2Tissues of the ToothEnamel – the hard tissue that covers the crown portion of the tooth (hardest substance in the body).Cementum – the substance covering the root surface of the tooth.Dentin – the material forming the main inner portion of the tooth structure.
3Pulp – the vital tissues of the tooth consisting of nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. Pulp chamber – open area in center of tooth, found in the crown area; place for the pulpal tissues.Pulp canal – small canal or trench area in the center of the root, containing the pulpal vessels.
4Parts of a Tooth Crown – top portion of the tooth covered by enamel. Clinical crown - portion of the tooth that is visible in the mouth.Anatomical crown – the total portion of the crown that is covered by the emanel.
5Root – bottom part of the tooth; may be single-, double-, or triple-root. Clinical root – portion of the root covered by the gingival (gum) tissue.Anatomical root – total portion of the root covered by the cementum.
6Cervix – neck – the neck of the tooth at the cementoenamel junction. Apex – the anatomic area at the end of the tooth root.
7Tissues surrounding the Teeth Alveolar process – the extension of the maxilla and mandible that surrounds and supports the teeth to form the dental arches.Alveolar bone – the part of the alveolar process that lines the bony sockets into which the roots of the teeth are embedded.
8Periodontal ligament – dense connective tissue organized into fiber groups that connects the cementum covering of the root of the tooth with the alveolar bone of the socket wall.
9Gingiva – the mucous membrane tissue that immediately surrounds the tooth. Attached gingiva – the portion of the gingiva extending from the gingival margin to the alveolar mucosa.Free gingiva – the part of the gingiva that surrounds the tooth and is not directly attached to the tooth surface.
10Important Oral Cavity Structures Labia – lipsSuperior oris – upper lipInferior oris – lower lipCommissure – area at the corners of the mouth where the lips meet.Vermillion – area where the pink-red lip tissue meets the facial skin.Philtrum – the median groove on the external surface of the upper lip.
11Frenum – a tissue fold attachment that connects two parts. Labial frenum – tissue that attaches the inside of lip to the mucous membrane in the anterior of the oral cavity.Lingual fremun – attaches the lower side of the tongue to the floor membrane.Buccal frenum – attaches the side of the cheeck to the oral cavity in the maxillary first molar area.
12Palate – roof of the mouth Hard palate – composed of palatine processes of the maxillae bones.Rugae – irregular folds or bumps on the anterior surface of the hard palate.Soft palate – flexible portion located in the posterior region of the oral cavity.Gag reflex – protective mechanism located in the posterior region of the soft palate.
13Uvula – tissue structure hanging from from the soft palate in the posterior of the oral cavity. Retromolar pad – located at the rear of the mouth distal to the molars on the mandibular arch.Tuberosities – rounded area on the outer surface of the maxillary bones in the area of the posterior teeth.
14Surfaces of the TeethFacial – pertaining to the surface of the cheek and lips (face).Labial – pertaining to the lips: anterior surface of the anterior teeth.Buccal – pertaining to the cheek: surface of the posterior teeth touching the cheek.Lingual – surface of the tooth or area touching the tongue.
15Incisal edge – cutting edge of the anterior teeth. Occlusal – chewing surface of the posterior teeth.
16Proximal – side wall of tooth which meet with or touches the side wall of another tooth. Mesial – to the middle: side surface closest to the middle of the face.Distal – pertaining to the far or away side: side farthest from the midline of the face.