2BACKGROUNDNURSING IS A PROFESSION FOCUSED IN ASSISTING INDIVIDUALS, FAMILIES, AND COMMUNITIES TO: ATTAIN, RECOVER, MAINTAIN OPTIMUM HEALTH AND FUNCTION FROM BIRTH TO DEATH.ONE GROUPS (THE WORLD)FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX NEEDSIT IS A SCIENCE (KNOWLEDGE BASE);AND AN ART (SKILLED APPLICATION OF THAT KNOWLEDGE)
3CRITICAL THINKING?WHAT ARE THE REASONS WE NEED TO LEARN NURSING HISTORY?
4Reasons to study/learn nursing history Appreciate contributions from fellow care giversLearn from their work, build knowledge baseImprove quality of careAnd
5Historical Perspective/Pre-Civilization Theory of animism-everything in nature is alive with invisible forces and endowed with powerBelief that good and evil spirits bring health or illnessPhysician as medicine manNurse portrayed as mother caring for family (nurturing role)-continues to the present
6Question Tell whether the following statement is true or false. In the beginning of civilization, the role of the physician was carried out by the priest.A. TrueB. False
7AnswerAnswer: A. True.In the beginning of civilization, the role of the physician was carried out by the priest.
8Historical Perspective/Beginning of Civilization The belief existed that illness is caused by sin and gods’ displeasureTemples were centers of medical carePriests were highly regarded as physiciansNurses were viewed as slaves carrying out menial tasks ordered by priests
9Historical Perspective/Beginning of 16th Century Focus on religion replaced by focus on warfareExploration and expansion of knowledge occurredShortage of nurses—criminals recruitedNursing considered disreputable
10Historical Perspective/18th–19th Century Hospital schools organizedFemale nurses under control of male hospital administrators and physiciansMale dominance of healthcareNursing becomes respected occupationModern methods in nursing education founded
11Historical Perspective/World War II Explosion of knowledge in medicine and technologyBroadened the role of nursesEfforts to upgrade nursing educationWomen more assertive and independent
12Historical Perspective/1950s to Present Nursing broadened to become a professionEmphasis placed on evidence-based practiceRecognized role of nurse in health promotionVaried healthcare settings were createdA specific body of knowledge was developedNursing research was conducted and published
13Contributions of Florence Nightingale Defined nursing as both an art and a scienceDifferentiated nursing from medicineIdentified personal needs of patient and role of nurse in meeting themEstablished standards for hospital managementEstablished nursing education and nursing as a respected occupation for women
14Contributions of Florence Nightingale (cont.) Stressed the need for continuing education for nursesRecognized two components of nursing—health and illnessRecognized nutrition as important to healthInstituted occupational and recreational therapy for sick peopleMaintained accurate records/beginning of nursing research
15Definitions of Nursing Originated from the Latin word nutrix (to nourish)ICN (International Council of Nurses, 2002) definition— Promotion of health, prevention of illness, collaborative careANA definition—describes the values and social responsibilities of Nursing (Social policy statement)The Patient is the central focus of all definitionsIncludes physical, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of the patient
16QuestionA hospital nurse works collaboratively with a physician, social worker, physical therapist, and home healthcare nurse to provide nursing care for a patient following a MVA. What should be the central focus of this care?A. The nursesB. The physicianC. The nursing care planD. The patientE. The physical therapist
17Answer Answer: D. The patient Rationale: The central focus in all definitions of nursing is the patient (person receiving care) and includes the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions of that person. Nursing is no longer considered to be concerned primarily with illness care.
18Nursing as a Profession and Discipline Practice in a wide variety of settings.Develop a specific body of knowledge.Conduct and publish nursing research.Recognize role in promoting health.Use nursing knowledge as base for nursing practice.
19Aims of Nursing To promote health To prevent illness To restore health To facilitate coping with disability or death
20QuestionA nurse who uses critical thinking skills to develop a nursing care plan for an expectant mother of triplets is said to be using which of the following skills?A. CognitiveB. TechnicalC. InterpersonalD. Ethical/Legal
21Answer Answer: A. Cognitive Rationale: Cognitive skills involve thinking about the nature of things sufficiently to make decisions regarding care.Technical skills enable nurses to manipulate equipment to produce a desired outcome.Interpersonal skills involve caring relationships.Ethical/legal skills enable nurses to conduct themselves morally and professionally.
22Nursing Roles in all Settings CaregiverCommunicator, Teacher/EducatorCounselorLeaderResearcherAdvocate
23Expanded Educational and Career Roles of Nurses Clinical nurse specialistNurse practitionerNurse anesthetistNurse–midwifeNurse educator
24Expanded Educational and Career Roles of Nurses (cont.) Nurse administratorNurse researcherNurse entrepreneur
25Educational Preparation for Nursing Practice Practical and vocational nursing educationRegistered nursing educationGraduate education in nursingContinuing educationIn-service education
26question What law regulates Nursing Practice? Answer: The Nurse Practice Act
27Nurse Practice Acts Define legal scope of nursing practice. Exclude untrained or unlicensed people from practicing nursing.Create a state board of nursing.Make and enforce rules and regulations.
28Nurse Practice Acts (cont.) Define important terms and activities in nursing.Provide Legal requirements and titles for RNs and LPNs.Establish criteria for education and licensure of nurses.
29QuestionWhich one of the following establishes criteria for the education and licensure of nurses?A. Nursing processB. Nurse practice actsC. ANA standards of nursing practiceD. National League for Nursing
30Answer Answer: B. Nurse practice acts Rationale: Nurse practice acts regulate the practice of nursing including education and licensure.Nursing process is a guideline for nursing practice enabling nurses to implement their roles.ANA standards of nursing practice protect and allow nurses to carry out professional roles.The National League of Nursing fosters the development and improvement of nursing services.