Presentation on theme: "Discovering and sharing effective online pedagogies Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education Annual Conference University of London."— Presentation transcript:
Discovering and sharing effective online pedagogies Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education Annual Conference University of London 9-11 April 2014
The Context: the global demand for education The new UNESCO goals for education: Every child completes a full 9 years of free basic education … Post-basic education expanded to meet needs for knowledge and skills … (UNESCO post 2015 goals) By 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per year, mostly from emerging economies (NAFSA 2010) Student loan debt in US is higher than CC debt so students will demand new models of teaching and learning 40% Student loan debt in UK will never be repaid How is HE to meet the demand for lifelong learning in a way that is affordable to students, maintains quality and increases reach?
The social purpose of HE Personal - Knowledge - Economic - Social - to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life to increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake and foster their application to the benefit of the economy and society to serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge- based economy at local, regional and national levels to play a major role in shaping a democratic, civilised and inclusive society Dearing Report, UK (1997): Aims and purposes of HE to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life
Is the MOOC model a solution? Content will be free MOOCs will make HE accessible to the boy in a Cairo slum Many academics are happy to donate time because of the reach of MOOCs A piece of s/w can understand exactly how a student learns which the teacher cannot do A lot of what you teach is not viable to charge for because the machine will do it better No.1 pushback from investors was they did not understand why it needed to be accredited because no-one will care $100m venture capital – to share tuition revenue Coursera model has 3 income streams: certification (not accredited), employers pay, other institutions pay [Goldman Sachs MOOC debate Nov 2012]
The realities of the MOOC model Education is not a mass delivery industry Content is not free Teaching is also guidance, support, evaluation Education is a client-centred industry There is no valid business model for MOOCs Massive courses are inevitable if open to all and free Open to all means no prior qualifications a different curriculum and pedagogy Online courses have been perfected over many years by the OU and others Courses imply student readiness, defined outcomes, and assessment against them education is not content acquisition because education is a curated guided experience [Martin Bean, VC, OU]
The MOOC as large-scale pedagogy Average student numbers per course - Edinburgh Completed = 27% of starters Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1 27%
The MOOC as large-scale pedagogy Average student numbers per course - UoL MOOC Report 2013: University of London % Completed = 9% of starters
The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates 40% 30% 17% 10% 3% Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1 70% have degrees Enrolled students
The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates Enrolled students 4% 29% 35% 8% 3% MOOC Report 2013: University of London 68% have degrees 8% 11%
The MOOC as undergraduate education MOOCs: Higher Educations Digital Moment? 2013: UUK 85% have degrees
The realities of the MOOC model Education is not a mass delivery industry Content is not free Teaching is also guidance, support, evaluation Education is a client-centred industry There is no valid business model for MOOCs Massive courses are inevitable if open to all and free Open to all means no prior qualifications a different curriculum and pedagogy Online courses have been perfected over many years by the OU and others Courses imply student readiness, defined outcomes, and assessment against them MOOCs are parasitic on university teaching paid for by undergraduates The pedagogic innovation required for effectiveness has attracted little investment The dominant users are highly qualified professionals Undergraduates need guidance, support, nurturing, which is labour intensive Achieving high-level concepts and skills requires intensive study and guidance Academic study is hard – the flipped classroom requires extensive careful design education is not content acquisition because education is a curated guided experience [Martin Bean, VC, OU]
Discovering effective online pedagogies How do we use digital technologies to develop undergraduate education that is high quality scales up and is affordable?
The economics of teaching and learning in HE Preparation of curriculum and resources Adaptive systems: field trips, lab sessions, simulations, models Expositions: lectures, study guides, slides, podcasts, videos Formative assessment: feedback from peers, digital systems Readings: books, papers, websites, pdfs Collaborations: projects, workshops, role play simulations, wikis Peer group discussion: seminars, discussion forums Formative assessment: tutor feedback offline, feedback online Tutored discussion: tutorials, small groups, discussion forums Summative assessment: exams, essays, designs, performance Support for students learning Fixed cost Variable cost
What it takes to teach online Support/student (variable cost) Guided MOOC 20 hrs200 hrs2000 hrs Basic MOOC 0.00 Total teaching time Preparation time (fixed cost) = 420 hrs Basic MOOC: peer support, no tutor support Guided MOOC: tutors monitor and guide discussions, react to problems, redesign quizzes, post updates Prep time = 420 Based on Duke University Report 2012 The variable cost of high quality teaching does not achieve economies of scale if you maintain the same pedagogy Guided MOOC Basic MOOC
Balancing the benefits and costs Its important to understand the link between the pedagogical benefits and teaching time costs of online learning – especially for the large-scale What are the new digital pedagogies that will address the 1:25 student guidance conundrum? How to shift variable cost support to fixed cost support? Can we develop a viable business model that will make HE more effective and affordable for undergraduates?
Conceal answers to question Ask for user-constructed input Show multiple answers/comments Ask student to improve answer Concealed MCQs The (virtual) Keller Plan The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Pedagogies for supporting large classes Tutorial for 5 representative students Questions and guidance represent all students needs 240 individual students produce response to open question Pairs compare and produce joint response 60 groups of 4 compare and produce joint response and post as one of 10 responses... 6 groups of 40 students vote on best response Teacher receives 6 responses to comment on Introduce content Self-paced practice Tutor-marked test Student becomes tutor for credit Until half class is tutoring the rest
Pedagogies for supporting large classes Concealed MCQs The cascaded tutor (Keller Plan) The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Laurillard, 2002 Keller, 1974 Mayes et al, 2001 Gibbs et al, 1992
What it takes to teach with technology The teaching workload is increasing in terms of Planning for how students will learn in the mix of the physical, digital and social learning spaces designed for them Curating and adapting existing content resources Designing activities and resources for all types of active learning Personalised and adaptive teaching that improve traditional methods Providing flexibility in blended learning options Guiding and nurturing large cohorts of students Using learning technologies to improve scale AND outcomes BUT: Institutions and teachers do not typically plan for the teaching workload implied by these learning benefits nor for the need to collaborate to innovate with technology
Browse Adopt Adapt Develop Review RedesignTestPublish The design cycle for science Building scientific knowledge What is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper?
Browse Adopt Adapt Develop Review RedesignTestPublish The design cycle for teaching? Building teaching community knowledge Make links to existing content resources Build on others tested designs
Discovering and sharing online pedagogies learningdesigner.org
The Learning Designer: Adopting an idea (interpreting Tudor portraits) Details of: learning context, topic, aims, outcomes, student numbers, duration Details of the pedagogy: types of learning activity, group size, teacher presence, attached urls, duration, student guidance Analysis of the learning experience calculated dynamically
The Learning Designer: Adapting (experimental design for Psychology) Every section of the learning design can be edited, and new resources attached Share to submit for review
The Learning Designer: Reviewing (Business planning for engineers) Notes for additional comments Reviews and comments could be student evaluations Reviewer comments according to criteria: Test of outcome? Alignment? Feedback? Technology? Reviewer Feedback
Browse Adopt Adapt Create Review RedesignTestPublish Teaching as a design cycle Building learning technology knowledge Question: What is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper? Answer: A learning design that can be reviewed, adapted, improved, published, reused…
Discovering and sharing effective online pedagogies We can improve the variable costs of teaching support if we explore and share ideas for methods like – pyramid collaboration groups: from many students to few outputs for tutors to inspect – cascaded tutor: from one teachers to many tutors – vicarious master class: from one small group to all For this we need a collaborative community of teachers as designers of innovative pedagogy They will only flourish if we demand, and get, improved pedagogic design functionality on VLE platforms – and the design tools to share and test pedagogic discoveries THEN perhaps university level lifelong learning can achieve high quality and reach that is more affordable
Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology (Routledge, 2012) Further details…
Jamil Salmi lecture at HEPI Compulsory to go to university Recruit on facebook Recruit at kindergarten Technology for content Ebay for scholarship Student will be part of several unis Only using myspace, fb, etc Open internet exams, valid degree for 5 years. Redo courses every 3 years – but 5 min lectures Online tutoring in Bangalore i-labs and e-libs All must study overseas Reimburse who does not get a job 10% income from govt Salary indexed to ranking MFA important because creativity will be so important