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The pedagogies for large-scale student guidance Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education, London 08 July 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "The pedagogies for large-scale student guidance Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education, London 08 July 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 The pedagogies for large-scale student guidance Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education, London 08 July 2013

2 The global demand for education The new UNESCO goals for education: Every child completes a full 9 years of free basic education … Post-basic education expanded to meet needs for knowledge and skills … (Draft for UNESCO post 2015 goals) By 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per year, mostly from emerging economies (NAFSA 2010) Implying significant growth in graduate numbers to supply this level of education But staff:student ratios in the current HE model are ~1:25, which cannot meet this level of demand Can technology help? An innovation must be aligned with corporate interests for it to work (Richard Maccabee)

3 Adaptive feedback (sim/models/games) Expositions (lecture videos) Automated grading (MCQs, quizzes) Readings (pdfs) Collaboration activities (wiki) Peer group discussion (forums) Peer grading against criteria (tests) Tutored discussion (forums) Tutor feedback (e-portfolio) Adaptive feedback (sim/models/games) Expositions (lecture videos) Automated grading (MCQs, quizzes) Readings (pdfs) Collaboration activities (wiki) Peer group discussion (forums) Peer grading against criteria (tests) Tutored discussion (forums) Tutor feedback (e-portfolio) Adaptive feedback (sim/models/games) Expositions (lecture videos) Automated grading (MCQs, quizzes) Readings (pdfs) Collaboration activities (wiki) Peer group discussion (forums) Peer grading against criteria (tests) Tutored discussion (forums) Tutor feedback (e-portfolio) Supporting high quality online learning MOOCPreparation time (fixed costs) Support time (variable costs) MOOC vs standard online course

4 The MOOC as large-scale pedagogy MOOCs are not large scale – Duke University Completed = 2% of enrolment, 25% of engaged Duke University Report 2012

5 The MOOC as large-scale pedagogy Average student numbers per course - Edinburgh Completed = 10% of enrolment, 37% of engaged Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1

6 The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates Enrolled students Duke University Report % have degrees

7 The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates Enrolled students 40% 30% 17% 10% 3% Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1 70% have degrees

8 420 hours to develop materials and course design What does it take to teach a MOOC? Videos and pdfs Quizzes Wiki Peer discussions Peer grading Tutored discussions Summative assessment High on prep time Zero tutor contact for 42 hours Low on prep time High contact for 8 hours learning 200 hours to support 8 hours for ~500 students Duke University Report weeks, providing 50 hours learning time, including support: = 1:20 staff student ratio How does that scale up to large student numbers?

9 What it takes to teach a basic MOOC vs the Duke MOOC Support time Duke MOOC 20 hrs200 hrs2000 hrs Basic MOOC 0.00 Total teaching time Preparation time = 420 hrs The variable cost of high quality support does not achieve economies of scale if you maintain the same pedagogy Prep time = 420 What students need is support and encouragement (Lindsay Jordan)

10 Modelling the benefits and costs Its important to understand the link between the pedagogical benefits and teaching time costs of online learning – especially for the large-scale What are the new digital pedagogies that will address the 1:25 student support conundrum?

11 Concealed MCQs The (virtual) Keller Plan The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Pedagogies for supporting large classes Tutorial for 5 representative students Questions and guidance represent all students needs Conceal answers to question Ask for user-constructed input Reveal multiple answers Ask user to select nearest fit 240 individual students produce response to open question Pairs compare and produce joint response Groups of 4 compare and produce joint response and post as one of 10 responses... 6 groups of 40 students vote on best response Teacher receives 6 responses to comment on Introduce content Self-paced practice Tutor-marked test Student becomes tutor for credit Until half class is tutoring the rest

12 Pedagogies for supporting large classes Concealed MCQs The (virtual) Keller Plan The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Laurillard, 2002 Keller, 1974 Mayes et al, 2001 Gibbs et al, 1992 The traditional pedagogies for large classes could be redesigned as digital formats

13 Teachers as designers need the tools for innovation Tools for teachers to share ideas To find or create new ideas Adopt Adapt Test To collect learning analytics Redesign Analyse Publish Creating knowledge about effective blended and online pedagogies

14 Tools for teachers to share ideas

15 A library of patterns to inspect Academics sharing their best designs

16 Assigned metadata on learning type group size duration in minutes teacher contact/not resources attached evidence of learning Defining the metadata of their pedagogies

17 Adopt and adapt design for Ed students Check the feedback on the overall distribution of learning activity Export to Word [Moodle] Specify the duration of the activity in minutes Share the pattern Adjust the type of learning activity. Edit the instructions. Adjust the type of learning activity. Edit the instructions.

18 Adopt and adapt design for Ed students … I can pick up bits of what you do (Kevin Ashley)

19 Export to Moodle for Ed students Interprets metadata to assign activity types in Moodle (or other LMS) Attaches resource links Inserts study guidance from text in the pattern Collects data on student performance on TEL-based activities

20 Reuse for Med students in PPC Explain how to optimise the inputs to a learning design tool to achieve a well-balanced learning design With your partner select different inputs to the learning design tool – can you improve on your previous results? Explain how to optimise the inputs to a patient simulator to achieve the ideal blood pressure With your partner select different inputs to the patient simulator – can you improve on your previous results?

21 Reversioned for Med students Same pedagogical pattern Same study guidance except for subject content terms Different resources attached Same type of evidence data (?) We do not share as much as we should (Nicola Millard)

22 Conventional Blended Categorised learning activities Analysis shows more active learning A computational representation can analyse how much of each learning activity has been designed in Modelling the pedagogic benefits

23 Figure 2(b) Teaching time for a course with 40, 80, 160 students, gives profits of -£12000 £13000 £35000 Figure 2(a) Teaching time for a course with 40 students each year, gives profits of -£12000 £5000 £8000 Modelling the teaching time costs Modelling an IOE course over 3 years: the Course Resource Appraisal Model Prep hrs Support hrs Yr1 Yr2 Yr3 Prep hrs Support hrs Yr1 Yr2 Yr3 + need to model differences in administrative support costs for step changes

24 The uncomfortable truths of education economics (No university or college finance director addresses these!) Scaling up to large numbers will never improve the per-student support costs… …unless we come up with some clever learning designs that support at better than the 1:25 ratio We need to invest in teacher innovation to make the best use of our teaching resource for students outcomes Teachers sharing innovations will improve knowledge, quality and value for students money Senior leaders should be modelling what they expect from their staff (Cathy Walsh)

25 Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology (Routledge, 2012) Further details… Science moves faster with open access (Alicia Wise)

26 The global demand for education requires investment in large-scale pedagogic innovation for MOOCs to deliver Digital pedagogic innovation must support students at a better than 1:25 staff-student ratio Teachers need the tools to design, test and share the evidence of what works, and model benefits and costs Teachers are the engine of innovation – designing, testing, sharing their best pedagogic ideas The global demand for education requires investment in large-scale pedagogic innovation for MOOCs to deliver Digital pedagogic innovation must support students at a better than 1:25 staff-student ratio Teachers need the tools to design, test and share the evidence of what works, and model benefits and costs Teachers are the engine of innovation – designing, testing, sharing their best pedagogic ideas And they need your help to do it! The pedagogies for large-scale student guidance the WWW is coming! (Martin King)


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