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Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 1 The Origins of Nursing.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 1 The Origins of Nursing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 1 The Origins of Nursing

2 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Historical Influences History shows us that care has been provided for the sick even before the time of Christ. Based on mythical figures, the caduceus and the staff of Aesculapius are the modern symbols of medicine.

3 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Modern Symbols of Medicine

4 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, emphasized the importance of caring for the whole person (holistic healthcare), and thus helped lay the groundwork for modern nursing and medicine. His holistic approach translates into the nurses attentiveness to clients' needstheir emotions, lifestyles, physical changes, spiritual needs, and individual challenges. The Practical Nurses pledge is based on the Hippocratic oath. Historical Influences

5 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins During the Crusades (1096–1291), male military personnel conducted most nursing care. The symbol for this order was the Maltese Cross, which was the forerunner of nursing school pins worn today. Until the 1800s, nursing was considered the most menial of all tasks. This period is called the dark ages of nursing. In 1836, Pastor Theodor Fliedner established the Kaiserswerth School for Nursing. Thus, by the late 1800s, with the increase in the number of schools for trained nurses, the status of nursing began to improve. Historical Influences

6 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Florence Nightingales Influence on Modern Nursing It was only when Florence Nightingale graduated from Kaiserswerth and began to teach her concepts that nursing became a respected profession. –Insisted on establishing sanitary conditions and providing quality nursing care* –Nurses should spend their time caring for others-not cleaning* Her definition of nursing, published in 1859, is still important today.

7 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Florence Nightingales Nursing Principles Florence Nightingale opened the first nursing school outside a hospital in The school emphasized learning, rather than service to the hospital. Some principles of the Nightingale School for Nurses are still taught today. The Nightingale School also included a number of innovations that greatly affected the field of nursing and nursing practice standards. Her dedicated service both during the day and at night, when she and her nurses made their rounds carrying oil lamps, created a public image of the lady with the lamp. –Lamp of Learning A symbol of nursing and nursing education Strive for excellence!!

8 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nightingale Lamp

9 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Contributors to the Development of Nursing in the United States Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802–1887) campaigned against the inhumane treatment of the mentally ill. Clara Barton (1821–1912) founded the organization now known as the American Red Cross. Melinda Ann (Linda) Richards (1841–1930) was the first trained nurse in the United States.

10 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Isabel Hampton Robb (1860–1910) founded the school of nursing at Johns Hopkins University and two national nursing organizations. She wrote one of the earliest nursing textbooks, Materia Medica for Nurses. Lavinia Lloyd Dock (1858–1956) assisted Robb in founding the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools of Nursing. Mary Adelaide Nutting (1858–1947) established the first college-based nursing program at Teachers College of Columbia with Robb. Contributors to the Development of Nursing in the United States (contd)

11 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Lillian Wald (1867–1940) is considered the founder of American public health nursing. Mary E. Mahoney (1845–1926) was the first African American graduate nurse and promoted fair treatment of African Americans in healthcare. Mary Breckinridge (1881–1965) started one of the first midwifery schools in the United States. Contributors to the Development of Nursing in the United States (contd)

12 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pioneering Nursing Schools in the United States University of Minnesota Ballard School Thompson Practical Nursing School Household Nursing School

13 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Important Milestones in the History of Nursing Education In 1908, the American Red Cross began offering home nursing education to teach women how to care for illnesses within their families. In 1914, Mississippi became the first state to designate licensed practical nurses (LPNs). In 1917, the U.S. Congress passed the Smith-Hughes Act, to promote vocational-technical and public education.

14 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins War-Related Developments in Nursing World War I marked the first emergency training of nurses. During this time, the Army School of Nursing was established. The U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps was established during World War II, and more than 14,000 volunteer nurses graduated in about 2 years. *It also marked the first time that men as well as women were actively recruited into nursing. By the end of the war, emphasis was placed on improved graduate education for nurses. Nurses also began to assume a broader, more responsible rolea trend that continues today.

15 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins **Current Influential Trends in Nursing** The nurses responsibilities have increased as a direct result of the following trends: Higher client acuity in hospital and long-term settings Shift to community-based care –Outpatient surgery Developments in technology

16 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Changing social factors –homeless Greater life expectancy –Living longer, more active and healthy Changes in nursing education Increased autonomy –Nurses role is collaboration with other healthcare team members **Current Influential Trends in Nursing**

17 Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Nursing Insignia, Uniforms, and the Nursing School Pin The Nursing Insignia –The Nightingale lamp remains a standard of nursing insignia. The Nursing Uniform –Clients usually feel more comfortable when nurses are easily identifiable and distinguishable from other staff. A nametag is important. The Nursing School Pin –The Nightingale lamp is also a common component of the nursing pin. –May have a religious symbol such as the Maltese Cross or Star of David*


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