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Dentin_pulp complex.

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Presentation on theme: "Dentin_pulp complex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dentin_pulp complex

2 Dentin and pulp are embryologically, histologically, and
functionally the same tissue and therefore are considered as a complex

3 Tooth Tooth Crown Dentin Pulp Tooth Root

4 Both dentin and pulp have a common origin from the dental papilla.

5 Pulp Dentin

6 Pulp Dentin Odontoblast cell layer

7 Dentin Pulp

8 Types of Dentin Dentin Primary physiologic dentin
Secondary physiologic dentin Tertiary dentin or reparative dentin or reactionary dentin or irregular secondary dentin Mantle dentin Circumpulpal dentin Peritubular dentin Intertubular dentin


10 Types of Dentin Primary dentin: is the dentin formed in a tooth before the completion of the apical foramen of the root. Primary dentin is noted for its regular pattern of tubules. Secondary dentin: is the dentin that is formed after the completion of the apical foramen and continues to form throughout the life of the tooth. Peritubular (intratubular) dentin: dentin that creates the wall of the dentinal tubule. Intertubular dentin: dentin found between the tubules. Mantle dentin: the first predentin that forms and matures within the tooth. Circumpulpal dentin: the layer of dentin around the outer pulpal wall.

11 Odontoblasts and process
Dentin Pulp Odontoblast process Odontoblast cells

12 Dentinal Matrix Dentinal matrix Hole for dentinal tubules

13 Dentinal tubules

14 Dentinal tubules

15 Dentinal tubules Peritubular dentin Intertubular dentin

16 Dentinal tubules Predentin

17 Dentinal tubules Peritubular dentin Intertubular dentin

18 Odontoblast layer Predentin Dentinal tubules


20 Dentinal Tubules Coronal dentin Root dentin

21 Dentinal tubules

22 Dentinal tubules Intraubular or peritubular dentin Intertubular dentin

23 Interglobuler Dentin Dentino Enamel Junction Inter- globuler dentin
Dentinal Tubules

24 Inter- globuler dentin

25 Dentin Cementum Granular layer of Tomes Hyaline layer

26 Primary physiological dentin Secondary physiological dentin

27 Secondary physiological dentin Primary physiological dentin Tertiary dentin

28 Deantal caries Sclerotic dentin

29 Dead tracts Tertiary dentin Secondary physiological dentin Primary

30 Incremental line of von Ebner

31 Enamel Dentin Lines of Retzius Lines of Owen Dentino-enamel Junction

32 Neonatal lines in Dentin

33 Functions of the Dental Pulp
Nutrition: blood supply for pulp and dentin. Sensory: changes in temp., vibration and chemical that affect the dentin and pulp. Formative: the pulp involve in the support, maintenance and continued formation of dentin. Defensive: triggering of inflammatory and immune response. Protective: Development and formation of secondary and tertiary dentin which increase the coverage of the pulp.

34 Anatomy of Pulp Pulp horns or cornua Pulp Chamber or coronal pulp, located in the crown of the tooth. Root canal or radicular pulp, is the portion of the pulp located in the root area. The apical foramen is the opening from the pulp at the apex of the tooth. Accessory canals or lateral canal, extra canal located on the lateral portions of the root.

35 Lateral or accessory canal

36 Lateral Canal

37 Predentin Odontoblasts Cell-free zone Cell-rich zone Odontoblastic
process Predentin Cell bodies Odontoblasts Cell-free zone Cell-rich zone

38 Microscopic Zones in Pulp
Zones-from outer to inner zone Description Odontoblastic layer Lines the outer pulpal wall and consists of the cell bodies of odontoblast. Secondary dentin may form in this area from the apposition of odontoblast. Cell-free zone Fewer cells than odontoblastic layer. Nerve and capillary plexus located here Cell-rich zone Increased density of cells as compared to cell-free zone and also a more extensive vascular system Pulpal-core Located in the center of the pulp chamber, which has many cells and an extensice vascular supply, similar to cell-rich zone

39 Dentin Odontoblasts layer Predentin Cell rich zone Pulp core Cell free zone

40 Contents of the Pulp Cells: Odontoblast, Fibroblast, white-blood cells, Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, Macrophages and Lymphocytes. No fat cell. Fibrous Matrix: Mostly reticular fibres and collagen fibres (Type I and Type III). Ground substance: Act as a medium to transport nutrients to cells and metabolites of the cell to the blood vessels.

41 Vascularity and Nerves of the Pulp
The pulp organ is extensively vascular with vessels arising from the external carotids to the superior or inferior alveolar arteries. It drain by the same vein. Blood flow is more rapid in the pulp than in most area of the body, and the blood pressure is quite high. The walls of the pulpal vessels become very thin as their enter the pulp. Nerves : Several large nerves enter the apical canal of each Molar and Premolar and single ones enter the anterior teeth. This trunks transverse the radicular pulp, proceed to the coronal area and branch peripherally.

42 Nerves and vessels in pulp
Blood and vessels enter and exit the dental pulp by way of the apical and accessory foramina. Pulp is richly innervated; nerves enter the pulp through the apical foramen, along with afferent blood vessels and together form the neuro-vascular bundle.

43 Nerves in pulp

44 Dental Pulp Nerve Blood vessel

45 Clinically Importance features of the Dental Pulp
With age the pulp becomes less cellular. The number of cells in the dental pulp decreases as cell death occurs with age. The volume of the pulp chamber with continued deposition of dentine. In older teeth, the pulp chamber decreases in size; in some cases the pulp chamber can be obliterated. An increase in calcification in the pulp occurs with age. An increase in calcification in the pulp occurs with age.


47 Free True Denticle Free True Denticle

48 Free True Denticle

49 Free True Denticle Odontoblast Dentinal Tubules Predentin

50 Free False Denticle

51 Diffuse Pulp Calcification

52 Dentin Sensitivity: three theories
Nerve in dentin – the dentin contains nerve endings that respond when it is stimulated . Odontoblastic process – the odontoblasts serve as receptors and are coupled to nerves in the pulp. Fluid movements in the dentinal tubules – the tubular nature of dentin permits fluid movement to occur within the tubule when a stimulus is applied – a movement registered by pulpal free nerve endings close to the dentin.



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