thus, by the late 1800s, with the increase in the number of schools for trained nurses, the status of nursing began to improve.
6Florence Nightingale’s Influence on Modern Nursing It was only when Florence Nightingale graduated from Kaiserswerth and began to teach her concepts that nursing became a respected profession.Insisted on establishing sanitary conditions and providing quality nursing care*Nurses should spend their time caring for others-not cleaning*Her definition of nursing, published in 1859, is still important today.
7Florence Nightingale’s Nursing Principles Florence Nightingale opened the first nursing school outside a hospital in The school emphasized learning, rather than service to the hospital. Some principles of the Nightingale School for Nurses are still taught today.The Nightingale School also included a number of innovations that greatly affected the field of nursing and nursing practice standards.Her dedicated service both during the day and at night, when she and her nurses made their rounds carrying oil lamps, created a public image of the lady with the lamp.“Lamp of Learning”A symbol of nursing and nursing education”Strive for excellence!!
9Contributors to the Development of Nursing in the United States Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802–1887) campaigned against the inhumane treatment of the mentally ill.Clara Barton (1821–1912) founded the organization now known as the American Red Cross.Melinda Ann (Linda) Richards (1841–1930) was the first trained nurse in the United States.
10Contributors to the Development of Nursing in the United States (cont’d) Isabel Hampton Robb (1860–1910) founded the school of nursing at Johns Hopkins University and two national nursing organizations. She wrote one of the earliest nursing textbooks, Materia Medica for Nurses.Lavinia Lloyd Dock (1858–1956) assisted Robb in founding the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools of Nursing.Mary Adelaide Nutting (1858–1947) established the first college-based nursing program at Teachers College of Columbia with Robb.
11Contributors to the Development of Nursing in the United States (cont’d) Lillian Wald (1867–1940) is considered the founder of American public health nursing.Mary E. Mahoney (1845–1926) was the first African American graduate nurse and promoted fair treatment of African Americans in healthcare.Mary Breckinridge (1881–1965) started one of the first midwifery schools in the United States.
12Pioneering Nursing Schools in the United States University of MinnesotaBallard SchoolThompson Practical Nursing SchoolHousehold Nursing School
13Important Milestones in the History of Nursing Education In 1908, the American Red Cross began offering home nursing education to teach women how to care for illnesses within their families.In 1914, Mississippi became the first state to designate licensed practical nurses (LPNs).In 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Smith-Hughes Act, to promote vocational-technical and public education.
14War-Related Developments in Nursing World War I marked the first emergency training of nurses. During this time, the Army School of Nursing was established.The U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps was established during World War II, and more than 14,000 volunteer nurses graduated in about 2 years. *It also marked the first time that men as well as women were actively recruited into nursing.By the end of the war, emphasis was placed on improved graduate education for nurses. Nurses also began to assume a broader, more responsible role—a trend that continues today.
15**Current Influential Trends in Nursing** The nurses’ responsibilities have increased as a direct result of the following trends:Higher client acuity in hospital and long-term settingsShift to community-based careOutpatient surgeryDevelopments in technology
16**Current Influential Trends in Nursing** Changing social factorshomelessGreater life expectancyLiving longer, more active and healthyChanges in nursing educationIncreased autonomyNurses role is collaboration with other healthcare team members
17Nursing Insignia, Uniforms, and the Nursing School Pin The Nursing InsigniaThe “Nightingale lamp” remains a standard of nursing insignia.The Nursing UniformClients usually feel more comfortable when nurses are easily identifiable and distinguishable from other staff. A nametag is important.The Nursing School PinThe Nightingale lamp is also a common component of the nursing pin.May have a religious symbol such as the Maltese Cross or Star of David*