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U21 Educational Innovation Conference University College Dublin 31 October – 01 November 2013 Exploring the Cost & Benefits of Online Innovation Diana.

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Presentation on theme: "U21 Educational Innovation Conference University College Dublin 31 October – 01 November 2013 Exploring the Cost & Benefits of Online Innovation Diana."— Presentation transcript:

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2 U21 Educational Innovation Conference University College Dublin 31 October – 01 November 2013 Exploring the Cost & Benefits of Online Innovation Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education

3 Outline of the argument Global demand for education Why we need to understand costs and benefits What it takes to teach with technology Teaching on the large scale Tools for teachers as designers Modelling costs and benefits Exploring the costs and benefits of online innovation in education

4 The global demand for education The new UNESCO goals for education: Every child completes a full 9 years of free basic education … Post-basic education expanded to meet needs for knowledge and skills … ( Draft for UNESCO post 2015 goals ) By 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per year, mostly from emerging economies ( NAFSA 2010 ) Implying significant graduate and teacher training growth for this level of schooling, FE and HE 1:25 staff:students??

5 The global demand for HE is a demand for new pedagogies capable of educating millions – far from the current model Teaching has to adapt continually to rapid changes in opportunities from digital technology innovation, changing student needs, capabilities and expectations teachers have to discover the digital pedagogic forms that scale up for large-scale high quality teaching The iterative and adaptive nature of design must be at the core of teaching innovation in HE in this rapidly changing world Why we need to understand costs and benefits

6 Adaptive feedback (sim/models/games) Expositions (lecture videos) Automated grading (MCQs, quizzes) Readings (pdfs) Collaboration activities (wiki) Peer group discussion (forums) Peer grading against criteria (tests) Tutored discussion (forums) Tutor feedback (e-portfolio) Adaptive feedback (sim/models/games) Expositions (lecture videos) Automated grading (MCQs, quizzes) Readings (pdfs) Collaboration activities (wiki) Peer group discussion (forums) Peer grading against criteria (tests) Tutored discussion (forums) Tutor feedback (e-portfolio) Adaptive feedback (sim/models/games) Expositions (lecture videos) Automated grading (MCQs, quizzes) Readings (pdfs) Collaboration activities (wiki) Peer group discussion (forums) Peer grading against criteria (tests) Tutored discussion (forums) Tutor feedback (e-portfolio) Understanding high quality TEL MOOCPreparation time (fixed costs) Support time (variable costs) MOOC vs standard online course

7 What it takes to teach with technology The teaching workload is increasing in terms of Planning for how students will learn in the mix of the physical, digital and social learning spaces designed for them Curating and adapting existing content resources Designing the activities, tools and resources that afford all types of active learning Personalised and adaptive teaching that improves on traditional methods Providing flexibility in blended learning options Guiding and nurturing large cohorts of students Using learning technologies to improve scale AND outcomes BUT: Institutions and teachers do not typically plan for the teaching workload implied by these learning benefits nor for the need to collaborate to innovate with technology

8 The MOOC as large-scale pedagogy MOOCs are not large scale – Duke University Completed = 2% of enrolment, 25% of engaged Duke University Report 2012

9 The MOOC as large-scale pedagogy Average student numbers per course - Edinburgh Completed = 10% of enrolment, 37% of engaged Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1

10 The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates Enrolled students Duke University Report % have degrees

11 The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates Enrolled students 40% 30% 17% 10% 3% Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1 70% have degrees

12 What it takes to teach a basic MOOC vs the Duke MOOC Teaching time Duke MOOC 20 hrs200 hrs2000 hrs Basic MOOC 0.00 Total teaching time Preparation time = 420 hrs The variable cost of high quality teaching does not achieve economies of scale if you maintain the same pedagogy Prep time = 420 Duke University Report 2012

13 Modelling the benefits and costs Its important to understand the link between the pedagogical benefits and teaching time costs of online learning – especially for the large-scale What are the new digital pedagogies that will address the 1:25 student guidance conundrum? – How to shift variable cost support to fixed cost support? Can we develop a viable business model that will make HE affordable for novice learners?

14 Concealed MCQs The (virtual) Keller Plan The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Pedagogies for supporting large classes Tutorial for 5 representative students Questions and guidance represent all students needs Conceal answers to question Ask for user-constructed input Reveal multiple answers Ask user to select nearest fit 240 individual students produce response to open question Pairs compare and produce joint response Groups of 4 compare and produce joint response and post as one of 10 responses... 6 groups of 40 students vote on best response Teacher receives 6 responses to comment on Introduce content Self-paced practice Tutor-marked test Student becomes tutor for credit Until half class is tutoring the rest

15 Pedagogies for supporting large classes Concealed MCQs The (virtual) Keller Plan The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Laurillard, 2002 Keller, 1974 Mayes et al, 2001 Gibbs et al, 1992 The traditional pedagogies for large classes could be redesigned as digital formats

16 1.Library of learning designs indexed by learning outcome & topic 2.Three different subject instances for each to promote migration of good pedagogy across domains 3.Academic adopts a design and adapts it as needed using edit tools & links to other resources – creating a computationally interpretable design 4.Library of OERs for academics to link to from learning designs 5.Feedback on learning experience created, total learning time, and teacher preparation and contact time 6.Prompt to include production activity for collecting learning analytics on outcomes 7.Design sent to Moodle to test with students – collects data 8.Students can annotate design for detailed evaluation 9.Academic redesigns as needed – tests again – publishes to Library Tools for academics as learning designers 1.Library of learning designs indexed by learning outcome & topic 2.Three different subject instances for each to promote migration of good pedagogy across domains 3.Academic adopts a design and adapts it as needed using edit tools & links to other resources – creating a computationally interpretable design 4.Library of OERs for academics to link to from learning designs 5.Feedback on learning experience created, total learning time, and teacher preparation and contact time 6.Prompt to include production activity for collecting learning analytics on outcomes 7.Design sent to Moodle to test with students – collects data 8.Students can annotate design for detailed evaluation 9.Academic redesigns as needed – tests again – publishes to Library

17 Teachers as design scientists need the tools for innovation Tools for teachers as learning designers To find or create new ideas Adopt Adapt Test To collect learning analytics Redesign Analyse Publish Creating knowledge about effective blended and online pedagogies

18 Tools for academics as learning designers

19 1.Library of learning designs indexed by learning outcome & topic 2.Three different subject instances for each design to promote migration of good pedagogy across domains 3.Academic adopts a design and adapts it as needed using edit tools & links to other resources – creating a computationally interpretable design 4.Library of OERs for academics to link to from learning designs 5.Feedback on learning experience created, total learning time, and teacher preparation and contact time 6.Prompt to include production activity for collecting learning analytics on outcome 7.Design sent to Moodle to test with students – collects data 8.Students can annotate design for detailed evaluation 9.Academic redesigns as needed – tests again – publishes to Library Tools for academics as learning designers

20 Select Adopt Adapt Test RedesignTestPublish The design cycle for teaching Building teaching community knowledge Make links to existing content resources Redesign existing content resources? Build on others tested designs

21 Select Adopt Adapt Test RedesignTestPublish Similar to the design cycle for science Building scientific knowledge What is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper?

22 A learning design for Ed students Check the feedback on the overall distribution of learning activity Add link to an OER, e.g. a digital tool for practice Make links to existing content resources The learning design as a content shell ready to receive content products? Export to Word or LMS/VLE

23 Export to Moodle for Ed students Interprets metadata to assign activity types in Moodle (or other LMS) Attaches resource links Inserts study guidance from text in the pattern Collects data on student performance on TEL-based activities

24 Reversioned for Med students Same pedagogical pattern Same study guidance except for subject content terms and resources Different resources attached Same type of evidence data (?)

25 Conventional Blended Categorised learning activities Analysis shows more active learning A computational representation can analyse how much of each learning activity has been designed in Modelling the pedagogic benefits

26 The Course Resource Appraisal Model … Run No. of students Run 1 15 Run 2 20 Run 3 20 Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Students Profit -£27k £4k £11k Run No. of students Run 1 15 Run 2 30 Run 3 60 Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Students Profit -£27k £11k £38k

27 Modelling the teaching time costs An interactive learning design tool can analyse how much design and teaching time is needed Design hrs Teaching hrs Yr1 Yr2 Yr Design hrs Teaching hrs Students

28 Create and test professional content Curate existing professional content Adapt and customise existing content Select and organise community content Create reusable learning designs as content shells Adapt and customise existing learning designs Managing the fixed costs of teaching What academics needDo publishers help? Could the learning design interface to the VLE, for creating content shells suggest a new kind of content product?

29 Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology (Routledge, 2012) tinyurl.com/ppcollector Further details…

30 Teaching as a design science: Summary The global demand for education requires investment in pedagogic innovation for high quality large scale teaching We need to design, test, use, and reuse high quality open educational resources that amortise high fixed costs over large student cohorts We need to invent variable cost pedagogic innovations that supports students at a better than 1:25 staff-student ratio Teachers need the tools to design, test, gather the evidence of what works, and model benefits and costs Teachers are the engine of innovation – discovering the means by which we fulfill our social responsibility of doing more for less to meet that global demand

31 Break-out questions 1.Should our universities play any role, or take any responsibility for meeting the global demand for HE? [Slides 2, 3] 2.Can universities and teachers plan for the teaching workload implied by the learning benefits that technology can confer? [Slide 4] 3.Can academic teachers play a part in discovering the digital pedagogic methods that will scale up to provide large-scale high quality teaching in order to reduce the costs to students/government of meeting the national demand for HE and lifelong learning? If not – who? [Slide 5, 6] 4.Can we use pedagogy-driven learning analytics to understand better the relationships between teaching and learning? [Slide 6] 5.Can university teachers collaborate to innovate with technology? [Slide 7] 6.Do we know the real costs of current teaching as a business model with a related return? How can we understand the new cost models for moving to online courses if we do not have a clear activity-based cost model for current teaching? [Slides 8, 9]

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