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What really is efficient lighting? Stefan Fassbinder Deutsches Kupferinstitut Am Bonneshof 5 D-40474 Düsseldorf Tel.: +49 211 4796-323 Fax: +49 211 4796-310.

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Presentation on theme: "What really is efficient lighting? Stefan Fassbinder Deutsches Kupferinstitut Am Bonneshof 5 D-40474 Düsseldorf Tel.: +49 211 4796-323 Fax: +49 211 4796-310."— Presentation transcript:

1 What really is efficient lighting? Stefan Fassbinder Deutsches Kupferinstitut Am Bonneshof 5 D Düsseldorf Tel.: Fax:

2 We can be contacted by: post phone fax internet online database, or personally Commercial companies The skilled trades Industry R & D institutes Universities Artists and craftsmen Students Private individuals The German Copper Institute, DKI, is the central information and advisory service dealing with all uses of copper and copper alloys. We offer our services to:

3 There are basically tho ways of generating light: The wood hammer method: heating something up until it glows bright The scientific approaches: exciting the electrons some other way

4 The efficiency of power electric devices and installations is usually given as a percentage. Only with light this does not work. The efficacy of a light source is given in lumens per watt. Theoretically, the most efficient light source has an energy efficiency of 683 lm/W. But this refers to monochromatic light with a wavelength of 555 nm. However, nobody appreciates such light (except perhaps on traffic lights). With an ideal white light source 199 lm/W would correspond to an efficiency of 100%.

5 5 75% of all light is generated by fluorescent lamps These use 50% of the share of electricity used in lighting (whereas lighting in total uses 11% of all electricity generation)

6 Why use any ballasts at all? Because otherwise the lamp will either not do anything at all – or it will go bang!

7

8 There are two principles available: 1. Conventional magnetic ballast or improved low-loss magnetic ballast

9 There are two principles available: 2. Electronic ballast

10 Along with it, a magnetic ballast also requires a starter and a compensation capacitor whereas the capacitor provides little incentive for contentious debates...

11 ...but as for the starter, there are two alternatives again: The commonplace, generic, widely used glow starters...

12 Starter Lamp Ballast Light switch Glow cathode

13 Glowdischarge

14 pre-heating

15 Ignition operation

16 ...and the less well known electronic starters

17 Electronicstarter Lamp Ballast Light switch Glow cathode

18 Ballasts have an effect on three important areas: Electronic lamp and ballast systems are usually very energy efficient Magnetic ballasts are energy efficient if you choose a low-loss model and if you mind the operating conditions Magnetic ballasts generate low harmonics levels Magnetic ballasts are sensitive to voltage variances Electronic ballasts are sensitive to spikes and surges Electronic ballasts tend to cause HF disturbances Magnetic ballasts generate a lot of reactive power but compensation is simple and cheap Electronic ballasts generate harmonic reactive power to a greater or lesser degree Energy efficiencyEMCReactive power

19 Are they EMC compliant? The high inductance of a magnetic ballast suppresses current harmonics in theory......and in practice

20 What effects do CFLs and what effects did older electronic ballasts have on the mains? All CFLs, electronic ballasts up to 25 W and older electronic ballasts work like this

21 And what about electronic ballasts rated over 25 W? Introduce electronic power factor correction (PFC)

22 How effective is power factor correction (to EN )?

23 Loading the neutral line with magnetic ballasts with CFL / old electronic ballasts

24 Summing the third harmonic L1 L2 L3 N in the neutral wire Physics dictates that at any moment in time the phase and neutral currents must sum to zero

25 HF EMC of electronic ballasts: A spectrum analysis (according to: Bernd Steinkühler, may help!

26

27 HF EMC of electronic ballasts: A spectrum analysis (according to: Bernd Steinkühler, may help!

28 A spectrum analysis (according to: Martin Schauer, may help!

29 Initial situation with LW transmitter Lumilux Combi EL 18 W in operation

30 Old electronic ballast, 2*58 W HF EMC of electronic ballasts: New electronic ballast, 2*36 W

31 HF EMC of magnetic ballasts: 2 magnetic ballasts, uncompensated 2 magnetic ballasts & parallel compensation

32 HF EMC of compact fluorescent lamps: CFL 15 WCFL 9 W

33 HF EMC in the reading hall of a library: Light offLight on

34 HF EMC in the reading hall of a library: Fundamental at 60 kHz Harmonics as multiples of this

35 LF EMC of MB and EB: Measured values of low frequency magnetic fields

36 Currently available ballasts >25 W Old-style ballasts >25 W, all other electronic ballasts up to 25 W & CFLs Apart from the price, the disadvantages of electronic ballasts are: Sensitivity to transient power disturbances (surges) HF emission which interferes with other HF devices Sensitivity to mechanical vibrations Problematic disposal Harmonics Problematic disposal

37 Compensation requirements of a 58 W lamp with a low-loss magnetic ballast: Reactive power compen- sation is important and relatively simple to achieve

38 Reactive power depends very much on the configuration! Total lamp power rating – with the same ballast in each case!

39 Compensation is best done right at source as is the case in fluorescent lamps either in a conventional parallel configuration or in the so- called lead-lag configuration

40 Two 58 W lamps with two ballasts and one capacitor Correctly dimensioned R Cu =13.8 L =878 mH C =5.7 µF

41 Two 58 W lamps with two ballasts and one capacitor R Cu =13.8 L =878 mH C =6.8 µF Dimensioning is 20% in error: Reactance is 32% in error!

42 58 W fluorescent lamp with a class B1 magnetic ballast

43 Two 58 W lamps, one in series with a 5.3 µF capacitor

44

45 Two 58 W lamps, one with a reduced (4.6µF) series capacitor

46 Better voltage stability can be achieved with series compensation

47 Risk with parallel compensation: Higher frequencies cause capacitor to overload, as shown here for an 11 W fluorescent lamp with magnetic ballast

48 And how about energy efficiency? Standards from the EU Commission

49 Attention: Do not confuse! Efficiency label for ballasts and efficiency label for household appliances

50 EUs initial Directive 2000/55/EG: Stated objective of the final document of September 2000: 'This Directive aims at reducing energy consumption … by moving gradually away from the less efficient ballasts, and towards the more efficient ballasts which may also offer extensive energy-saving features.' Stated objective of April 2000 draft: 'The overall aim of this Directive is to move gradually away from the less efficient magnetic ballasts, and towards the more efficient electronic ballasts which may also offer extensive energy-saving features, such as dimming' Amendment in May 2000 document: 'Any other measure judged appropriate to improve the inherent energy efficiency of ballasts and to encourage the use of energy-saving lighting control systems should be considered.' Objective of 1999/0127 draft document in June 1999: 'The present proposal would accelerate the transition of the Community industry towards the production of electronic ballasts'

51 So why is lamp efficiency better when operated with an electronic ballast? Is it the high frequency or rather the current waveform?

52 At that time, the EU Commission could not have known about the other means of improving efficiency Metering results at full and reduced voltage

53 So magnetic ballasts can be more efficient than electronic ones!

54 The practice of the old Directive: The theory of the old Directive: 58 W (magnetic) = 50 W (electronic)? or (systems power): 67 W (B2) = 55 W (A2)?

55 Practice of the old Directive: ΔP 2.5 W ΔΦ 4% Φ mag = Φ elec P mag P elec 230V

56 New Directive 245/2009 (implementing Directive 2005/32/EU Separate assessment of lamp and ballast (finally also minimum efficiencies for lamps!) Equal limit values for magnetic and electronic ballasts, now defined by formula: Identical measurement procedures for both magnetic and electronic ballasts Measured at equal light outputs Limit values for standby losses of dimmable ballasts

57 Table of new classes

58 Table of old and new classes

59 Plot of new classes

60 The bone of contention with the voltage reduction tech- nique: The lamps' lifetime Producers of voltage reduction plant speak about 33%... 50% longer lamp life. The lamp and luminaire section of the electrical industry's trade asso- ciation points out, the lamp life might also be shortened because the optimal filament temperature is not reached.www.zvei.org/lampen

61 Many ballasts are rated for operation with a variety of different lamp types. The optimal configuration of ballast and lamp(s) takes crucial influence!

62 Apply tandem connection, wherever possible! For different types of lamps with equal power ratings: Greater lamp voltage drop (i. e. accordingly smaller current) results in both lower active power loss and less reactive power Greater rated lamp power operated on the same ballast yields better efficiency Rules of thumb for selecting optimal combinations:

63 The efficiency strongly depends on the configuration! Total lamp power rating – always with the same ballast!

64 Lousy efficiency The efficiency strongly depends on the configuration!

65 Limited efficiency The efficiency strongly depends on the configuration!

66 Fair efficiency The efficiency strongly depends on the configuration!

67 Excellent efficiency The efficiency strongly depends on the configuration!

68 Is a tandem more efficient? 9 W 3.2 W 5.1 W Measured: 8.2 W 560 lm Measured: 13.5 W 930 lm Yes, this one is!

69 The efficiency strongly depends on the configuration! Total lamp power rating – with different ballasts

70 Results in detail: Measurements of electrical and light data of some small fluorescent lamps, done by

71 Single mode with mediocre magnetic ballast places 12% overload on 5 W TC-S lamp and turns out very poor: 50% electrical losses! Essence out of this: Single mode with same ballast places only 91% of rated power on 9 W TC-S lamp and is 90% as efficient as cheap CFL, only 75% as efficient as high-end CFL Tandem mode of 2*9 W TC-S lamps with same mediocre magnetic ballast turns out equivalent to a high-end electronic CFL and 25% more efficient than cheap CFL! Tandem mode of 2*9 W TC-S lamps turns out 50% more efficient than single mode Tandem mode of 2*9 W TC-S lamps places only 75% of rated electrical load on the lamp

72 Results in detail: 18 W lamps, single and tandem modes

73 Is a tandem more efficient? 36 W 18 W 5.34 W 5.87 W 3200 lm 2*1400 lm This one is not

74 At 230 V operating voltage each: 18 W T8 lamp with magnetic B1 ballast24.47 W 18 W T8 lamp with electronic A2 ballast19.13 W 18 W TC-D lamp with magnetic B1 ballast21.69 W 18 W TC-D lamp with electronic A2 ballast17.75 W Essence out of this – single mode: At adjusted voltage to yield equal light outputs (241.5 V): 18 W T8 lamp with magnetic B1 ballast26.18 W 18 W T8 lamp with electronic A2 ballast19.13 W 18 W TC-D lamp with magnetic B1 ballast23.86 W 18 W TC-D lamp with electronic A2 ballast17.75 W Note: Both the magnetic and the electronic T8 ballasts fail to comply with alleged classes B1 and A2, respectively! Both of the TC-D ballasts, however, do very well comply.

75 Essence out of this – tandem mode: At 230 V operating voltage each: 2*18 W T8 lamp with magnetic B1 ballast42.24 W 2*18 W T8 lamp with electronic A2 ballast36.39 W At adjusted voltage to yield equal light output (230.8 V): 2*18 W T8 lamp with magnetic B1 ballast42.70 W 2*18 W T8 lamp with electronic A2 ballast36.39 W Note: Both the magnetic tandem and the electronic twin ballast by far comply with labelled classes B1 and A2, respectively!

76 Reservation to be made here: Be careful with catalogue prices! A realistic approach, however, might look like this: 76 What pays off, what doesnt?

77

78 But looking at the old Directive 2000/55/EU you find the following: T8 lamp with a class B1 MB: Systems power rating64 W Lamp power rating58 W Ballast power loss6 W which makes9.4% T5 lamp with class A3 EB: Systems power rating63 W Lamp power rating54 W Ballast power loss9 W which makes16.7% trumps of electronic ballasts 1. Electronic ballasts have lower losses than magnetic ballasts

79 2. The luminaire performs a better overall efficiency – not solely because of the lower ballast losses also due to the better lamp efficiency with high frequency operation (about 20 kHz to 60 kHz). Accordingly, the lamp is fed with a lower electric power. But unfortunately the old Directive only gave the absolute electrical values, irrespective of the real brightness of the lamp, which, after all, is 4% lower with an electronic ballast. And: The actual practical design of all classes of magnetic ballasts today deviates substantially from the ratings. 10 trumps of electronic ballasts

80 3. The 100-Hz light flicker is abandoned with this high lamp operating frequency. However: There would be no mention of the flicker if ZVEI did not intend to abolish the well- proven lead-lag com- pensation of reactive power with fluorescent lamps. The arguments are not based on the principle but on an excessive rating of the compensation capacitance. ? Oh, by the way: Don't they praise the 100 Hz technique as a flicker free progress with TV sets?

81 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 4. Most electronic ballasts perform warm start capability (cathode pre-heating before firing), reducing lamp wear. However: Beware of overaged news! The warm start capability may come as an extra with extra price premium to the electronic ballast; with magnetic ballasts it has always come indispensably by default, ever since fluorescent lighting has been around. There is no other way!

82 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 5. Modern electronic ballasts usually provide the so-called cut-off technology (switching off the cathode heating after firing), which reduces lamp wear and saves even more energy. However: Beware of even more over- aged news! The cut-off capability may come as an extra with extra price premium to the electronic ballast; with magnetic ballasts it has always come indispensably by default, ever since fluorescent lighting has been around. There is no other way!

83 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 6. The lifetime expectancy of the fluorescent lamps is about 30% longer – provided the electronic ballasts perform the so-called warm start. However: Lifetime tests on fluorescent lamps are carried out with common glow starters instead of the advanced electronic starters when magnetic ballasts are applied. This way, one starting process is replaced with several starting attempts, while the number of starts is mentioned as a crucial ageing factor.

84 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 7. Electronic ballasts are also available with instant start feature. However: When electronic ballasts are praised as providing imme- diate start capability, this means that the extra cost for the warm start capability has been omitted. Fortunately this is impossible with magnetic ballasts! The lamps will be grateful for this. As a compromise there are very fast acting electronic starters available, firing within 0.5s.

85 85 10 trumps of electronic ballasts read like: It is equipped with spark plugs It is equipped with a carburetor Does not require any spark plugs Does not require a carburetor The advantages of the diesel engine: The advantages of the petrol engine: Whereas the carburetor is coming very much of age. This is why the comparison fits all too well!

86 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 8. Defective lamps are shut off automatically instead of harassing employees by permanent flashing of vain restart attempts (and even driving the ballast losses up above normal level on top of that, doing so). However: With magnetic ballasts together with electronic starters there are not any vain restart attempts of defective lamps either.

87 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 9. Electronic ballasts facilitate the use of the even more efficient T5 lamps, working with electronic ballasts only. So what is this then? ?

88 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 9. Electronic ballasts facilitate the use of the even more efficient T5 lamps, working with electronic ballasts only. Oh well, there are T5 lamps and T5 lamps. Depends on whether they are labelled HE or HO.

89 Consequently it now says in the new Directive: 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 9. Electronic ballasts facilitate the use of the even more efficient T5 lamps, working with electronic ballasts only. Inconsequently, though, it now also gives some strange Second stage requirements in the new Directive: The requirements applicable to double capped fluorescent lamps 26mm in diameter (T8) during the first stage shall apply to all double capped fluorescent lamps of other dia- meters than those covered in the first stage (16mm, 26mm). So all lamps are equal! – All of them? No! If its diameter equals 16 mm a lamp need not be efficient; to all other lamps strict limits (those for T8 lamps) apply!

90 10 trumps of electronic ballasts 10. By means of dimmability and eventual electronic lighting controls, say daylight adaptability, electronic ballasts may lead to additional energy savings. However: Only 9% of all electronic ballast are dimmable. Rather, dimmbability doubles the price again, and dimmable electronic ballasts require a control cable on top of the power cable. The power cable has to remain permanently energized, so that the electronics is able to receive signals.

91 10 trumps of electronic ballasts No. 11 out of 10: Electronic ballasts have a lobby, magnetic ones have none. But why is this? All producers of magnetic ballasts also produce electronic ones at some other site.

92 92 Strange development of lamp prices: Cross subsidies on account of business policies?

93 No talk at all of the disadvantages: Frequent reliability problems

94 Electronic ballast failures at Paderborn-Lippstadt airport

95 Electronic ballast failures in just one year Electronic ballast failures at ETH Zürich

96 96 Electronic ballast failures with E.ON in Düsseldorf 1100 pieces installed – after half a year already 400 pieces had failed. Each and every time it was the filter capacitor. HF superimposition from other ballasts on the mains (?) Howsoever – they have now all been replaced by magnetics

97 that it is not the lamps which are defective but rather their commom electronic twin ballast has failed Each time 2 lamps located side by side fail you may assume Electronic ballast failures at Biberach University of Applied Sciences

98 on a bakers shop at Dortmund principal railway station Electronic ballast failures at Dortmund principal railway station

99 Repairing the electronic ballast failures Back to magnetic ballasts! at Dortmund principal railway station:

100 Whenever two adjacent lamps... – see above Electronic ballast failures at Boisheim railway station:

101 at Rummenohl railway station: Electronic ballast failures at Rummenohl railway station:

102 Here you can even see them: 4 twin ballasts for a total of 8 lamps Electronic ballast failures at Brügge railway station:

103 Electronic ballast failures at Brügge railway station are continuing...

104 16 days of closure over Easter 2010 on account of major railway works including lighting – but only two weeks later it starts again! To be continued... Electronic ballast failures at Brügge railway station:

105 Electronic ballast failures at...

106 Statements heard in the market include: Magnetic ballasts are going to be phased out The use of magnetic ballasts is prohibited Magnetic ballasts don't exist any more at all Magnetic ballasts – what's that?

107 Hans Rudolf Ris, former editor in chief with Schweizer Zeitschrift für angewandte Elektro- technik: The Iron Age is over, the Copper Age is over, the Silicon Age has begun!

108 Dear Mr. Ris, then it amazes me why iron and copper appear to be more coveted than ever in the global marketplaces! Stefan Fassbinder, contemporary consultant for electrical applications with Deutsches Kupferinstitut:

109 The truth in figures:

110 All published case studies, however, read like this one published in Germany by 110

111 152*700W mercury vapour lamps were replaced with: 72*400W sodium vapour lamps +72*250W sodium vapour lamps Replacing magnetic with dimmable electronic ballasts Introducing automatic daylight dependent dimming 68% of energy savings is claimed through the renovation of the lighting in a factory hall. Albeit, the renovation included: % savings } 12% savings Quite apart from the excellent PR ThyssenKrupp achieved here, promoting a technique not using any magnetic steel at all against one which uses quite a lot of magnetic steel! Congratulations!

112 By the way, with dimming, care has to be taken not to replace losses with losses! Remember: Dimmable electronic ballasts are permanently live! Let us make some assumptions: An average office is used for 3000h/a. A conventional office lighting is operated for 2000h/a. During half of this time, say 1000h/a, half the power would suffice, so this yields 500h/a savings potential calculated for full load – but: Standby power intake remains busy for 8760h/a!

113 Original fabricator's slide BLMK 13030F395 E ELECTRONIC CONTROL GEAR luminous flux system wattage QUICKTRONIC® DE LUXE DIMMABLE energy consumption in relation to luminous flux

114 Now let us do some calculations: With assumed savings of 55.8 W for a 58 W fluorescent lamp being dimmed to 0, the gross energy saving would be: With assumed 3.2 W of stand-by the no-load consumption is: No savings left, since dimmed operation is always permanent filament heating operation. Who makes sure the filament heating is turned off at night and on weekends? This would reduce stand-by power intake to <1 W. Otherwise 1/3 1/3 of the days saving will still get lost at night!

115 115 A1=A3? – Or: When does an electronic ballast match class A1? It shall be dimmable at least down to 10% of the full light output. When set to full power it shall comply with the requirements of class A3. When dimmed down to 25% of full light output it shall use no more than 50% of its rated power (i. e. that of class A3). This 50% also represents the power rating! This is logical, since e. g. also a car is dimmable: The engine provides 60 kW, but in urban traffic the demand is usually only 10 kW, so the engine power is rated as 30 kW. Isnt it? Or take a modern electric locomotive: Power for ac- celerating:6000kW. Power during braking:-6000kW. Power rating:0kW. Logical, isnt it? Oh yes, it isnt!

116 Light output against absolute systems power input 116

117 Efficacy against measured relative systems power requirement at rated voltage 117

118 Alternative 1: Of course you save most if you turn off the light while it is not really needed. But if you turn off the light completely (possibly groupwise), then you save more than you would when dimmed down to 0. Therefore: A semi automatic which also shuts off the electronic control gear and has to be turned on again manually.

119 Alternative 2: Or wireless sensors which do not require any stand-by supply! See:

120 120 Conclusions so far: Dimmable electronic ballasts offer excellent opportunities for optimal lighting in conference rooms and the like. There they are a useful investment. There have been various dimming techniques for magnetic ballasts around, but they all had their drawbacks and do no longer match todays requirements. The energy savings argument is better covered by low-loss magnetic ballasts with electronic starters and, where adequate, a voltage reduction technique (but which cannot be seen as dimming, since the regulation is only 35%).

121 Karl Böhmer from an electronic ballast producer, says: It is very, very hard for an electronic ballast to compete with the efficiency of a very good B1 magnetic ballast. This is not the reason, after all, why we care for electronic ballasts, but rather...

122 122 Now what can dimmable ballasts offer us? Create adaptable lighting scenarios for dedicated purposes, such as in conference rooms or in

123 123 And what are the non- dimmable electronic ballasts good for? For low mains voltage (e. g. USA: 120 V) In emergency lighting (DC) In vehicles (DC or e. g / 3 Hz)

124 124 And in compact fluorescent lamps! In the receptacle of a CFL you usually find a plain little electronic ballast......even if there have been some others...

125 ...as a view into the interior of this sub-optimal solution shows

126 The concept of a replaceable lamp was convincing The efficiency was nothing worse than that of a cheap electronic CFL from the DIY market but could have been a lot better!

127 127 Do compact fluorescent lamps pay off? By principle they always do, yes! Just calculate!

128 128 If only they were compact! But: Which lamp is less compact than acompact fluorescent lamp?

129 129 Is a compact fluorescent lamp dimmable? By principle no – unless it is dimmable!

130 Dimmable CFL Megaman DorS (Dimm or Switch) Step 1: 100% brightness (at 100% of rated power)

131 Dimmable CFL Megaman DorS (Dimm or Switch) Step 2: 66% brightness (at 78% of rated power)

132 Dimmable CFL Megaman DorS (Dimm or Switch) Step 3: 33% brightness (at 61% of rated power)

133 Dimmable CFL Megaman DorS (Dimm or Switch) Step 4: 5% brightness (at 51% of rated power)

134 134 So shall we continue using incandescent lamps in the living room? Seems we better dont!

135 135 Attention! Camouflage! T12-fluorescent lamp 20 W: 1200 lmEfficiency class C...B T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W: 1350 lmEfficiency class B...A T5-fluorescent lamp 13 W: 1000 lmEfficiency class B...A Linestra tube 60 W: 420 lmEfficiency class G Linestra tube 35 W: 270 lmEfficiency class G

136 At least such incandescent lamps should be forbidden But frighteningly enough: fluorescent lamps contain mercury! fluorescent lamps dissipate electrosmog! fluorescent lamps cause harmonics! have found out the truth!

137 Just a moment, please! 1. Mercury: Industry reports a usage of about mg/lamp. Bürgerwelle Schweiz calculates an additional annual need of 600 kg in case of an incandescent lamp prohibition. If, in the worst case, this dissipates evenly across Europes soils, this amounts to the tremendous quantity of several hundred milligrams per square kilometre! While nearly all of us may have the equivalent of a few 1000 fluorescent lamps in our mouths...

138 Just a moment, please! 2. Electrosmog: Bürgerwelle Schweiz and many others report about countless individual experiences but no statistics, no medical evidence. Who is electro-sensitive enough to perceive 20 nT should really be killed immediately at 20 mT. A salt-sensitive person capable of tasting 20 mg of salt in a litre of soup will also get killed by eating 20 kg of sodium salt in one go. But everyone else also will.

139 Just a moment, please! 3. Harmonics: Weve had this before: 11% of all electricity goes for light, half of this 11% feeds fluorescent lamps, subtracting the discharge lamps, then there is only 2% of all generated power left to go for incandescent lamps. If we replace these with compact fluorescent lamps its only more 0.5% of all power consumption, since CFLs save 75% energy. Everything is relative, and this is relatively little!

140 Incandescent lamps are of good nature – but: The incandescent lamp is a glutton (electricity guzzler). The CFL is a waveform distorter. However: Everything is relative. This CFL replaces an incandescent lamp of 40 W power rating, so this means: more neutral current, but: less phase conductor current!

141 The CFL does save energy – also in the distrubution mains! But by all means this mains has to be a TN-S distribution system! So the balance out of 3. Harmonics is:

142 CFLs save energy – but: Compact fluorescent lamps are not compact CFL need their warm-up time CFL work optimally only at one particular temperature CFL may suffer from frequent switching There are only few dimmable CFL around With incandescent lamp 15 W With CFL 4 W after 3 s With CFL 4 W after 3 min

143 What will the future bring? Too hotToo bulkyToo... ?

144 144 Switch as often as you like Full power immediately DC and AC, HF and LF Focussable (directed) Fairly high efficiency also at part load Tomorrows lighting technique: LED lamps 20 W halogen lamp: <4.000 h lifetime 1.25 W LED lamp: > h lifetime

145 Now whats wrong about them? HF operation: Exceptions confirm the rule HF operation: Exceptions confirm the rule Poor performance Poor performance Wrong colour Wrong colour CFLCFLCFL LED white LEDwarm white

146 Now whats wrong about them? HF operation: Exceptions confirm the rule Poor performance Wrong colour Pub in Berlins Blue light district

147 Now whats wrong about them? HF operation: Exceptions confirm the rule Poor performance Wrong colour

148 Now whats wrong about them? HF operation: Exceptions confirm the rule Poor performance Wrong colour Therefore future oriented specifiers do not use electronic halogen lamp transformers but...

149 Obvious advantage of toroidal cores at part load Transformer efficiencies

150 LEDs also require some sort of ballast and k = 1.38* J/K (Boltzmanns constant) with

151 All LED lamps are equal...

152 ...but some are more equal than others

153 Upcoming but striving hard Here an 8 W LED »lighting tube« would like to replace an 18 W fluorescent tube, but: Position dependent No tandem configuration possible No combination with fluorescent tubes Light or lamplet? And how about EMC?

154 Upcoming but striving hard Out of 8 W power rating 5.7 W active power and 7.2 var (harmonic) reactive power are left over

155 Summary – part 1: Fluorescent lamps Sodium low pressure vapour lamp 135 W with low-loss ballast141.5lm/W T5 fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)93.6lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 190 V (out of specification)89.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with EB Cl. A386.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with EB Cl. A386.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 222 V (brightness as with EB)82.4lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V80.6lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)79.5lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)78.6lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W with twin EB Kl. A277.0lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V73.8lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. D for 220 V measured at 230 V71.7lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)66.8lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W tandem with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V66.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with EB Cl. A266.1lm/W 2 TC-S-fluorescent lamps 2*9 W tandem with high-loss MB55.8lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W brand quality55.7lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V51.5lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W DIY market quality46.7lm/W Mini compact fluorescent lamp 4 W improved DIY market quality (Megaman)44.8lm/W TC-S-fluorescent lamp 9 W single mode with high-loss MB42.1lm/W Sodium low pressure vapour lamp 135 W with low-loss ballast141.5lm/W T5 fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)93.6lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 190 V (out of specification)89.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with EB Cl. A386.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with EB Cl. A386.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 222 V (brightness as with EB)82.4lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V80.6lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)79.5lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)78.6lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W with twin EB Kl. A277.0lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V73.8lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. D for 220 V measured at 230 V71.7lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)66.8lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W tandem with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V66.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with EB Cl. A266.1lm/W 2 TC-S-fluorescent lamps 2*9 W tandem with high-loss MB55.8lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W brand quality55.7lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V51.5lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W DIY market quality46.7lm/W Mini compact fluorescent lamp 4 W improved DIY market quality (Megaman)44.8lm/W TC-S-fluorescent lamp 9 W single mode with high-loss MB42.1lm/W Sodium low pressure vapour lamp 135 W with low-loss ballast141.5lm/W T5 fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)93.6lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 190 V (out of specification)89.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with EB Cl. A386.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with EB Cl. A386.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 222 V (brightness as with EB)82.4lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V80.6lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)79.5lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)78.6lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W with twin EB Kl. A277.0lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V73.8lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. D for 220 V measured at 230 V71.7lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)66.8lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W tandem with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V66.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with EB Cl. A266.1lm/W 2 TC-S-fluorescent lamps 2*9 W tandem with high-loss MB55.8lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W brand quality55.7lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V51.5lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W DIY market quality46.7lm/W Mini compact fluorescent lamp 4 W improved DIY market quality (Megaman)44.8lm/W TC-S-fluorescent lamp 9 W single mode with high-loss MB42.1lm/W Sodium low pressure vapour lamp 135 W with low-loss ballast141.5lm/W T5 fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)93.6lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 190 V (out of specification)89.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with EB Cl. A386.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with EB Cl. A386.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 222 V (brightness as with EB)82.4lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V80.6lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)79.5lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)78.6lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W with twin EB Kl. A277.0lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V73.8lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. D for 220 V measured at 230 V71.7lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)66.8lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W tandem with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V66.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with EB Cl. A266.1lm/W 2 TC-S-fluorescent lamps 2*9 W tandem with high-loss MB55.8lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W brand quality55.7lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V51.5lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W DIY market quality46.7lm/W Mini compact fluorescent lamp 4 W improved DIY market quality (Megaman)44.8lm/W TC-S-fluorescent lamp 9 W single mode with high-loss MB42.1lm/W Sodium low pressure vapour lamp 135 W with low-loss ballast141.5lm/W T5 fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)93.6lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 190 V (out of specification)89.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with EB Cl. A386.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with EB Cl. A386.1lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 222 V (brightness as with EB)82.4lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V80.6lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 35°C) with EB Cl. A2 (optimal operation)79.5lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HE' 35 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)78.6lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W with twin EB Kl. A277.0lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 51 W 'Philips TL-D Eco' with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V73.8lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 58 W with MB Cl. D for 220 V measured at 230 V71.7lm/W T5-fluorescent lamp 'HO' 80 W (at 25°C) with EB Cl. A3 (not optimal)66.8lm/W 2 T8 fluorescent lamps 2*18 W tandem with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V66.5lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with EB Cl. A266.1lm/W 2 TC-S-fluorescent lamps 2*9 W tandem with high-loss MB55.8lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W brand quality55.7lm/W T8 fluorescent lamp 18 W with MB Cl. B1 at 230 V51.5lm/W Compact fluorescent lamp 11 W DIY market quality46.7lm/W Mini compact fluorescent lamp 4 W improved DIY market quality (Megaman)44.8lm/W TC-S-fluorescent lamp 9 W single mode with high-loss MB42.1lm/W

156 Summary – part 2: LEDs and incancescent lamps LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W LED lamp systems60.0lm/W 3 IRC halogen lamps 3*50 W with toroidal core transformer 300 W (50% load)23.7lm/W 2 halogen lamps 2*100 W with toroidal core transformer 400 W (50% load)12.4lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with toroidal core transf. 300 W (83% load)12.1lm/W 3 halogen lamps 2*100 W + 50 W with electronic transf. 250 W (100% load)12.0lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with electronic transformer 60 W (100% load)11.2lm/W 3 halogen lamps 3*20 W with cheap DIY transformer 60 W (100% load)10.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 200 W frosted15.5lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 150 W frosted14.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 100 W frosted13.6lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 60 W frosted12.0lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 40 W frosted10.4lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 25 W frosted8.8lm/W Linestra tube 120 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 60 W7.0lm/W Linestra tube 35 W6.8lm/W Generic incandescent lamp 15 W frosted6.0lm/W Stearin candle0.1lm/W More:


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